, u •- • The Reminiscences of CHARLES FAHY Oral History Research Office Columbia University 19.59 ?.3Su ·• • RESTRIC’l’IOH l desire to place the following restr1ct1ona on this biographical material, That no use ot any kind whatsoever 18 to be made of 1t dur1ng my lifetime save With ray written pel’Dliaaion. After my death I should like the wishes ot my wite to control during her lite, and atter her death those of my aon, l)om Thomae Pah1, 0.8.B., St. Anaelm•a Pl-1ory, Washington, D. c. Atta h1a death ther• need be no reatrictiona, except aa he might eatabliah. That When permiaaion baa been obtained thia biographical material may be read, quoted ti-om and cited by eer1oua reaearoh acbolara accredited tor purposes or research by Columbia Un1vere1tyJ and further, 1t muat be read in euoh place made available tor purpoae or research by Columbia University. ‘l’hat no reproduction ot thie material, either 1n whole or 1n part, may be made by mloro-photo, typewriter, photoatat or any other device, except by me, my Wite, my eon, or with my or their permission. (signed) (date) – i – • • Charles Fahy This biographical material grew out of a letter to me from Mro Allan Nevins of Columbia Univer?ity, 6 May 1953, attached heretoo Over a p0riod of time Dro Phillips crune and recorded the intarviewso From the recordings typewritten transcripts were sent to m e. These have been edited, revised and enlarged somewhat by me, s o that they now take the form and content here giveno But the original recordings gave character generally to what has resulted. It will be seen that the contents are largely factual rather than reflective, are too pc:rsonal, display little if any literary style, are not well pr oportioned to the importance of the subjects and persons mentioned, and do not contain enough about the times during which the events occUITed • ( 1_ … >ii – • • • COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY in the City of New York [New York 27, New York] Oral History Research Office 104 Butler Library Judge Charles Fahy United States Court of Appeals Washington, D. C. My dear Judge Fahy: 6 May 1953 This university is attempting to interview, more or less systematically, a number of men who have played important parts in the history of the American nation, to record their reminiscences, and to file this mater+al away for the use of historians. In the field of the nation’s legal history Judge Learned Hand, Mr? Justice ? Robert H. Jackson, Mr. Telford Taylor, Mr. Sidney S. Alderman, Mr. Chester T. Lane, Mr. Thomas I. Emerson, – and the late Henry L. Stimson and others have contributed and the results have been highly ·profitable • If you would consent to a, 7 ow Mr. Harlan B. Phillips to call upon you at your convenience, your memoirs would make a very important addition to the work we are doing. Our method is to hold a series of interviews with you, talce down your reminiscences on a tape-recorder, and transcribe this record into a manuscript. The entire manuscript is returned to you at the completion of the interviews for your corrections and additions, and then it will be filed fn the Special Collections Department of Columbia University Library, subject to whatever restrictions as to use by properly accredited and serious research scholars you may wish to impose. Mr. Phillips plans to be in Washington the week of May 11th to continue with interviews with Mr. Sidney S. Alderman and Mr. Gordon Dean. He would be glad to call, as far as possible, at such hour and such place as is most convenient to yo?. AN/p – iii – Sincerely yours, /s/ Allan Nevins Allan Nevins • • INDEX lntroductory papa • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • i•iii 1-dly P’oundatiou, Fortunes, aad Plmdamentals • 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • JDaersed in the Life of the Law • • • • • • • • Wu Interlude • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 10 1.5 WB•hing?on Year•• 1919-1924 • • • • • • • • • • 36 ‘?be ct? t1lrough the Year• • • • • • • • • 37 the Sttuggle O’ftr the Leaa- • • • • • • • 39 1he Practice of Law • • • • • • • • • • • • ‘lb• Wan Ca•e • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 43 45 Dep41rture for Santa re • • . • . • . • . . SO &mu re Yean – 1924-1933 • • • • • • • • • • S3 Santa F• and I?• ways . • • • • • • • • • • S3 The Practice of Law in New Nalco • • • • • lmH.aaa and Dleir hoblema • • • • • • • • ,, 61 Economic Collapae and Political Change • • 67 Department of Interior, Washington. • • • • • • 73 ‘J.’he Petroleum Adm:lnietrative Board • • • • 74 Collective Bargaining Proviaiona • • • • • 82 Harold L. Ickes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 83 I • • National Labor Relations Board • • • • • • • • 89 Appoillbaeat •• General Counsel • • • • • • 89 Rule• a IAtgulations of Proce4ure • • • • 90 Hearing nd Injunction Litigation • • • • 92 • • • • • • S\lbaeqwmt lU.18 Litigation • • • • • 94 • • • • • 103 eo.ttiuued ?position to the Board • • • • 108 112 113 …..ta and Congreaaional lelations Doarc1 Politic• and AppotatlHllta • • • • • • • • Office of the Aaaiatent Solicitor General Opinions of the Attorney General • • • LOndoc Begotiatioas for British Base• • • • • • • • 119 119 126 SUpreme Court Arguments • • • • • • • • • • 141 Hat.\U’e of the Office • • • • • • • • • • 144 • • . • . • • 144 • • • • • • • • 146 1be Office 1a Wartime • • • • • • • • • • 150 11\e Staff • • • 153 Treas-on Casea • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.57 Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942) • • 165 u.s. v. Betblehea Steel Corporation, et al. 315 u.s. 289 (1941) • • • • • • • • • • 167 II • • • Office of the Solicitor General (cont’d) Schneiderman v. u.s., 320 v.s. 118 (1942). 170 Wartime Japanes• Evacuation Cases • • • • • Bridges v. Wixon. 326 U.S. 135 (1945) Screw v. u. s., 325 u.s. 91 (1945) • • • • • • Termeasee Coal, lroxi and U. Co. v. Nuacoda Loc:411 Ro. 123, et al., No. 409, Oct. 1943 176 183 187 Te1:1a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 190 DC v. ,CC; CBS v. FCC, 316 U.S. 4471 316 u.s. 407 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 192 Tbe Al\ll&U\UI Company Case • • • • • • • • • 194 Falbo v. u. s., 320 U.S. S49 (1944) • • • • 196 Montgomery Ward Seizure • • • • • • • • • • 198 Yakua v. U. s., 321 U.S. 414 (1944) • • • • 201 Corn Products llefiniq Co. v. J’TC, No. 680 October Tena, 1944 • • • • • • • • • • • • 202 Goldmen v. u.s. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tidelad Oil • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 204 207 Pink v. llew York Insurance, 31S u.s. 203 • 209 International Jurist•’ Conference, Washington 1945 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 217 Death of President Roosevelt • • • • • • • San J’ranciaco Conference • • • • • • • • • • • Ill 217 224 • • • Director of Legal Division of CHGUS and Legal Advlaer to Military Governor of Genaan7 • • • ·236 Appo1ntmeat • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 236 Potad•? Juatice Jaclteon and the llureaberg Trial . . • . • . • . . . . • • • • • • • 243 Quadripartite Covermaent of Germany • • • • 253 Denazification Program • • • • • • • • • • 256 PIIDdamental Priaoiplea of Judicial a.tom • 263 Yalidity of tbe Cenffa Coll’Yent:lon • • • • • Mnasaent of Ceaual Attitude• • • • • • lni•ion of •Cel:’IID Law • • • • • • • • • • 267 269 273 Legal Adviser to the State Jepartlllellt • • • • • 284 IJ.ason with the Baruch Croup • • • • • • • 285 llegotiationa for the VI Headquarters Agree• Ja8Dt • • • • • • • • • ‘ • • • • laitbtion of the? llocttiu. AdbaeDCe to tile llew World Court • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1’he treaident’a O:lemdtt .. on lquality of irreat• 287 293 29.4 .t and Opportunity in the Armed rorcea • • • 298 Representation of the United States in the General Assembly of the United llationa • • • • • 312 ‘J.’be 1947 Se·ssion of the Geural Asseaibly • • • • 316 ‘lhe 1949 Session of the Ceneral Aas,1y • • • • 321 IV • – 1 – ram.111 19μnd,aUon1, ror1Me1, aa4 ln,o,,,1a1 • !ho11&1 labJ, rq ta,her, vaa born la lrelu4. 11• ho .. thel”e wae tn Oount7 Galway ln the ooutr,tlde near Portuama. Be oaae to ‘bl• cout17 a few 1ear1 after ,he Ol’ril War, la tlle late 18601 1 I tbhk, am came to lo••• Georcla, hh h.,ure ho••• la 1873. Mr moU1er w.s bon la liome in 1860. Mother and father vere urrled \here in 1880. NJ fa\her bad an appratloeahlp 11n linen•• ta Xnlaai. Ytth lhlt prelblinary 4lreoUon te hi• Ute h• ‘beoaae a 417ped1 •rohe.nl ln th11 country. Sooa after hl• arrlY&l la lev ToJic he a4e the aoqualnte.nce of u o14tr bi1h 1enlle11&n naaecl Gill. .1, Mr. Glll 1 • ncce•Uea, a, I \\Dler­ dood, rq father wen\ \e Mobil•• .U..l>u&, where he vol’ked 1a a •ton fer a 1•r or 10. !hen he went vi th a alatlar ‘but perbap1 better know ettabl1 ah- • •nt, Uie White S’°re, la .bpata, Georgia. Uler tnen.1 79ar1 in Aucu•• he ••leoled Jome •• tbe plaoe he w11hed to 1tar1 hi• own. buoinau He • like4 the appearance ot the oouat17 around lo••• am tel4 •• later la Ute U rea1n4ed ld.a of tlle cout17a14• vb.ere u 11Te4 •• a bo7. fh11 7ear (1953), \ha ,tore u fou4el. vld.ch la eUll ao\tn an4 ovae4 b7 the fuil7, it ce1ebrat1DC Ue elghUe,a aanlTeru17. the •’°vah and Oodana,ala BTera coATerce at ‘• f•ot of lroad B\reel la Joae \o form \he Oooea, vhloh tlowe eYentull7 ln\o \be .llaballa 11Ter u4 \hence to Iha Gulf of Ke:doo. !here vaa cond4en.bl• water traffic b7 1tea11boat vhen. I va, grovtag up tn Jto11e but AU.a11.’4 ‘beoame the till,oad, center of norihern Qeoqla. lather ••t ha•• tone talrl7 vell from the begliudng l>ecau.aa lhe ltualn••• grew, oont14ennc the tlze of the coaaud.\7. Roae ?• a small towa, • • • – 2 – am ff8A uw bu a population of o?Y about \h1J’\1′ ol’ \ldrlT-1’1•• tboueand. rat!lei- atqed in the onglnal lecaUon for abov.t tweat7 7eara. In 1893 he lnall\ a ,, atore a few 4-oN .,., vhio-h •• N11&lne4 tu atte of tu bualn••• v1,h the aclcU.\lon b1 reatal 1A more :reo••• 7eaJ>• of preld.••• aex\ 4oor. the ■tore •• extendvel7 reao4-1ed and. ao4el’D11ed 1n 1962. ln 1886, a new etock: of good• bouaht ln •ev Totic wae almost u.tinl7 rm.ne4 ‘b7 a nood. J’a\her had aoqll1red good c:redU and. 10 wa• able \o reatoolc. there were 0U1er pertot• of tiffloul 17, 1uolt aa \he to-called Panto of 1893. I reaeaber pe1’•oul17 \le aone7 ahctrtac• of 1907 when I ,,aa vol’k­ l»c at \he atore. h\ on t:be whole, u4 a1,.. wl\lt the M&Tf’ e,:peue of a large. povtac faall.7. Ill• •\on kt,pl ,_ fullT cotac. wl\h ., u … help t,oa aotur, who laherUeA •o•• loae real ••’-‘- fro• her ao\ber. J’ather •• no\ ‘Nrt e.zpreHlve about ht■ 41ff10’1l.Uea. Be took \hell Hrleutt, but qaie’17. I naeabel’ ‘belnc fo••cln• of ttaaaclal pn’bleu a\ U•••• k\ Ao\ because he ,allcecl abn.l \hem. hd OTH’ a perlo4 ot elgh\7 1•r• – 117 ta,ui- d.1e4 lJI 191V – ,11.e store ba• aenr tatle4 or eo•• \hrough norpm.tatioa or bukrap\01. Ky aotur’• tatlaer an4 aother … \o loae fro• ler-,. – •••nal cnDAtather, wllo•• … -w.1 Joaa•• -w.1 aeooapant.e4 \e •• 1 bell..,. \7 Ive ltnlher•• tu of who• ‘bee&11e • Coated.era,• ao141el”. •••••• of lht.• -, •Iller la ia,er 7ean va■ a Dl:achter of \he Ooate4enq, Preeld.eal ot tile looal o1ap,er wha 1 va, a 7nnpler. Molher ‘became a OOllTH•\ to OatJtol1oie11 when. a J’cnmc glrl a’boul eightea or Alneteen 1•r• ol4 ‘before her IIIIU”ria«e a.DI• •• l ‘U4enteo4. 1n4epeateat ot the ceurlahlp. !he t\01’7 a• U cue clowa to ue h lhat ■he a \teac1e4 a • • • – 3 – mh•ion given in ltoalt by a Doainlca.n pries, whlob. turned her ,oward. Oathollc1e.. ‘fhnup.ou, the rema.111.d.el’ ot her lite au vaa a. 4e’t’Out ea,botlo. She ud -, father ra1t4t4 eleT& ch114rea who ,rev to u.,urtty. !hne cb1lclr8Jl cUecl 111 ln.faaoy. Will. ibe olcle1I ot all, paased &Ylll7 while X •• ln London on the naftl am\ air base negoUaUoua in the wlbter of 1941. le •• then lh1.mg acaln b the old hue at Jome. My mther died there in 1ebrua17, 1934, seventeen rear• after tatner• a 4aath. I wa1 ‘bon. in 111o .. August 27. 1892, about a :,ear before the faail7 moved lnto the aav bo•• ta\her W bull\. vhloh ., tine• :rua1ne4 the tasi1 lJ’ bome. Mother a• mch •• ta’1iel’ bad. a broaa. ‘riawpot.At •• ,o ib.e life the7 ••neaced for the fam117, an4 noh goo4 (lUAl.1’1•• •• the ohll4ren teTelopa4 wen a Job.l contr1’bu\1on of their pareait. Mother was a remarkable u4 ‘beautl:tul cba.racter and l aball baft JIOl’e to •aJ of hff. J.1 father grew older – ha w.1 suaeteen 7ean 014.er than mother — \!Mt ,tore lacged behlacl 1A l11:prove1Ha\1 an4 \ecaa ‘° l••• crou.nd. n.otvt,ha,aaiU.n.g 1 ,, fin• repuu.t1oa. It, brother Alber\ ba4 not gone ‘• collece, ao 011\t ‘because YhR he reaob.et ooll•c• ace \he 1907 tlu.aclal dlfflC\11 ‘1•• 1114 1’l01 ‘b..a ncoupe4. Be bat ltepa to work with. aa laavuee cupaay, ‘but an.a \7 allegiance to the tull7 4eolclecl to oo•• an.cl help al the atore. !hla va• la 1912 vhu fa,her •• O’fel’ aneal7. loo• after father’• 4.•lh 1n 191? -, broUier Du:e — »enar4 – aleo oaae ln’° the bu1lne11. Be vaa doing well OA hlt owa as an dTe1•Ulla1-.. with the ol4 Cbaaberlala…Johucui-l>u.bo•• Co11paay la Atlanta, but Jotae4 the 11Uagezent of the •tore wt th Albert, uctue1tiou.bl7 through taal7 lo,altJ’ • • • – 4 – !he worlc was uncongen.b.l to him nt first, e,nd thoU@:h he ucrificed. hi• ova ct.reef’ I do not thiak he :regreHed it. Bt 4eYoted his llf’e ,o ,he tam1l7, the b\letne■-. ,he OODllW ty, and the Ohurch. Albert and. Duke npplte4 the a.w impetus whioh the store needed. Me ctted 1n 1950 beloved and rel’peete4 b7 all. In hie la\er 1ee.n h? w-11l!I ladghted b7 the Hol1 1a\b.er. All ,:n.e bo71 aa 70uageters wrk•d in. the t’kre “·’ times, bu\ then wa• nev•u· an:r pressure o.n the part of t.athel’ ,o keep u• there. I thin he atgh., ba<re been pleated if I bad. d.ecid.eA lo melr:e it ‘117 lite von:, but I nner be4 the feel1DC \bat el\her he or aother wbhed. ‘WI to oonflae n• outloolt lo the ”°N• O.n \he ooa,ral”7. U d14 tva ••’• boveTer. tha\ for Albert al&d •h.•• l>uke 1t beoa.11• their llfe vol’k• aad in later 7eal’t1 Leo al19 g&ft …. 7ear• to the 1\oi-e. !hie •• not a MJ’l”Owi.a& nperleaoe. I>Qke vat a O\\lt1ll”ed -.a of broad iatereeta.. So1 \oo• are .&lber1J an4 Leo. kch kepi well 1ntonie4 and ecti-re la 1be lite ot the oouatey. the commnnl\7• and \he Chvch .. As to the read1n« matter aftllable in ihe home at \bl• earl)’ period I remember ve bad the complete von::e of Sb&kesp.are. Dicken•, ‘.hlaa.ftQ’. S0011. lulver L,\ton, a.nil Jaaea J’enillON Cooper, •• well •• olbel’ beolt• of nll novn ln«liah ll\eratuN. 1a’iMr ,., an original ftb•on’ber to the Qalhe?il lawQ).swfl’UI- Ve alrea47 had the 1191.tl.andk lr&:!en,1 QI• lfotur vould aft•• read alowi to the ohlld?’en, one of the 110■t pleaM.a, r.aolleo\1011• I haTe of tq ohlldbood. Thie wa.11 n.ot altogetbeJ’ becau•• of ‘What abe 71!!&4 but \$ce.uae the vaa aa uau1uall1 pod. reedtr. !h•n were tvo ••• pap”‘r• at Ua\ ·Uae. la add.Ulen we .-.CelTel the A’1e.nta 2’>1tlildlPA and ,lgVJJAl. 1 aa Yagwa a.bou, olb&r publloation• • thoueh I remem’ber \he Joa\A’t ig19piQA• ant the 7-16\it• ba lPVMl.. tni.n. ltl • ‘brother Will •• he• u would. ••••’1•• brlq lbe IIY IIPlMil:9- • • – 5 – !here wae no reaU.ea\ prleet in Jome cluring our childhood ancl 7outh. !here wa• a tl’Ule Obu:rch, amal1 but adequa\e. A priest came from Atlanta twice a month exoep\ during the n.mer. lie ‘Wile fro• Sacred Bear\ pariah, which wa• in charce of the Nsriet Jathen. Jou w.e one of their mlHlon1. There va• a dno\ed 11 \tle Oatbollo group 111 Bome. The beads of HTeral of \he taailie• vere ll’iah bud.graata, but no\ all ‘the Catbollo• were Ir1eh. On Suaclaye vhen we bad Do lifaH the obildren wen\ to the Ohurch for a cl••• in \lie aateobiu ta.ugh, b7 one of the la4le1 of the parleh. During Lent. on Jrida71 parUcularl.7, ve went tor the StaUena ot \he OnH. U va• almo•t a fl’Ontier 1ort of Catholic lite because ,1 \he tadecraa.07 of pneste and ataten and alH because ve were a 1.inall group in a •ch larc•r noa-Catbollo ennrouent.. Jut the eaYirouent vaa not a ho•Ule one. ‘fhere ma7 have been. at \l11ee amon, the 70Ullgllen some displaJ of al■u.ndere\andin& or preJud.lce. but on the wole lo•• w.a a omirch-going colllffllllll7 vhich reapech4 our religion eTen \hough ov 1&1\h was no, t\tl.17 un.4ei•atoocl b7 maq. The f’am.117 grew and li”f’ed. in :&o11e la •’ual nepeot u4 frieu.eh1p with ‘h• couual’7. •• \here wa• no Catbolio 1ohool, we attended the pu’blio achoole. Theee were pod ■obool1, and. I aball al.vqs be gra,eful to ,heJa. la later 7eaH \he amber of Oatbol1ca ha• gradul.11 1noreaae4 but ha■ reaiaed. a minorl\7. ,,re le aow a beauUf\11 Church 011. a n•w location. an4 Bo• for tome 7ear1 ha• .bad a reeld.ea\ pried. 111 &4d1 \lon, \here 11 a fine 1chool oon.cluctea b7 \he Domtaican atdera, a\tendecl bJ •nr aoa-Oatbollc •• well as C:.tbcllo oh1l4ru.. I am grateful to have retained \he ?a1\h and. I attribute \bat prlmril7 • to \he lntlueace et ,q mother and ta,ber 1n ,he home &D4 ot the -priest, who • – 6 – came to Boma as 1 baTe outlined. fheae prieeh vere dMicated and. aUraoih•• men. the laq and o’her bo7e ••ned at •••• u4 1 otlea vea\ to ibe depot \o meet tu pneat on le.turi.,q at\eraooa and to •” hl• ott oa Swwl.7. helt,lllC al Uae• -with bl• bag,. U1u.:1.1, ta ,he yeara ct vhloh I DOV 91>eak the pr1••• had hll Swlia7 41u.el’ at GV boae. X, 111,er Jaate tUll 11Yet la \he ho•. Boa, »wee•• v1dov. li••• \here viih her aow, and ..,- t11,er Sarah, vho keep• a liltle apal’taeat ia A.Uaat&, ha• her rooa afflla’ble \here. U i• a beautiful olcl home. ud 1,a 1\oq• .., tha’\ ot the ,,on towalowa •••r \.be hill, are •n latuesUac , .. -, ow. Alben•• home ia Jv.•• aol”O■• \!le 1aterNCUoa. ld;q.qail &2112 la1dtAAII the auatom 1.n. our home vaa tor our leaeoa■ \o be bead by aother la the • earl7 aoralq. She vea\ to a great 4Ml of ‘\rouble to aee lllat ve kaev ou a■aigueni•. !bl.a perbap1 vaa .more reapoualble than aXQ’\hing elH tor such ttaadtag we bad in ala••• l llke4 Latia and. 414 ao\ tta4 11 dlftleul\. Mht W,,11 who W.u«hl \hie tubjeot, waa aJl ex\raordlaari? fiu teacher and a voaaa of umnal penoaaU\ 7. taJ”■ later whea l ‘ri11,e1 lo• …. of -, ol••••••• u4 I woul.4 call oa Ml’. I allO 1lke4 Ba1U.1h. llelo17 u4 Plti’eict lM\ touacl hiper a\hemai1o• .more 41tt1oull. The teacher• wel”e a tl•• groUp. M1H Olan. llllo4•• 1aeplnll a Uteloac d•TO\ioa, anl \here were \hoH other excellfl.\ eetuoaMra, ProfeHor Bame. Mr. Joa••• M1H Mar, Willlaatoa, 11111 fn.?ck. Ml•• leuin.a, aMIIC o\her1 vbo•• meaor1•• 11•• ill \hell” helpfUUII \o ••• Vb.ea -.v ol4e1t titler, laaie, f1aiau4 tohoel am .. ,aer• • pro”blea• la- • oreaae4 vi \h the crowt.ac tamil7, Ju.le look aoae of the lra.Neae. She – ? – beoaa• ia thle r•epeot a kind of l’l&OOnd aother to the JoilllgeJ’ ohildrea, althoqh no, auoh older t-.A % • At,er t1u1s.lda, 1ih!t pv.lJlle tohool ln 1908 I aU•Med Darliq\on lohool. Jee•ph I. Da:rllngton. ae a TOUC tra.duat• of htk:1ae Ooll4’ge ta Soula 0&rol1M bad. come \o Joae •• •••latu, :r,rofeHor a\ the old Jou M. Jlroo\or School tor Jo71. Thi• •• ‘befOl’9 I va• bo ra. Job& Pa\1.l Oooper •• 011.e of Mr. Da.rlia,\on’• pupil•. MT mo\lu,r’• oal.7 brother, I•:Nutl Joaae, – the •4 no •i•t•r• – ,., au\lMn’. la later 1ear• Mr. Cooper beoa41e a proal.nea\ oUJ.1•• ot P.ome aal a . of aeaae. la \he latel’lla Mr. Darl1111ton W left lo• for Watldacton t1 ll\’Ml7 law aJ:14 1a later T•Art •• \h• leader ot lh• Jatblactoa \u. 4\>ov.t 190& Mr. Cooper toutl41Ml la loM Ille 1-rltagtoa Sehof>l for :ao71 1ulfl na11e4 u ia hoaor ot R:r. De.rl1nc\on .. • x, 1• bard to rft•\er aow *’her wlwa 1 at,eadeA llai-llagtoa 1 lwa4 t•- o14• to be a laqer. I\ 11 probable \ha\ 1 went to Da.i-lingto:i almply \o gaia mon fl4ucaUon aTallable ia loa• at,er oae tWeW. ?•• pul:alic •clloole. Aleo I waahd ,o plq hl&h IOAOOl too\’ball apia. loae -.. ,1ut coa\7 ••• ot Jlo,t CouatJ. u a 11>-UC aan I oeeaatonal.11 .-a, le lhe oou,,. oou.r,aou,e ‘° va’\all a trial. the oo•n wa, ou at pae-1 J•1’le4lc\1oa ta \he •’•’• J\14.lolal qatea.. lh• Judge vat •••• Wnp,. a aeal>er ot a ,11U.a,ll1•hed taallr. oae of “••• Seil’born Wdght. •• an ‘U:U11wtll7 capa’bl• lav,er ,,uh t1CA1f10&11I ora\ol”ioal altili\1. He wa• a. oan414a’4t oaoe tor JtreeU.ea\ ot \he V.Ue4 Stat•• o• \he Prohibi Uoa Uoket. Mo.et Wrich\ , …. 1, … vlth l&ll’ 41plt7 allll hel4 \be reepeo\ of the ba•. vhloh wa, sao !IM4 ‘bar. Be •• al .. &A orator. 0a Oonte4el”ate J>ecoraUoa • »..,r. Ille a61h of April – ao\ Ill• 30th ot la7 — when ve 4eoora\ed the er&••• – 8 – of the &0ld.iert in lqrUe lll.11 Clilmet•r.,• Mo88a ‘Wright waa l1ltel7 to be the erator of Ille da7. or it •lsht ba Ooacr•••– lob». w. Mata.oz. Whea \he fll’t\ 1\atue eYer ei-ec\ed to the l>a:ugh\e:r• et ,. Oo•f•era.07 wa• 1:11.Telle4 la loae, a aeaorable da, 1n the tov:11. Mrufta Wrlp\ waa the oraior. In ecoool we hat 11ru1e praoUca iA tpeakia,. ‘!’he pri.aoipal erator of ov ola.H \;/&3 Graham Wr1?nt, a soa of SeaoorA. ie 1• aa 014 friead of alu 1’111 li vint; e.ad pr&ot.icing la• la Bo•. A\ l>arliag\oa, aoh \o ,q nrpri ••• 1 woa the tieolau.’10». 0011\et\ the tull Jeal’ l •• thei-e – 1 wu \bere par\ tf aaother 7aar. TM.a \ooc u ta\o tbe Cou,7 ooll\eat waen I lo8′ ••· At tbla,s turned ou\, &d.’YOo&GJ baoame a ooatl4erable parl of a, lepl. wtl’k wt I oo’Gld never eoadd.er »7aelf a11 ora\el’. In the fall of 1910 l entered. lhe Uaivetalt7 ot 10,z-. Daae for o•• 7ear. • the thl’ee ol4.e1t bo1a, Will, Joe. aat h.ke bad .., .. to lfo\re Dame. Wlll ltd a Yer, tine &lad b\lt he beou.e ,oaewba\ iapatleat vUh \he dieo1pl1ae or aomethbg at lotr• Du.e au.A d.14 aot r–.in. lo• grad.ua,et ta 1903 la ctnl •A&lheriAI ,.1.,.a aa ueepUoaallJ tbe reoori.. Dai&:e grad•’• 1• l.905 wl’ll u A. 13. decrH aa1 •• Tale41o\el”iaa ♦t hi• ola••· l 111ppo•• -, eld.ea, 1-:rolhera were \he ft.z-1\ Geor11&,111 e’t’el” to a\lead. Jlotn :Dama • .A\ &IQ” ra••• • Georctana were rathel’ ,a.re bbd1 twe 1a ‘••• 7ear•. I did. D.Ot remrn. \o lfotre Dul• after lean.n& la the early ..,. of 1911 until m, wife am 1 wat thert fo’tt ‘I.Ge gruua\ieA ot ov.r ••• Obarle1 la 19!2. 1’hG Uni••r•1’7 m.d. arowa a er•’ deal lMt \ha old. c.atftll lndl4lact reaala, and lb.ere 11 lhe aaae beauUtul Oolhio Obanh I re … ben4 IO well. ‘l’l:M, atmoephen a\ Jo-.re Dame vaa gaocl oa \be vllole u4 ooJllllucsl•• to 1’114T. Oeural.17 apeald.nc l ‘iblak \he atud.eat■ were pretv eel”lov.• abov., \1’71.q to • • • – 9 – gain an ed.ucaUon. I va.1 ·ney boaetlck foi- a vhile bu\ thh reoe4e4 •• frlemhhipa were fomet. ln.ov1ng whea l eatere4 tha, I 001114 eta7 01117 ou 1ear I look ••l•o’84 1Wiea 1 eo•• eooaoaloa, logic, Jr&clllh, Gel’Dl&Jl aJMl Spaai1b.1 a 01a1a ta elocution, a ap60lal oourse ta pollUeal. tolence, aml Qhriatlaa Do0:l1’iae. MT \eaoher of Spuhh, a one hour clan weekl.7, waa a aeaior, J’olul 1. o•Bara. !lie ant 7ea.r Upoa «ralaUoa he entere4 the aeal11a17 ui became a pried of the OoagrepU011, o. s .o. He later va1 pred4ea\ of ‘h• VJd.Terdt7. hrin« the fl?’tt World. Var, I belie•• he bat ohar&e of the Calbollo chaplalaa in the u-,. Be la aov Aroabi1hop of Ph11a4elphla. Year, later v1’ea ve “” UTimg 1n Santa r. he cue through aa4 ve W a ‘f’lli ,. I veat t. Ph11a4elphla for hi• ta8’alla’1oa a, Archbltbop a fev 7ear1 a10 . One ot ‘IA7 \eaoher,. in eeoaoat.01, va1 J’a\he:r Matthew Walah, a.a exoellea\ teacher u.4 a prielt to whoa I han alwa7s felt grateful a, ? 1atlueace. I •• not an 1:o.Umate of hi• aa4 414 RO’ ■ff h1a any more thaa •\hera in. hl• ala91et. but I reauber ,rell hi• cbaraot• am per.ou.l.1t7, an4 hi• cleTOUo• to the vonc. Be \oo beot.M prelidenl ot ‘• l1af.Ter1U7. AJl4. I alto i-eaeaber vell 7a\her Ohal’l•• o•Doanell, the taleate4 poe\. M7 rooa 011. ,ne thlrd. tlool’ et Corb7 Ball vat aext to his. lie alao became preaH.ea, ot ••tre Dame. le ha4. been & olaa1ate aJMl fded of -., brother Dake. I ,., at Jolre Daae tor a week-en4 ,ah lad June (1953) at the btTi tatioa of l>eu O ‘Meara of the Law Schoel, to ‘be one of the J•’-ce• of the final moo\ court co11peUU011.. I vent oTer to Cor’b7 Ball to 1ee J”a\her Walth. •• t valke4 up the ,,epa he va, comiag nl eate Uae porch. Ile lookerl at •• for a B10ment and •a14, •Well, laq.• Semethiag alght haTe 1timlate4 hl• reoolleotioa • • • • .. 10 – … ui.Tertl t7 l• rr, UT ha4. tba ame fine eplli.t at BOY. She alte W a pot fool’ba.11 tua. I.mite loob• ..,., plart.a« •• \hat 7Mr. •e quarter­ back waa l>oriat. :La\e:r l ee.-w Jot:r• Dame plq ooca11onall7, but JlO’ oft9a., 1, •• ,ha ux, rear I beliff•• Ol” 1913, tho team vea, to Ve,t Poia\ aad. Jloaaa &114 l)oz,S.aa n.a •vaJ’ w1 th th1ac• “1 tll tile f ol’Yal’d. -pa••· It wa• ao, futlbl• for •• to ooa\lau• a’\ l’otn »a.e. fh• J)lu. vs.• to to eu 7ear •••• … tho oa to hotcetow nere l coull help e4•oat• a,reelf ltf’ wrtuc. b11\ “1 \la \he full.7 helplq to.. lolle •• U’t’er to be 1q rae1′.eu. apt.a bu, I he.Te ooaH,aucl oTer t1’e 7eara to ntun there 1rben I coul4. the old boa• •• aell•”‘- la ‘bee:a.\J” • After mother’• ieatll Udt coaUaa.et \Ulller the g,:eo1oue oe.1’8 of Jute. ‘ It la• …. l>eea a lcYel1 place to “hich to return, alone at tt.mes, at tiae• dtlh A«n••• and. oace vl th Obarle• and ADu. Sarah amt Mar, Aca•• b&Te aleo ‘b•ea \a.re. Jome ita.:i:t. -.4\h a aml.Utwle of lndettnal>le maor1•• aa4 aaeooiatioa• 1• 1’111 nr, NIil ,., me ant nall a1,.. ntala a plaoe ef •n,11 ln…, at• .ltiH• lotN Dame aa11• Va,ld.-,toa u4 Oeorge,ow kw Sollool. htoN 1•., 1111 •••., raother &&Te • a le\\er lo Kr. ».rl1ngtoa. vbo• •he re..’bem vMa a J’OUC &f,rl la•••• •• l pluu4 \o work 4vtnc ,he ••1 ruld. a\\aa4 law ••ho•l. a, alp,, ■other \hoqht pH·ap• Mr. l>arllac\oa coul4 hel’P •• Sooa after ,q al’ri’ftl l look \he le\ler \o Jbt. Darllac’oll. lb.• oftlce •• al 410 fttlh 9’reel oa ha.teiaq ?”•• la. ceatn1\ vt\h la,er J”•U•• I \ • – 11 – 110,t of iht la.w,-e1r• lit locel pn.oUee hat offloet 1a \ht.t rlolllit7. fh• trell late the newer builc!inge tar,..er 11pton oaae later. Mr. h.rU,ngton. recelm • oorltall7. Be spoke of Na•b•rl•? ••her u4 her b?ther. ht a, tm.\ tlu \here Wl• ao C,,eallc! la hla offioe. l>u.rln1 the summer• t hat takf!a some let1-101ut 1• 9’enograp)’q’ ut \nevrltla, at \be old Xtng lhttlneaa School la Ilomti, end hat wrke4 before ?e1ng to loti-e Due at the Southern lailroat cl ‘1 ottioe, in lo•. priaoi-pally hel1>111C Captala lea7, who \hen bad cmrc• ct the off1o8. le va• a fla• old.er .-,1emu u4 a Cori friend. l fou.4 a jol» in We.1hlagton 1us eteaoc,a:pheii• wt ,11 tu lboa,wa Sheet •w CollJ&ft7, u,.eia located la the HOO ltloclt of P … .,1,…ata .l•e-. lon-.,t • .l t lhe ed of the OhrS.11,•t hollda,-• of 1911 I reoet.”4 a ••–«• IJat Mr. • DarU.J1Ctoa wished. to aee me. tfh@ rounc 11’18n 1a Ms office vat leaTin, aDd. there was a poeaible place tor me. Mr. hl.11-nea. wbo waa Mr. l’tarllagtoa•a prlaaipal. • a19001a,e, gave N a teat. l wa no\ a -rer, ooapelea, a,eaognpher. throqla ,he eoclaesa ot M• heai-\, I 19ppo … M?’. lu.lllftJI •altl l •• •aauetao,017. • An,-hov• Mr. Da:rllnctoa took u lnto ld.• office a• 1tenocl’aJ)her ,he ‘bectnlac of 1912, … 1 rem.b.e4 vi tll bla la •• capaat ‘7 •? aM\ber u.atll ld • ‘•’ll tn 1120. en.,, vun l •• a,. ta \he ••mo• 4unac ,he ft?•• Yor14 Var,. Oa a4Jlit&1Qn to tb.6 Dar 1n 1914 I ceased to lie a 1teaocrapller am ba4 aa otfiee of 1q own. Ju, I helpe4 Mr. Darliq\on ta oou of h1• vol’k ea4 n:aa 1ae4 aHoclatt’ld ? th hia. f.besa., la 191 “l. I nut tale •.,- a’riaistoa for IM llt,an,Uoa. • When ? oa• ‘baok aa.r17 la 1919 • the uaoo1a,1oa with Mr. I2arllac­ toa •• saot ao olo … M7 office va• aow on ,he ,ro,..,. ncor alllll 1 •• aore oa .., own ‘but coaUnut to 4o •o•• vork for Kr. Da!’llqtoa • • • – 12 – Georgetowa Lav Sohool wa• at \ua\ed • •• 1 \ •Ull h. ln ,he 4ow\own ••oUoa of Vaehlnatoa u4 •• ba4 11\ile con\ao\ wi\h \he 11111\op. 1 Ike ••••• of \he 1Ja1Ye1’e1 t:,. 0v ,eaoher• wen ao\ prle.1te, alld. there •• ao nU.,S.o•• tas\no’1on a\ the law tolM>ol. .1, llo\N •• the ua4ergra4ua\e l>oq tel\ •• Nllctout 1Aflu.eu• aore, a• ao doubt•• tn.e a\ Georgetown. Billtop ta coat:ra e\ vt th the law eohoel clowatova. Ute et the law. 1or ua1ple, ov ttaoher la tq’l’l.lt1 wa1 Juatioe Athle7 M. Ooul.4. one of \he J’CIIIJ.C•• ot \he hpreme Oov\ ot -\’he Diatl’lo\ of Ool•’bta. the pre4eoestoJ’ of tlae tJal\-1 Stat.• 111\riot Oovt. J’utloe Gould aotlnl7 pnalteA at hi.al• ,utag \be 4q aD4 \au,ht Jdt cl.a•••• at at.pt. le•• aa es- Other proteHon were :Du.1•1 W. laker, hau: I. Iopa, I. ••hT-1111.\h, w- Ju1Uce Daatel !b.et=r lfrigh\. A. A. Boehlla,;, Obarlee A. Dou«laa, Oldef Ju1’1oe Shephed., u.a. lJuiel w. o•»oaocim,,a … flMa 1ta1•t bol7 w.• larc• a..ad the leo’11.nr• taqht the vbole ola••· ,-. the ol&II bl’QJte up lato taller crc,up, WUl’e oUaer pl’Of e1eort wn14 &O o .. ? a n\J”‘ 1a more 4etall. l W ao prmo111 ha1’t al14 ta,, oouep\loa of tile lav lnll 4o n•lit•F tlla\ I upeotel 1\ ‘4, be •r• ••1Ue4. l aaUolpate4 Ua\ one wul.t lean vat the law vae. Ot ooune, to a teen• oa. 414, lnl.t 01117 to a tecne. 1, oo••• •• ao•thl-, of a nrprl•• to ti.al •• lhe J’9ar1 &o oa there 1• 1U.U ao •oh ••••rtaiat7 1a applloaUoa of \he law. la ooa\raa\ v1 th ••• of the ‘bo7• otac to the llll \op thtt law •””••’• 414 aot U.Te on lhe OUJ>••• l 11•• la tu WMl• ho .. wt ta MN:ral e:la11- • ., … – 13 – The li-.let were e. fine 014 fa.mil7 from Obarlea Co’Wlty. Ma17l&Dd. Mr. lleale wa1 aa elde:rl7 VS.lover, aad. a Oontecten.\e nteraa. the houeeholl wa.a 1:a the oe.pablt aat\ paolou laud.I of All oldel\ taugh,er, Ml•• .,,1 •• Mr. l’Jlitrllactoa hat a.a exo.pUoaaU7 flu mlm an4 aa orcle?l7 ae\hod of wril:. l \Diak he •• one et \he sraa,et\ laq•r• the coua\17 produced. Be could take a ••• of material, legal or fao,..l — he eagace4 la 10•• of U• aoa\ oomplioated trial, 1a the hit\017 of the courts here — and fllld the eeaeaoe, tbat vhloh -4• the 4lftereaoe. Be at aa u•11pla’7 &n4 eftea\1•• ae\hod. ot ol’OH-e..S.alJlg. 17 ne17 &ppl”Opr16te aeu1 Ile voul4 learA all he onl.4 tbat ‘be vthe1• hiaHlf new. WheA 1, bc,oau alMJ’ to \he 11U•••• tbAt Kr. Dar11ncto• ka.v a great cleal about the tac,• au •• \:rea.’1JtC Jata fab•l7, the vl\n••• b•– oooi>en.tlff • alll h&lpfu la cle-Yelopla« the tao,,, \he pl’lneipal purpote of an11-enainatlon. He wat a k1Alil7 gea’1eman. !here it e. ll0ftll8nt to him — •gentle• rel!dnA• me of it — I belieTe tu tiret 9 .. eo,t4 la Wallld.ngtoa \o oae vho Afl’el” ael4 pul1o otftae. l\ 11 oa Jw!.ioia17 lqaare aoro11 fro• hi• olA ottiee. a beav.Uhl toutata v1,11 a ped.edal oa whloll •’8D.4• a Ade aa14a wt,h a taya b1 her •icl… Bo• \hovch’ \bit vu laappropri•’• beoaue of Kr. larltaa,oa’ • on 1104••’1 b\\t \he r•eo• for ••• eeleoUon •• \hat \he t••• \lle aotl ,1a1, of u:t.aal11 did. aol :besUa\e \o approsotl ‘h• uicte. W ao vilb Mr. Dllrliacloa. lleoauee of hi■ 1eatleae■1 a.114 kindu1• one 41d. ao\ 1-altate ‘° approach Mr. Darlla,\oa NpH9♦n\e4 \he lfa1}d,JlgMll Oatlighl Compa)IT aa4 ‘h• wa,>alac\O?l lailwa7 all4 ll••*rlc OompaJ17, tha the larce•I •Ir••• \raupo?Uoa e71teaa. I\ la’8r ••teed wt.th tile Cepllal ttraoUoa Oompa• \o ‘beooae \he • Oap1lal hand\ 0ollJ)&Jl7. Be also repreeea\ed the Poto•o Jleo\rio Power Ooa- 14 – paa7. Be did not take c?r? ot all the le,;a1 -work ot ,hese oo?aale•t he va, general oouael tor 1ome. aad p41’h&pt oa P., retainer or OOJHUl ta\ton bad• ?•s­ o1her1. Se alto representtd the Vaahlagton Loan aa4 ‘ba.1’1 Oompan,-, th••tioaal 81!1:rtqe and ‘l’rua, Ooapa.q, tome of ?he large real etttt11e ooaoen,, IUl4 he beeaao. duri.n1 ,he later pe.rlo4, one of \hi!! attorn.e7s !it the dlffioul \!flt the ltga lfatiou.l .lank ha4 •id,blhe eover•ma?n.11. Wl11h lhe exc4rp,toa of th• iicg• l3o.nk ca■e he ht4 no criminal p:raoUoe. In th,- orimiaal aepec\e ot tha, case he•• eoaeultiag oouatel. la ad4.1Uea h• represeatet a.u helpftd 11he -poorr u4 law,ere would eeae to hi• fo? ,011.Del. Kr. Ltatea ve11 teooad. \o Mr. S.lltn,n. 1n len.gth of aeMoia\1011 vl th Mr. Darliagtoa. Othe1’a attoclate4 1• on.e -,, OJ’ uac,,>aer vt ,ll the ofttoe tvlng • rq time vere q goot1 friend the late r. Be,:111 lfoel_ Paul J. Cl”Olltllia. ?\1l T. loge re, Frank G. W th, Jolla Sood, nm Miu Bohn. Upon admitaion to the ::Siar in 1914 117 practice be,aa from •1 ova office at the rear ot the second floor of 409 Yifth Stree\, a bl:Lild.19& MT. l>al”llagtoa had acqa.1Nld adJoiaing hi• old•r oft1oe• at •o. 410 • .t ha4 no parUcu.lar proepeot•, otal.7 the •Xp•otattoa ,., tt I 414 rea-•abl7 well ‘With &n1’1hinc tM.\ cue ,? •• A. praottoe wo1ll.4 Cflldual.17 dffelQ!’. the coat of lin:ig w.1 iaa.oh 1 … ,hen tun 1\ ts aov, ud I Mnul4 a 111\l• .iore each 7ear am waa in,-dng &loq aaU•faotorf.17 vhen. we estel’tld the war 1& 191 ?. la tile 1Atenen1n.g thNe ,ear pe:rio4 I ttA€J1gecl ta •••• \rial work. lnl.t AOt a grea.t d.e&l. 4 oolofft mu came to the office oae da7 an4 11t.id \b3.t aoa.rul- 10 at lhe Jail ,,1,hed. \o tee •• aLbout hie eaee. !hie 114 to tu f171t • tri&l of an.y dp1t1c.».oe 1:a vhioh t eJag&Ce4 on mr on. It v1n a eecc,ad• • – 15 – 4egree IN.rd.er caee. Al.0711ue IQlaer, a olastma\e — he later returned. to hit ho•• 1a lu.laaa — oame law the oa•• wt \a ••• The tl’ial J’enl. tecl ta a ooaYio’ 1oa wb1ob vat rner,e4 b7 lbe Ooun ot Appeal.a, where 1, le Nporied. a• ¥,,:rebell T. Vm.114 l\ate1, 41 jpp. :D. O. 3?3 (1918). .At\e:r ,11e rnereal Mare-.11 pleA pilt7 to mu1laqhter and reot1Yei a ta1rl7 11gh\ sea,eace. Aao,her latel’e•tln& esperleue in the cour,, waa a vtll coaltl’\10’1011. ••• which came to •• thro’U&h 1111 coo4 trieJMl Jobzl Oo:uoll7, a tonier roommate, vho Ja4 cou •• to lova. I\ aleo reached ,u Oovt of Appeal•, vi.re 1, 11 repor,.a •• lnYA •· loll•, 44 .App. ». o. 488 (1916). Dui.ag tb11 period. ao queetloa aro•• la ,q 111114 •• ‘- the oholce of 97 profet•loa. the prao,toe of law u,apd. 11:f etroq 4wot1oa, am tl:d.e •• coatiaue4. War 1,,1,iw• Vhea \he Jlrtt Vol’ld War becaa ia Au«111t, 1914, 1bort17 af\er .,. «n,AuaUon, J tollowd olo1el7 the eYeah ot the period. and belie’N4 in the lead.erahlp ot Preet.4eat Wtlsoa, ‘bo\h f.Jt. htt 4o••Uo aad la\enaUo•l pollolee. Bl■ Pre■itlea07 , …. a t•n1nc pola\ la nr rela\10111 vita \lw other :naUon.1 of lhe vol’l.4. VJt.ea w entered the var la April, 1917, I felt we ehould clo ao. the gm\ coa’lroYtl’a7 la Araerioa about vae,her Ger•q Ol’ hclud VIII ia \he right 1• largel.7 for,o\\ea. A, tll.e Uae, hovenr. there •• 41aacn•eal. SoM \boqll\, for example. \ha\ \he Oer•a n.’baariae warfare •• ao aore lllepl. thu. the ooacbto, of ,he ::an Utll la \akl11C our ftHelt lato pon au. la\edel’la« vllh ov \n.Ae.- lfUeoa careful.11 approaeW. the vtaole Ml\er 1a u ettol’\ to ‘bnac abou\ a soluUoa vi\bo1Lt ov ea\eriag the va?. Ae I aav 1,. boveTer, u4 a• l e\Ul ••• It, ihe 1a1 .. r felt be ooul.4 punu hl• oou•• u4 ve w1114 • 1ta7 out, or \hat he could naceed e-na if ve a&me la – prol>abl)” the former. • – 16 – Whea 0erll11El.ll1’ declared uareat1’ioted eubBariae wal”fare aa4 ‘becan to tiak our •hip• at will, without regard. to vbe\her thq were paHeager or freight. Wlleoa aekerl tor a deole.n.Uoa lb&\ a ■tate of w.r existed, \he same requeel Pre1ldenl ifftefllt 111ul@ ta 1941 wlaell l•»aa attacked. us a, Pearl Barbe>J’. t thoucbl Wilson Y&.s righl. a, l oonUnue4 to rep.rd hh leadership ta \he aoa- 4uot of our f’oreip atfaln. He vae hie ova Secretary ot State, la e11eaee, and proJ>erly ao in the oirc\Ullttanoes. Mo,ur ba4 “oeea • cla•••t• of ma Lou Axaoa1 the ftrat Mre. VUeoa, vhea the7 wre :rou.n= wo•n in Jome. Mra. W11eo:n, wbo c1le4 d.urla« \he Pn•ileal’• tb•at ten, 1• bu.l”lecl ia ‘b•uUtul MJ’rlle 1111 0••’•17’• 1fhu \he Preatd.eal ‘brought her -, ••• to ‘be buried ,are 1111 motlier and one or t1’0 o\her of her cl.a•••’•• were a•ac tho•• who greeted hla. • lel.11& uarried. u4 “1Ul JIO dependent@ l felt l aboulcl go 1ato the tenloe. l vaa elicllll• for \he draft u4 :t.a good heal th. l c!td ao\ co i.1111edia\el7, howenr. a• l clicb.’t quite kaov “Vbat some• to choo••• a.n4 \hea 1 leclded oa adaUoa. At tiret U vat to ‘be Al’l!V a:riatto:a, w, In.a •1th, who aa4 • offt.oe oa the f1ret floor et 410 Jt:t\h Stree\ – to? a wblle he reei lav ill •• Jla.rllagtoa’• offio• – rehnecl one 4q from lertolk where he had loeke4 ialo la’ftl. aTiaUoa am\ had d.eo14e4 to eo 1ato \lat aemce. I d.tcl the tame. Oae wea\ over to the liaY1 of floe oa Pemi.171 ftnia .4Teaue la Sou.thee.et Waah1acl•• where 70UltC men who could pa•• the ph7aical am ether \e1te were belag Noni ted.. !’hit was about the middle ot August. !hey 1111:,e • th9 :aea•••l’7 te1t1 Tel7 qu1oklf u4 oriert ca• to report al’O’Ull the ttret of September to Mlf — Bo 8’oa !eoh – tor eight vee1te of ground tohoel w lit. I kept iu clo•• touch with the tamil.7. Joa •• alao 1111ldng -plaa• \o eo • iato the aenioe. I.lke iqHlf he “‘I• the». uamarr1e4. le ‘beoau a Oap\at11, • • • – l? – la\er Ooloa♦l. ic. the llJtcb.eeJ’tng Corpe and ••ned 1a lnnoe tor aome ttm. We nte \here part of \he aa11e UJH bu, 41d not ••• eaoh o\her. l •• tven’7-five1 older \haa moti of the \071 who wea\ ia\o aTia\:loa, aa4 had leen practieine l?.w tt’beu..t \hne r•r•• aw.7 fl’O■ u athleUo life. the 1ou«er men of coll?ce ace. aro’!Ud nineteen o7 tven\7 or twenty-one, were \he bet\ aTialora. We learned vhat we could 1n lbcee eicht week.a, a 111atterinc of theor, of fli&bt, •o• navigaU.on, soae Q\11.7 cf •\or•• tob Morse code, and pla\7 of pllt•laal ,mini,w. -‘.t ,u ell4 of tl’l.e et\111″•• we were ••at to 7eneacol&; ‘1on4a, for iattn.ouon 1n Actual nr1nc . .l\ Pe.aeaoola, which -, then i,erbapa tu b•et Jiaftl air atation. we lla1u4 bt.doall1 oa 1-91, ai-,le poatoo.a blpl•••• with Cu.rU• •tore nppo•ed to haft 100 horeepower. We hl!\d goot tn•truct?n, but the tntalng wae limple oompare4 vith that of avia’°r• 4.uring the SeocDd World far, vllea wr n.epht11t. Alber\’• •o•• JoU1.e4 Ar,q aviaUon 1” th.fl early fall of 1941. a 11\tle before Pearl Harbor. Be h&e ud.e av1&t1on hi• oareer and it now a Coloael 1a the Ah· J’orce. Re let, the l.a1t wheal war aeeme4 budn.eat. for 11ome \iM now b.e ha• been. “”1 \h ,. luge etl’61te1o bomber,. Be wt.• avardt4 the Die’1a,a.lehe4 n11nc Oro•• 41lt1.9C the Wu. Our iaatruot1on planes a\ Peneaoola bad O.ual ooa\rol e. When the 1J.ttn.o’er preaaed hie toot on the ru44er the etuitent •a toot on the dual rudder moved ta the .. 1118.Uer; so, toe, the mmd• on the ri\lheel* vhioh coatrolled the aU.eroua au ele,ator vhea the7 ven J1au1ipulated b7 the laelru.ator. I.an4ba1 was \he onlT 4U’ficult part ot th11 f17ing. In tbe aiJ” lttelf tl7iag •• eaq. I do not meau tbB.t thit 11 eo with mo4ern planes of trel!Wldoua power anll eq,dp• • – 18 – 11ent, ‘but vith u• lAndint w, th.• ,;>roble111. ‘mill took !)N.OUee Bnt1. !kill in tlaing. I eaJ07e4 tl,tng, em pnfene4 a’ri8Uon to Jolnln, the iaf8.nhy, \?h I wae •flea trighl•••• fh•r• •• • tori ?, ebiall$Bge to ‘be able to t11 rea- 101uibl1′ well, Sl’l4 th8t ie about •.11 I O@.n u.y t wer 4U.. I nev?r conddered a7Hlt a partioularl7 ek1Uful pilot. In \he e.rliel’ h19’oJ’1′ of s’riaUon in tb.11 oo’llllh7 — and therefore. eTerywhe:re — ov •? va1 the l,•”· Lat?? on ‘le.”‘1’ 1lnt.t1on became relattftl.7 1-11 00119u.4 wl th Aftrf • ‘beoa••e Ara, e2g)-.n4ed. 80 •ell, lntt .,.,. •• a-operter t.a \he bedlmiiut and. 414 ao,t of tu ploa.Hiag la ,u aflUt aenio•e. We leame4 onlJ’ beslo fl.yla,; •’ Pea«..oola. I ftn19he4 ‘ft7 courf!e tn Januar, ,1.nd •• \hen co•le.toaecl •• In.alp 8Jld ?’fCfl!1Ted 119′ wlnge. !he Ar.,. eteppel 1a to help us ta aerial gan•17, which the JfaT7 wae net equipped to gift 11t Peaeacola. II\ the wbhr of 1918 • VCU’I’) cf u, vere wer\t ‘” !’tl.llh.ferro 11elt\ Vo. l aHU’ Jori Wol”th. !eu1, for? tht • Aerial “11Ulfl’l7 exp•l”1 .. 11ce w1 th Any. ta th? ae&JtUme 1 bed beea k.-9t. °” “tau.cols •• en l111t1’\loter of nev rien. ‘lb.It ex,erienee ta f?z2H ooaet ,t.e4 of ’81’cet ,raettoe on th? gre’Wlf ant HM praeUce la tlri.n« aollln• pa, fro• a plue S.D tltght. 1’ht! An, nt then wae aHlatet b7 the Bo,al Jlrl,a« Oo1pt, tt1nt 111 fna Oau.u. the pne wn ito• •JDohronh … with the -propeller. I ftr,t oetN ht ooa?ot wt.tll theH 11,nchi”Oateat CUI at\er «oiw« ?broad, but no plAae I fiw. ,ttect ti.11. Oace vhll• J •• in flight la ‘•n• • 1aon)un•n•1’• ewpt onr the ar.a, brlagtac a •«• curtet • of .. ntt. lt wa, U.k• a 114’Tlag “11. 1’• ha<l to c•• flowa fa1t. Oa ? V&T fl’Oll Bodon to Peaaieola l hat ?o•e to BT ho• ln Jte•. My • ta.tber we c.tUUe 111. Be conTeY’H to •• the lepre1doae Oat thtti ve.11 lilt 1,u, • • – 19 – 11lnen, 1,,hioh pl”OV-<td t., b? ao; for €A’t Pentacola. ?1 few weeks later word came he ?as d.Jlng. JefoTa I could rE!f.Lch home he 1«a” d.?4. a\ 77 ,-ears of age. !hit occaeioned indeGd a sad ga\he?1ll& &! the famil7. llJO\her, fo\U’ da\1.Cht?r• aJ:14 aeTen soat. Fa,ner hjj,d dou vell by u.•• ana hi!i.d a.oqulred the respeet of the eo?1Ul1’1llli\y. Aa ?G l?ft s,. Mary•$ Churoh ?1th him for the laat time, to which we had gone so often with hia as children, Jroa4 S\ree\ clot9′ down bu1tnets &otivi ty -while he w,;i hken to M1t’tle Hill Cemeteq aoNt• \he Eto\$.h. Hie bod7 11es there no? far from \he oouatryaide 1a Ireland whioh he left ao lo? ago. l’a.tber n.enr returned to lrelanl, bu.t 1 UDdeJ’lt&u. kep\ 1n touch 1d th bis molh•r there un\11 hsr death. Ia lat•r years “• lave bee• 1A oloaer tetoh wUh bis :relaUYa1 vho still l1Te near PortUIUla. ‘fhe la,, t tu t ss:w Papa allYe, en route to Pensaoob .• he gave me \be name and loC<1tt10». of Ud• place. ‘thinking that 1n traveliac durin? the ?1’1” I mlght 10 \here. Ma111 thou«h’h oome to mlad now about his life. !ie “W&& a ma.not great inhgrU7. He built •,i1oll, ll.d he loved bit ms.n, children. He devot&d bia life to the hom1J ahd .:talllil;y, lnoluding d?Tot1on to the ?uetneB* on their beh&lf. Ho wae a !lne look1D.tt 11au of lhe darker Iri,h type. He aeTtr los\ interest ia the velfare of the ol& ootm\171 and he would read the “Irish \forld• r$&Ule.rl7. Ju\ hi• life vas in l’ioa.G• though h1• th(tuchh migh’ ot\en haTe been o! belenA. l al.”83’• loved and napeoiect him l r:..n lf\ll’81 but ee \he YAAr$ h,,v., paned, lifith .!lore refigo’\ion ud. pett’J)eoUve. I am ala? !ftu·e tba\ 1 have ao,ne to &ppHoia \e h1J11 tao re. I feel very humble now u \hinld? of h1.i’I• and vrou,l of hl.la, and gn.htlll beyond vol”d■• We sailed for lngh:.nd in April, 1918. There wa• qui\e a oontingent of ?T!\l avta.\or1, pel’h,.’\p3 tit,een or ,vent:r. on boart ,b,. .b.erioaa Line 31, kmis. We 4ooked at tive:r,ool and were disappc,1nted in no\ going to Lon,:.on. a, our • orders read. When we landed our coamaading offioer1 told •• we .,,ere to go • • – 20 – t\rai&h\ to Xilllacbol•e• a Brl ,1,11 weaplane station oa ,be !forth Sea on the eaa\ coat\ ae&l’ the li.Ter Ba.a,er. tu British had. qu,e a lol of eeaplaaet there• u4 toa• bla tlJ’iDC boa\a, vblch were engaged ln palrolllDC out oTel’ \be Borth Sea hold.a, for aub•rb.•• 10 •• ,o pre\eot thlpplq. ‘fhe JnU•h vel’e pul.linc O’llt am OU • .,,, )aa4 acrn4 to take over the •’-Uoa. At Xillta«)aolae ve llftA ln tlapl• wood.ea frame •’•• vl 11h bunk11 good blaltlt•’• aad ‘be4olothee• a.Ad. we ven at collforlable at J’OllDC aea Ylll be. Ve were ln the ••nio•• an4 dtu•, •Xl’>••’ or nu4 an,thl.ac more thu ve W. f1- 1taUoa l teelf W eoae Te’f7 lar1• ateel •near• Yhloh pftteo\.t the f171aa boat• &D4 _ aeaplaa•• froa the wea\llel’. ‘•?• vel”e Nae ln:dld.lage •n penu.eat \baa ov 11? ,par,eJ>•• in. oae of vbloll ve hat oull’ aeal.1. fH food •• 1b1ple lnlt ,-…h. We arriTM la earl7 Jp:rll, u4 it waa a nq blueleq. 001411h eprlJtC, ‘but ve wre well. cared for. !here wa1 no, aob dot.ac ,hen. A Zeppella oe.m.e oTer on• 41’ea17, clo’Ud.7 atcht. We could.a” ••• U bu\ oo?4 hear lh droainc aotore. It oame aero•• th• •r,\h lea aa4, 4,oppecl ‘bult1 la ,u area inland· t:na u. ftd.1 waa lhe th·•• aohal ftriac et I•• en-, Ila&\ l heal’i. MJ noelleoUon t• ,., I I veal •• hi ou pa ,n1. la a •a ‘1 ah eeaplaM, vht.1e at Dllllllhol••• The vealber wat b&4 &JUI .. , .,. \dpt YeN made. J.f’\er abAI a aoa,h older• oau tor•• ‘9 go lo a Jl’illah alt” 1laUoa oa lallt­ ba17 Plat••· vbloh, flgur&’1Tel1 1p-.Jdnc, … lb.e Jri’1th •T••·· 1A , ….. of &Tia Uoa lralalag. t waa •••’ ‘• a plaoe aear Stoaeheac• ul halae4 \here tor utgll, \oui .. oa lalMl plane,. ‘fhl• •• a Ter’J’ lalere■tlag opert.eaoe. Ov • ., hat 4ee1u4 lo lake o•er •• at.pt am ta7 boat>lnc. ep•:rattng tro• Bor”-a haaoe. lelgl’U vat ‘•• oo-,lell al••’ enUrel1 b7 Iha Gent.a• and ,,. wen • lo \17 \e get al lhe eub•rlne aeuce b7 getting al the nl>-.r1ne, vheA \heJ’ • • – 21 – … ta troa the •• ,o llelaiaa ports for l”epalra or ea.pplle■• We f1alehe4 eur ,rat.alq tor ‘h1• wn oa Uw laa4le7-!’age plaM, vhloJ1. •• tbe big Jrl.’19h atcht ••ber ud tlMt ‘-•’• l tld.llk, tba\ –• n.\ ot the :rtrat Worl4 War. I• ha4 tvo loll•-Jo7oe •’•”• u4 •• a tt.u, powl’N. pl.au. Oa Salleln11″7 Plata• w :U•e4 a,aJ.a la • faa• hat, clont to17 at1l•i · vl\11 oeta 1a a row. Oon41 Uona vel’e perbap • •r• ooaforla?l• \bu at 11111».c­ bol.lle beoauae of iapn’t’e4 vea\b.e1″. 1\ w.• unall7 417. lpri».g wa eu.t.nc u4 we were eaterlng …. ,.. fte food., acat•• •• •lapl• ‘but a4eqUte, v1 th a goo4 4eal ef •••lrallaa tan. ‘be7 wen P•••• \Ma la Aaatnlla u4 pea\ .,1 \le• of Ul.elt. w?• Jdlle4 uA elll-,pe4 •• feo4 to »aciu&. la the lllUl.e of, …… both., li111qholae u4 l tld.Jdc ., ftoaehnce, •• ha4 llpt rotrePJ11ta\a1 am tea ia the attenM••• ooaa1a\111C at Sloaeb.eap of goe4 on.okel’■ — 11\lecnd °’•• – u4 lolltml obeea• vU? t• or obooola\e1 or aa.Jb• eoae aotl d.riall llJce 11:ac•r ale. 0v aoooao4aUon• Uld. fH4 at beth plao•• wen priaar117 applle4 lt7 tu In Ii •h u4er an-anceaea, wl th o•r ova co••r1111eat. 1’1.J’lng all \bi■ ‘1•• I •• a’ble lo keep la aoauloa\1.oa Yl\h the 1aa11,. Jfolbel’ ,,…,. nplarl7, aml al.to otllff … ,.,.. et Ille faall7. Aab1″9•• W. co• wt \la ae h \he boa\ la lev tol’lr. It nellecl \lat Joe u4 I wouli ‘be ,i. … ,. •• of ,_ tull7 la ,u ••ffl••· Alben .ba4 , •• IIUTlel ud he ul Due were ao\ llkel.7 lo lte aa11el1 •r Will l>eoa••• of ap. Leo vaa \oe 1ouc &IUl A1ibn•• l l>elleTe wat takla« halal-« a\ Plattalnlr1 tor • while. (.Albert’• •• •• to ba’t’e a ratw aotable temo• 4.vlq the-‘.leoea4 Wor14 Wu.) Jue &D4 loaa mame4, la Atlata, while l •• at ltoauence. t •• al>le le oaltl• ti.a oa \hell’ ..a.u .. 4&7. la \be oovee at Slou.heap we lla4 prao,t• la belllttnc aa4 la atght • n.11111. vi th ao• a1gb.t oro1a-aoutr7 fl7tac. laol1111i1nc a ooune to Ozfort • • – 22 – and. return. I cJIJo,-1 the nev vot’k ••:rr nob. A\ the and. of \lda ,n.talng we w•re sea, tc J’ru.ce. I reaohet J’ruce ia \he_earl7 hJ• of J\117, 1911. 1 •• ttr,, t.ltache4 \hde to a Jrltl•ali Alckt ‘boablA« 1quadl’OS1 of Qla41ey- 1ac• plane•. lie were ••lq la\o thia won ,o aupplllllleat the Jnlltll or to mien tbe11 of eel’taln pha••• of U. We were a,tachet lo ‘be• pend.lac orp.Jdtat1on cf our ova p«n:ap to opera,e •• a \Ullt u4e1′ American order,. Wl\h \he ltdtleh equd.roa la Jn.r.oe some of u,, 1aolud111& 111’•elt. a, fir1t 11-Yed. ia teA’8. Mlae waa a cood lenl. I\ •• ..ii. with a 11•4 ll”Oll oot u4 u:oepUoull.7 ft.a• wol•• sa…, “blUket1. SealP\11rei-• tn.ae .,,,. eae of will oh va.1 -a.te4 at \u Jrt ,111’ ae1a ball w1-n ve all ate toeether. kler when eno11&h .Aaeri•aa ant’hi la \u Tlo1a1’7 ‘4t ton o•r- ova ul\ ,,. took •••r a.a 014 oktea. fho,ach net pa:ntnlarl7 well•appolatecl t\ vae aomto:rta’bl•. U was aot a4equ.h boweftr. to ho••• all oft1cen 10 la the rar were erec11ed. the faalllar ta11e ha\111 an4 tor a whlle 1 •• la oat of lheae. U vat co:apletel1 a4aqu\e. 1 .., ‘be llittaleea lna.t 1 belin• a cna\ teal ot 011r food •• tn.aapone4 41reoUt b7 ov Jrayy fro• ,u ‘Oal\el ••’••• wl\la unqemea.ta to-r cetUag 1, to ,u aont•• lui. Ve were lnla.S. a\nl ll klloaelen troa Calatt a\ a lm&ll 00_1,7 callel SI. la&leYert. At,er ‘being vl ,h ,11e :Jrl \lall 1A haaa• toi- a ffftf •••• aq\e a U.t’1e loaier, 1oae of 111 rffelYel oriert ‘4, l’O \o IUlu., IW7, vla Pant, to ptok v:p then a.Dd brine “baok to aorthen hanoe •o•• Oaproat pla,aae ol’ll” goyeHJ1ea, vae ob\al!li:ac tn11 11&17. Ille llrl’11h co’l114 aot npplJ u with …UQ’4’acet. v.blok ve pnterre4, aad. \he Val tel Stat•• ana’1•• 1JtA11.1,17 wa• Ml a\1• to nppl7 ua vith Aipt boabert. !b11e Oaprode were big ‘blplaaee VS.Ilk \line fta I a., to”• bu.t I aner l’bou,ll\ the7 wen eqUl. lo the a.adl •7-,•P· We • ‘IUMtenook to 1eJ>’f”1 ■eTeAleeli or elghtao C&prom.t f:n,a Mllan. to nonllera • • – 23 – 1l’;i_nce, but only •even finished the journey. 8ever.e.l of our He.eat young mo vere killed in \bis ferrti.nc opore.tion. X do not know quite vha\ lhe trouble ?e. Perhepa our meoha!lice or pilcti iid act know the iiotora wll. or we cot a bd lot. We ,tent \o Mlla.n by \rain from Pane tnvel1n& in a vac;a-lit.. I v111,e4 ,h? C•thedral at Milal\ ud also fie\!.! OTer it o.n leav1.og, vi th a re?E&rkable Ti•? of it, tntricate •1U1met?y. lt 1e probabl7 ae beautiful a building a, l bav? eTt,l” se♦n. l U4 not eee the Last S.ppeJ” – liT own fault, l 1t1ppo1e. An4 I dtd no\ see Satnt Ch&rlee, but wae near \he place ot hi.a llv.rial la the beautiful C&\belnl. There were two pllo,s ?nc. a meoh&aie to A plue. Wilh ae w•re Lt. (j.g.) 0th. a vary good p11ot ?ad J?Dkine. Froa Milaa vo tlev to 1\1.ria., there lo •??1t favorable oond1t1oa• for cro111n,; the .Alp,. There vae a fine airport at ‘l’urtn and we stqed. tor two or three d.a7e. lJpoD :receirlq clearance we took oft and lan?ed a\ X.7011? 111 France, acre as tha Alps. We tid aot eaooute,. th(J highest Alpe but thoce we did oro•• were tairl7 high. Mon, lluc leoaa4 white and oeautlful to our rtgh\ ae we flew wethart. fro• L7ou v• fln to DiJon ar.id from there in\& Pari1. landing a\ Orl7 field. 0’1a ui l parW ln fa.-h e.nd I f’ln1 •hed. tile trip to S\. lACleYert w1 th ka1p leaJud.a. We le.nde4. d our airdn>.1ne 0011tigu.ou1 to \he one used b7 the !l”l llsh. It could be 4Hor1be4 a1 a Jei&t e.lri.ro111e. Our 11111e4b.te collMaUng officer wa.c Lt. Booert 1. Loni\ wi\h -whoa 1 Md bacl no coutaot ln training. !be Tale croT.1;> of which he •• & par\ bat mot trained ln fea1acola. Mr. toveU ,,., two o:r three JH.J’I Jou.eel’ ,MA 117sel!. !e h&4 u • a\trllct1•e ?•r•o•altt1 and diaplqed the ?uali\les which cave Juat1fica.tloa • – 24 • tor bi• aeleolloa •• •-n4tac oftloer. •• 1lke4 u4 n.epeote4 hla. Oa.• vhole o,,n, •• •••• et • fl•• ll’O’ltf of -. Oa• of \Ile Oapnal• •• •4• .. …,.. ul ” ,… lo epeate bl-,at•UF of ,he 1r1u • . la el••• oellalto1’&’1oa 1’1\h •• hi u4•r ov owa oealUA. I lla4 tbea bHll Ofll’ vl\lt. ,_ Jrillall oa tw .. ld&ll aS.411 1eantq what t 001114 abou.\ tll.e wn. 1ae lnU•II pl.au ‘° vldoll I JIM 11 … altaollea •• ta oi.i-c• ot 1111 eoa, u •x,u1eMe4 plle, of \he ID,al. Al• Jofte. O•o. 1a pla, on• vi th m.11,on we W a pntv l•t•n•\tq ••• • •• ialcb« ofll” aa apul-.”‘1 ltou velplac a’bnt 1400 pou&• •• 1••• aat refl’l,lrt.ac a -, .. bl . nek., 1, •• • hft’lfto tblag. file e\Jeotl•• Utlpe4 -· u …… , …. A’Ulp aear 111.1a.itnl’b la hlllu. ai1 … -· ualou \o . a nooe,,M attack. • l•to•• •• Naohed. ,.. olt.teo,t.,. • dacl• ….,. pl••• …. ai.eac. lookt.a, , • .,. boaltel’t. llllleoa ltu•t •• , ……. , … \dill. flchl•• plane .. – aoH4 4own am p\ aw.7 ••’ to •• aa4 tl.w la acata. fht• tt• Ille ••Nll- 1lcllt• OU• ‘””” el.oH. thaeM.O’\tl tld. … , u4 uU-.lnaft fln -· nntlnc el.••• too. •• taaew tM • ,…,.. v• oftli .r ta. auapatl •-1-«• 1a ,. atr alt•” 1M •• ot ov •-“• ht a111oa, aft•r eeat-, &ewa talr11’ low• cot nt ef U. ‘M.8’ all ftO.I, nppoe.U, … ., Ille 01tJ .. ,1.,.. ,, -• a ….. , tiplau. “‘ at••• the o\Jeou….. .111 tlle ….. ntp\a •• n•r,lldag weal o’I.I la tile whole a,- aa4 we …. ,. vf.thnt f”a.riMP ·–?·- Wun ou of ev Oeproaia •• 1’N47 ••• •••ler fa\er, vllo . W …. uperi …. wl’1i lM ,.oh ‘bef-..)lle 3’1M4 u la,……,••-• tl?•• pt.lot u4 l …… pt.lot. -,. 4••.J.caaU• •• ….. pllo\ w.• ••ttd .. of a • allUUI’ \eon•• \bough a pilot t.a a pluo wllb ha1 eoattol• l nall7 ao\e4 – 25 – •• ebHrTer. Dave Bale, who bad gone throuch •• Stonehenge tntnlnc VS. \h v.■ aa an obsene:r wa• ,lla4.e the nolllaal obaener b•I reallJ’ vaa NILi’ …r, an4 mane4 the J.ni’t i-“” ?eh vat eH0’1a4 ,o proteot the plaM fro• tbe real’ .. l alto had a Lewie CU& 1n the obeeneJ” • oookpit la ,he tontnn, of tbt r:i.acell• which ex,eme4 out in froAt. ‘With \h1a cnw of \hree we vent off oa the first American nicht-bombiag rsid under Aaerican 001111&.Dd 1n the hitto17 of ,11e coutq. We were to bou tbe n.barine volk• alone the talanct bada at o,,em where the mbsartaea were thoueht ‘° oo• for 1’epai re aad. retultnc. ta tld.• alaht boabiq ve were alva1• giwn 4et1at\e obJeo’1•••• •• wen neflr tolc1, either when wi\h the Jr1Ush or 1.n the tbor\ tl• we aad• raid.a on our ova. \o beab Oatenf. o:r U7 other oi \1, for UUIJ)le. We took All the oaN we oo-.lcl • to tlad out bow to nach & g1Yen o’bjeoU•e. Ot oouse tbe1’e wn 11a1ta’1oa11 but we had photograph1o aapt on tbe datloa and ve new ‘\he ooa’°’11’ of tu ooa,,. an4 of Ute ba•ln, to help ae «u14••• One oould pick ou\ tl,.e baa1n, U’ \he Atcht wae olear, am. 4i1Unc’lrl,•h it ho• ,11e ehore. We knew aboul how lo.a& 1 t sbol&ld tab 111 to eo a ce:ru.la 41•1a.JM>e. We knew \he noecla4 &1’ea ud ooul4 ld•a’1f7 11 •• ve approaahecl, aJUl new 1’• 4ia\aaoe fro• nr fl•ll. Ye ooud follow ,11e ooaal and then ‘1ln lalud w1 ,h a falrl7 eoo4 uaaoe of Y1auall7 picking up o•r o’bJeoU•••• We alao had a ‘boa’h lich\ 1)1l\ l cln.’bt l can now acc•:ratel7 d.eecri’be lt. !here were &4Juatmenh t& l>• aacte ia ih movable pane. and it ve new 1a a t1xe4 d.1reoUoa at a t1xe4 al H ? au. 11ae4 up ov eye w1 th the obJeeU ve, acrn,11 the bat•• la tlut alght tlm.t a4- ,taate4, theoret1cal17 we should hlt tbe tarcet. There vaa 11lteUlloo4 ot ernr, e1peclaU7 t.t the v1a4 chan&ed ff that ve \IOv.ld not be tl,tq la the en.ct direo\1oa or at tha enct heigh\ ve w•n suppoael to be in relation to • – 26 – the adjust;me.nts. And our speed ;night not be exactly .as caleu.lated. fber• -waa cons1dera1tl• iaaccu.rac;r ia th& boab1nc of Ibo•• 411711 espeolall7 at alght. On thlt 11ret a.ll American nigh’ raid. we Aaaced pr1aoipallJ’ a railroad gtat1on, close b7 the we??, ?e were tuppoae4 to hil. leporta of the raid. later cg,11• to ,u thro,a,gh \he \Ulderaroun.d.. 1 neTar knew Juet hov tb.1• opnated but tl:ler• w.a an Ulldergroud reporting .,,,… 1a al.d.1Uoa, pho\ogra-phic pla1uta wen\ oTer in the daJUu. tae7 could aoaeUua p1Ck out the renl \a of bo111’bi04. U wa• coat14.ered a tah•J.T n.oces■t\tl raid. On.l.7 the oae plau partlolpa, ed, the oal.7 one we had reaq. Vhen \ha Jrttieb wen\ ott •• alght tnen or eight plaaet ueuallt participaled. not S.n tonatio.a. of OoUne, • uc1 each l1ke11 wt ,a a dlfterea\ objeoUve 1n tba aaae general ar• at the aame appnnaate Ume. • On our fire\ aid ve nul iAto no oppoaitioa exoept u\1-a1rorafl tire. We had clear tailing in getting oYel” \he ebJeoU•e• r•l•••• our bomb• a.tn came avar without mu.oh d1tt1oul’7 fro• the eaeJIT a1,11ouch ,ure vat a gooct deal of utt-airoraft tire. Jut trouble aroae oa \u re,un trip due \o a ahifl in \be wind vhil• we were 1n the air, vlaich lilra4 blow la a haze and also made U d1f:f’1au.lt to allow aooura\el7 tor Arif\ vUbia the oalculaUone we had ade before leaving ou:r ataUon. Ve loat the ooaet line on. ¥b.ich we had principall7 oeu.nted to gu.14e ua baok lo a place on fihe ooasi fro• whioh ve couli cut b. to the … tioa to lam. Jtor a while 1, looked. aa if we were lost. !hf.I arrangement w.1 for u• to 1i1aal for a laD41llC in Mor•• code vi\h a large flaebligb.t. whereupon Iba grouad crew would throw on the • • – 27 – laailnc liCh\a. aotw1thltu41q ve \bought ve were lo•’ for a ‘bad llttle 11hlle1 the crouad. crew picket vp the •lpal 1 kep\ flaehla,. ‘fhe7 1wltohet oa the ,ro’UA lip.I• whloh we taw off in the dle\aaoe. We ,ua lau.el. Th\Vlll7. Ill”. Lo-rett va• \here to peet •• at ve cl1a’be4 out ot the plane, am th• whole eta’Uon •• pleaae4 with out ti.rat operatlon. A few •••nine• later the 1ame ortnt VIAi off on. a 1ecoad raid, ao 0th.er plane being red.7. lefo:re ve orotaed the 11•••• and vhll• at about 61000 teet al tU••• one of tile aoto:r1 talled. Taber tlpalled to • ov.\ la the fna\ cockpit \lat we •at 1aa6 am 1Kl•h4 wbat \be treuUe •• ‘before I bad la4erpea4ea’1r beooae ••re of 1 ,. .ll’J’IUlaeunt1 had. , … •• tor ue to laM oa \be \eaoh near hald:rk ln ea ••i-ceac7. We o1Nle4 back tovarda thit plaoe whioh waa alto ue« aa a 1top-oft etaUon ‘b7 tht JrUitll oa retunnac fna n.141 • When near eaoup l aiculled appro,riatel7 tor penl111on to llake a forced. landing, but reoel..-.4 in reepon•• the d.aa,er eipal. the laD4lag light• wr• aocor41:ac17 act hrae4 oa ‘° ae,tst ••• “• learn.a. later the hnu.t were o..-er l>ukirk, l>oa’bin,:. fbo•• open.’1.IIC \he lan41q place 414 ae\ wlah lo pu\ on \he lleh’• u4 make a tarp, tor \Ile hraa l>ollber1. Wt gra4u117 101\ alli\’111.e cirollq al’OUA. We 11pa11e4 acat• \11\ noe1Ye4 \he Mlle napoil••• 1lmall7 we wre oblige4 lo lu4 vilbou\ the ••• 1t\aace of grout ltpta, and cnuhed. I Jumped al••’ tlnl taaeo•ely wUh the impact and we caapul \e4 10•• 41 •tu••• !he plane wa• ‘bacll7 4a-,e4. Uale vaa cut about tlle face a ‘bU bu\ !a’ber tbough 1!u:ea •• not iaJured. I •• lalceA to Q.aeea Alenad.ra’• hospital, operatecl ‘b7 \he lriUth • au.r l>uld lk. 1’ •• la oba rge of Q,ualcer nur••• from ?an4, ‘but Iba 4oo• • • – 28 – tor• were of the Jri.Uah Arrq. !hla wa.a an emergeno7 ho-,1,a1, pa1’t1oulal”ly fo-r aYla’\ioa. •• toea a• poH1ble •••• broucht lo 1\ wen ••’ r•ftl’&rd lo a kte ho■pllal. I\ vaa ezoellentl7 coadule4 u4 l wa, well oaN4 tor. fhe aext aomac all explora\oZ’J’ operaUoa of a lmee laJv.17 •• pel’foned.. !hit inJui-7 healed. vell aad cauee4 ao pen&llelll trouble. M.,- pn.nclpal dlfficul.17 •• a baak ia.tv,17 am concv.saloa lhroueh ,he oh.ea\. Uter abou, tea da.71 in \h11 hospital. d.•rlnc which Uu 1 becue alao8′ the old.ee\ iaba.’blv.at ln a, •’• I •• •••’ back to the t\atioa earoute to the Vat tel lta.\•• ••1 lo1pUal la :Lea4oa tor ccut.ftleeceaoe. Bale’• cats healet well bu, l ‘btll•T• he atlll ‘be&J’I a taclal ,oar, vld.oll, howenr, 1• net 411fl.C’Q.l’l.11. Wi\Aia & a\ter of 4a7• tvo of • aloee trientb, 1oeler MA Stoclter, were alto iaJv.re4. 1oater1 • aociteat •• la a take-oft oraeb while atlll aUache4 to \he Bri’1eh. Be •• throw nt of \he :plaae aa4 hl• el,l>ov u4 ana badl7 lmn, but he wen\ back la aa4 pilled out the lr1U•h ….. who at.gbt have ‘been ln:lraed excep\ for 1oeter•• exploU. lhe »rt.t1ah 4eoontei hla for hi• herol•m. Stocker waa “911 more •erlouel.7 lnj,antl la a oath eD. the a1r4roM, nt reooTere4. the \Ju-ea of •• were aeat to \Ile Val te4 Stale• •n1 loap1\el la J.o!ld.oa tor ov ooJffale■oen.oe. l’ctalter .,,., 1• an.a Uon afier \lae w.r aJ’1d wae kill•• the earl7 ending ot the lite ot a ve17 fine, a\traoUTe J’01UtC Amerlcaa. J’oe\er and I have kep\ 11p ov ti-1ellll• hip e-vei• tu ,ear, aD4 aov aad. thea haTe .. pd to see one another. J’or llaBT 7ean he be.• beea -practlcing la.v la !few Orleau. fhe hoapUal llf.d. been the home of to•• American or tneal of tu Aaertoan• who ate it anll&’ble lo ,be •”‘7• !he av••• wen Allenoaa •v J•r­ aouel. Allenoaa •m doctor• wen la cbarce. We were apt• enrem.el7 • • • – 29 – “ell tfJ.ken care of. ! was up and about practioally all \he time Md J..<;d 1that proved \o be a very plea@an\ vitU in London. When reco•erecl en.c:rogh to return to dut7 Ooamander ldvar4s ot Adidral William s. Si•’• 1\att in Lolldoa, in cl’sz,ge under Adshal Stmma of OV$7- eeaa officers 1n Jl’a’nl avi&Uon, tflid I could return \a the O’iiited Sta,?• to help in11ruot 1 but I preferred to go baok \o the at!!Uo.n end va• 1,..,emi \te4 to do 10. Thi a wa1 in Ooto’ber, 1916. ‘fhe Germane had -?II. fallen back ht occupied Belgium and our &1rdro11e \.’&& left a conllidera’ble cli•tuoe btth1ud \he linea. We were order•d to pe.?k UJ.i to JOOVflt forwl’d aDd a grea\ dHl ot equipment was o.a truck& rea?y to move; bu\ ao mo-ve wa• ordered. !h& prnepeo, of an s.rmiaUoe became mo1,,11. at leaa\ to the ldgh?r officer•, and ..-e rema.inetl vhere we were. All aooa ‘becue &Wire of the impending fl.l’llhUee. It is llJ ur.u’.!.erstandtn.g tba.l athr our crash 1a Augus\ the OapJ’Oais were not uaea. acai.n. rue oaute4 the station to beoo11e 110:r-? or l?n laacUTe due to lack: of us;e,ble ni,;ht bomber•.· Ha.d the w.r oonUau- thia sorootiow \.’Ould. have ‘been reimed1ed. In the i:ieaaUme eom-, of our flying ottie?rs: were again mtlAe available to the :Brtttea, who heu’l the &.ndle:, … Pfl.p bolllbet”e, am helped a great deal 1n tha.t ..a7. Af\er the arw.stic8 lo?ember 11\h I ee.iled hoM tro11 s,. lle.aeire lovember 29th, be.1ng amcn.g the fire\ frcm our 11tatioa to do eo. I d.id JlQt wish to ‘be part ot the tJ.r-.i, of oocupa.tion, e.ncl ‘Wae ?.vea the choiaf’. of eo•- 1ug hoae. I had already begun the practice of law a.nd WMA \he var ?a• over viehed to reaume. We 1s.1l$d on the old ste9mer Fn,p-4 – not the large and later Ito.ma- It had been rella.Jlled. the %tQl&!!MPM wea ts.kea over b7 the Ullited State, in one of our porh when we.r vas c:!.”ole:too.. ‘l’he7 were 11xteen daT• oroadng 1n l’O\l&h weather. Mu.ch to ou.r disappointment • • • – 30 – iaeteacl of landing in Bew lone, a• we had. hoped, we were not la.ad.a. at all. 1a a 1ea1e. the h•at1aDM anchored ou\ froa JoJ’folk and w oame ••hore oa ltghffl’•. Oa reaohl111 llorlolk 1 lamed. tbat -, ds\ttr Sarah va• there Tlaitinc \he h.amou, ol4 t:rieJ.Ml• ot eulier 4qe in Ifome. 11o,11er w.1 la l’ev York wt th llumah. So I •’-1’e4 a fev 4a71 \o ••• Sa.rah and trlead.t ln lTorfollt. arn.nalric al10 to be -placed oa i11aoUTe sel’Yloe. or at lea,, on leaYe. then :t wn\ \o lev Torit to 1pencl Ohl’itt•• vi th Motlier u4 B’aanaa. 1 doppe4 la Wathln.a’on oa \he wq to Jew York to haw a n11-. at the Jiau houae>ao14. Chl’i•i•• n.lp.t, •• l noall nov, I left •ev Toi1c for iome ‘• He other, of the tallil.J’. and after a good vi alt there nw.rn.e4 to Waah1ac\ oA •rl7 la J’u.ua17, 1919. lt wa• of oourte a little out of the ord1aa17 for Mother to be .,,. t?o• be•• at Ohrietma1 U• 1 bv.t ehe wae freer dnoe Papa•• death, and ‘1:Knacht it beet for her at tba\ parUaular U11e to be vlth Bauah la llev York. flda wa1 a ooatort alld help \o laanah, I now, who •• aext 79&1’ ea-­ ten4 biAl \7 College la Waehl’alton.. aD4 af\er ci-a4•’1oa bep.a he:r re11arkal>le u4 beau’1tul rel1ciou ‘t’OoaUoa at li•t•r PeteP ClaTez’ of the 11111ona17 lenanle of Ut.e Mo,, 11•••• fl”1Jdt1. She •• oae ot ., ho 1l1ter1, Acn•• S\ephalde %ha other, to IP lo !rta1,,. fhl• va.1 du p1’tao1pally to 11:1′ fl’iend.1h1p with \he Lane family in Wa1htngtoa. tato which I arrit4 ln. 1929. Mr,. r..u.•1 elder, Sitter Oel’tl”lllle, wat fnan.rer of !rin.1\7 am oa.e of th to1lD4ert, am tile ,uee kn• claughtere at dittena, tlae• were pad.u. ,e,. I nppoee anaUoa vent Uaroug)a it• greate1t period. of 4eTelop••’ clunnc the lint lloJ’l4 War. Wh.ile oa Se.U.■bU’J’ fla1aa ta ?aad. 1 traiae4 • • – 31 – 011 u old Morrie-Famua, one ot the earlies\ planes to n1. We also trained. there on J’-11. \the Mt”r?l”h-l’anwa •• u.11et oal7 1n \ra1niag bu.\ ‘Iba J’-? va• u early lJrtUab tlch.ter la World War I. l\ ••••• od.4 nov \o ll:dak of 1\ •• a tlghter. Pro«r•••• ‘before lone. mid.el’ the eUaul.111 of the war relegated 1t to \he pael. !here came along the Handle7-Pe.ge1 a_ &’Cll)erior plane tor aight bombing. and the Cfe.lsp’bell-Sop became the prinotpal lri \1th tighter. lt •• a aingle seater wl\h a l)’llchronhed aoldae gun •hooting throqh th6 pl”Opeller. ntring World Wa.r l \bere w.1 nothtac like the bod>1ng of ol ‘1•• \ba.\ oecuned la World. War II. At I baTe aa14 atpt boablnc •• 1uooun.•• ad AO tou’bt 1u.ooa.\ people u4 OiY1liu.1 nftere4. f.b.e effor\ of the Al.11••• howeTer. was to bomb oal.7 u. a11lp.et atll’8J7 o’bJeetlTe. On rq w.1 \e a, 1″tatto11 b. northern haaoe after traininc at Stonehenge I ‘Illa■ routed through Parle fl’Oa Jr:acle.nd. ‘1be Germana bombed Part■ tb.e nicht I was ther•. A bomb clropped near La Ten4o••• outside the Hotel Cozitiaeatal where l w.• •’8.Jlng. there were a hlllber ot plane• ovez- •• \be1r •ncin•• cow.a. be uarcl dieti:ustl.7. ‘lb.e •:d da7 \be Bic leJ>\Jaa •• ahoo\lng ta’° Pazota v1 ,a oonaU.erable rel\’&lari t7. .1.1u?o11Ch lhe Genana tlU-oqb. thla roaritable pieoe of artille17 were altle \o reach Parle \hey could. not contl’Ol \he place the •hell would land. I w.e valldng alo111 \he 1\reet vbon oas fell a fw bloclc1 e:we.7, s.nd I vent to the plaoe 11 atruk. !he traJector7 of the •hell vae suoh that U oame down al.mot\ ‘f’e’l’Uoall7. !bi a one land.eel aear the ou-b e.\ an la\treeo,1oa, klllbic a bor••• 4amiacinc soma ■hope, and 1aJurlma • ., ao, aerto•1l7. ene or ho peoi,le. Of eow.rff, at 1• lmown now. at o\hAJr Uaet s. beauUt’11 ohurch va.e hi,, and the ab.ell- • lag caused ,hs le11 of llaD.1 llTes. I remember feeling Terr e\roncl7 oa \he – 32 – • tv.bJeot. As 7enra vent ‘by tbG ?r ot coaduo?lac var chanced. !hen, hove-re l’, th11 ehootirag lnto a bic oounaatt7 and ao1l oar1ng what w.e ldl w.1 aa ov.,rage. • • 1 think )1,: l\enhe. •• aoae\hii,g of a 4eprees1ng 1ntl.uaoe oa·ao,ale ta Paris, but oa the wbole 1 t ()awsed the J’renQh to be aiore 4e\enine4. · if \lllllt were poati’ble. Jhperl•c•• euch a.a \hi• DO dou’b\ had 10ae\hla, \o d.o with the freacb deein tor a ha.rah euotioa troa the O.ram1. lJotvtthataading ve law aot autfei-ed the d1Not effeota of •I’ wl Wa ov O¥n ‘bol’den a• J:aT• Fraace a.ad. In.eland, ad later OttZ’JDU,7, we ••• at- . ..-d. tro.emou., responslblU. tr since the Second World Wai-. lo 4o,a.b\ lt we ha4 ‘been mo:re l•eitat:elJ” ln. \be path of the ft.Nit we, vault ‘baT• oou to acoept earllei- ‘\be neceasl\7 and l•1ira’bllit7 ot u tatema111onal orcanha- ‘10111 auch •• the VA1,ec1 laUoaa, aad Wllaon ldgll\ have auoceed.et _la lua •ffor\ to ban ,be Val te4 St&\es take leac1.erab1p ill \he League ot la\loaa .. la the enA, hovner. we ba’Ye aocept.et world lea4er•h1p. Maq Jee.rt la\er la the ‘Wiater et 1941 l va.1 ta Load.oa 1tl \h Oo…,4el’ llet11eier ea4 loer.1 Ian;, I. Mll.eq to aecoUate tor ov go.,…., \be tea.a of the .,,…, eat lea••• COTedDI out” Mftl. u4 &lit \a .. • ‘° ‘be enote4 tn lrlU•h. po.aa.-.. iou la ,be Ye•t•n Atlu.Uo. arovlng ,., of t.he •tlft7 destro,-er, excbar:&•• ot tile p?n-tou, 8ep,mer.. Mr. Om:rchl11 t•:,1,et Gener.el Xal.o? and •• to Obeq:a,er• on a hnAa,- for 41smer. Oo•auer Jie•aelei- •• 111. Kra. Chu.rob.ill alkeA -, opl11.t.oa of the r•oUoa of \he bericu people a-.01114 lc&lal.lA thea bu’b the opea ol U•• of S.1’11\111. !be hnan• wer• bo•’-181 J.oactoa quite •aeaal”fel1′ at the ‘1••· be ltl!ts va1 1\111 oa. al\bovch 1i had been woree a.md vo1114 \e vorae scat• a 11\’1• lt.ter. !he big tt.re \hat bad ch1tro7ed. w.oh a lar«• pa.rt of J.odoa h&4 oc• • • – 33 – curred. in December. fhia conTereaUon with Mra. OlmrohUl va• tn late January or Jebrwu7 tollowinc and there bad bee» ao n.batanUal boabin,; b7 the idtish of 0.1:’aa cl’1e1. l\ had been prett7 mch one vaJ”. I replied. Uat in •1ev ot Uie severe bo.llblng ot London I thought th• American people would feel that ,he Britleh were Justified ia re’\allato17 bombing of :Berlin. b\1.t tha\ I dicl. ao\ think ceneral 1.ndiacnmtate bombing of open o1 tie• of Germany- vould ‘be approTed by our -people. In the light of vba \ abtequeaU7 oocu.rred thie Jlight eeea tnaooure. te. :But l ‘hl* 1 \ w.1 a ta:hl7 true retleoUoa at ‘1!•t Ume of the een.tiau.\ ta Allel’ica. Some few 7eart later, la 1946. a.tter the unconcli tiona.l w.nend.er of Germa81’ • when I vae in Germany •• head of the l•Ol wo?’k of lC111 ta17 Go·Hrnment. I ■av thet:reMal10111 deatructloa whloh 011r own aa well a■ the lhittah boabera bad vrou,h\ on the cl Uee of Geraa117. Between the time of the con.versaUoa with Mr,. Churchill ia tne wt.ater of 1941 aa4 \he ea4 of the flghtinc – if 1 had beea aocarate in. 1941 a great chuge had come in ,he aethot of conduoUq w.r and in the sentiment ot the .A.merl•n people. Mae■iTe 1hategic boa’blag with Us tenitio deelncttoa .bacl become acc.wpted.. I ooul.4. no\ -s,eak henoh, eo -, oontac,■ vtth the J’reaoh :people 4unnc World War I were lllli ted. O\lr aird.roae wae in \he oouat17-dl.e, •• I ha.Te eatd, about eighteen kiloaetere in froa Calai1. ‘!here were, of course, farmer■ and other J’rench people ta the Yioiat\7, and. oontaola with the• nn 0Dl7 oooaaloul but pleaaant. there vae a 11 \tle 111amtu1 town at the croHroacll vhel’e ve p’\herecl fNa Uu to Ume. oozutuole4 by a l’reaoh ta.m1l7 wbo 4enlope4 pleaaant relaUoae, vi th the Americu.1 an4 the Jrl Ueh • • • – 34 – ‘1beJ’e wa• a Oathollc prie•t uarb7, with a rather 1-11 but attrao’1•• 014 atone Oh\u’oh am\ recioS7. 0a \)le vq to MUaa to helr, ltrbc ‘back tile Oapnal plaae■ I •• apla la l’aria, u4 age.la at\er the antaHce ea ro11te to It. Sasaire \o all hoae. ‘!he•• tlae• 1n h.r1■ were only•• a •1•1tor tor a 1hor, Uu to a great u,ropo11ttul celtll\Ullt7. So• 111pre1t1on■, beverrer, were detbdte. !here •• aa uexpreH• — a, ti•• upreHad.-nhal N,;&1″4 \etween the .uerlcau -4 the heaok. the 1renoh were grateful to the Aaencau. ? .Aaerio,.u, J. thialt, reallu& \)lat the freneh alld tlle »rS.Utll held the fGl’I uaUl we oaae, a1,1rouca X n.ppo1e,,. att1’1\v.te4 •n 1aportaaoe to ov ova u’U ‘ri ‘1•• tban we ‘414 ‘lo their•. ?et the whole ‘1llac vo,ald ba•e beea oTer 1’efore ve cot tlwre exoept fo:r \be tre•mou.1 •’8.atna an.4 oo-.&rage of the 1re.rich an4 Jri ’11h. I u.7 the Jreach and the Bri U•h• bu.\ ,,f oour .. , there were other• too – Jel,tau. Ce.11ad.iaa1, .&u1,n.1ta1u1, au. to toae ext.at the Portu.p.,,e, the ltal.lu.t, and ■Ull oiher1. In lagl.au. 1 aaa. tw opporruUl•• \o He ,.tae people ezc-.,, •• a 1191\Mr of a Jilli. ‘8.1’1 ecua.Uagea\. ft.Mtn ven ottioer ol.u\e 1n. Lend.on aa4 oa• wu.14 ••’ people oa a .. .,,.,, 4.ifterea\ ba•1•, ot oo’l.l’a•, Iba• ln oa•’ • won, aa4 then wen oocat1eaal trip• lo a plaoe llke »o•n.•••tll. Jut I had ao dpltlou, ooatu\ vl\h \he »r111ah. la \hell’ •••· It, feeling for \hit people •• al•T• one of .,, … , notwl\hs,andlac • father had. been elov ia oYeJ’OOld.JIC – if he ner 414 – \he gna, H••• of Wl’OJI& ?and bad. 4oae 1i-elu4 la \he ceAkr1ea of reltgle•• u4 poli\toal pe1’1en·Uon.. l l’-.111el tlw ,ntth a\ the ba1l1 of bl• feel.lag eat ha4 a olear …,,reolatt.011 of lh• r••o•• ?•h1nc\ t ,. .., ao’1tUaet&Dlllnc \h11 I appo•• 1 looted “l)oa tlle . • Jncll•h a, well a, \be Jreoh a• trl•D4• ot Aaerloa tn the trouled ‘1•• • • – 35 – ot •r,; Yet I lmve ao hetd, taac;r ia afflnnlac ,q own conYicUoa ot ,u lone iaJ•at\c,.:< of the lac11ah \nauient of ,he lrlth. In \he ea:rlf dqa of the ftra\ World. Yaz-, 11hu. tho coate•I va• betveea lnglanA arlfl franoe oa the one band. u.d Gel’Jll6\n1 ca th.e other. there •• a period of uacer,a11Lt7 1a a, 111:a4. e.• lo ,he 4.1rection of rq B711P?thl••· fhis 414 not ltut long. I •• ooneciou, of the tn.41 \tonal fnenih1hip betweea \he Vat iad States and J’rance fl”o11 the time of our ovn RevoluUon, u4 of the con,r1’w.Uoa of ‘lreaoh thinking and oivtll1&’1oa ‘° the West. KnowillC tb.t •, and oollaotou.a al 80 of ,he oonUauous affopnce and lack of retlll’d to? lateniatlonal o’blt;aUou oil the part of Gemaq I fa1rlf qnlokl.7 ,,rai«hteaed out la -, ovn .mt.ad where la7 our 1.n,ereah and the relaU ff aoral• of tu maUer. Ml’ own teelt.n&a about \he 1nternsUonsl ti’1lat1on, \eginniD& in l.91.4, laying alide a separate probl.e l1k9 that which arote vUh re1peo\ \o Me:doo – ver• Uke Wilton••• perhaps a liUle ahead iaaofar •• h11 outvard maAUe1taUon1 of poliOT were concerned. 1or qui\tJ a while he •••med ,o regard ‘h• Bri U1h ‘breach of international ebl111,H.on• Yitll nepeo\ \o our 1htppl11g 90mewla\ oa a par wl th ,he JROre T1,a1 u4 taexnu.ble b?’e&ohta \7 Use OeJ’llau in \helr n.’b•l”lne nrfan. It U4 no, •N• to •• \.ba• taldn& a pnse into a port oo-,..red tn ear1ou11e1• wt,h the tlald.q ot ehS.pe ‘b7 to:rpeh••• Jut on the vale ri, thiaklng folloffl thd of Wtleon. Wbefa we eatered \he war l felt ve were r1?,ht. Wileon•e oond.•ot of affair• X tboqht hat ‘been in the etfor’l to &TOl( ou enh7 •= to aohlffe a p&aoe 1f poaslble. ? per•omal np:eneaoe ia Incl..- aad hanoe la untfont, ha.cl ••J’7 11\\le lo do w1,h-, later ia’lernaticul aotl”ri\iea. &th6r, the Nason • for 111′ 1nte,-ett ta la?eraational coopen.Ucn wae a connoUon that the – 36 – • oommud tr of .nation, ahould eotnbinEt tn An ?ffort to prevent 1mra. I felt 3trongly al?o \hat since the United States ¼?s dre.?n into the 11rst World War 1 t was •ound Ar.1&rlcaa polioy to promote an in.t?rne.tiono.l orge.aimtion vhioh wollld eaek to p!’ev€nt a recurrence. I thought 1t t;ould be i.apoa11- ble for th& Un1teci States. from tt-.e utandpoin4; cf its own interests. as well as cur oblig11,tion to tht,’! 1nt?rnational comimmit;r, to ro?ir. ou.t of t1 dgaificnnt conflict whtan it really get u.nd?r “imy. !here. we.e aleo P.n idealism ai.bout our leaderstJ.r, durir.g en’-1 &f1ier the war (until other forces gai.n.ed head?y) vhioh ?• oens16tent with 1tf/ r>t? b(>lief:e. I think such 1dealiem W&$ right ar.d aoun(., though time l’.nd e,:perienof! aight be se.ic to ba?f” p ro·Hn 10!:le of 1 ts 1 :ncidentw to ?ave b ?n c! efr::eti ?e. • • Stocker 8’qe4 in aviation ?.na as t lmve t-?.u \’IU? aee1dentnlly killed vhilo still a young r.ie,r.. Fester, e.e I h-,.T”!I !ilr.c ea.lo, le practicing b.w in New Orleans. ‘l’s.bvr I thiu: 1a e. pNetieing dcctor in Pr.tterson, Nc-v Jerae7. Bale, whom I ht.•? occs.ei0Mll7 seen oTe:r the yMrs, reentered the eervioe in World War U. Lovett, vhose dieUDguie1h.t’ld oa.roer h well k:lowa, became Undeir Seereta.17 of Stat«1 und.er General Marahe.11. In. 1947 i;ehtn I w.a ‘l’h? Lf!f!al Adviser of the St&.t0 1>$par’tnnen\. ou.r \,1ork thsre happily O’ftt’.l”lnpped tor a. whila, reJlinlteent of other d9.¥s e.nd. of battle• of lor..c a;(O. I hlld 4ec1de4 \o leaTe Government 1Hnice befcre I kne…, h• -win to co.me into the J>epar\a1ent. ‘Zlu l think I would ba.V9 r@mained to work …Uh him. Re s?kad me to do ao, aa Oounlllelor of \he D9Partmetit. which appealed to me “?%7 much. ii?ssincto; Iat1, ial?-1924 Back in Washington in January, 1919, in? diff??ent part of thP little buildin« on. 11fth Stred, down9’ … 1re in lfo. 410 \hh time, I began ?a.iD. to ge\ a. foothold in pl’1’Tatc pr?oti?e . • • • – 37 – Mr. Darllng\on died in Jue. 1920, after an 1llneH ot so• moalh1. le came to nie otf1ce aa long a• he oo’llld, and aTen wen, aoro11 to the ooulbouae lo argue a ••• 4ur1nc bl• illn.•••• Jv., be vae flullT :tercel to “be4 &n4 ,here, vi\h Cbridlaa \ranqaillt7 all4. torUlud• lootecl :torwart wl th tai lh \o jo1n1q hia wlte. lb. lalli”ft.n a.lkecl ae to 1\a7 with hia, ud tbla 1 414 uUl 1924. 1. the 01,, fhl’ough the lean Waahiacto• in 1911 whea 1 oue here va• like a lti& town, \hough 111 popula\loa •• abo11t 321,000. l\ •• a lei1vel7 place. ‘lhe create,, cbalge ‘bepn wl ,b the 11r1\ 1fol’l4 fal’. lb.e oi t.7 crew rap1417 apla a■ a reftl, of the haoad World War. Place• vbioh 1n 1911 ve \bovcllt far av.t ••• ltecoae · ol••• la. fo one who •• llTed. here owr a loac period. tile cbu&•• are s\riki.rc; 7el \be 4nelopmen\ •• 1-4 1atecrl. \7. fhrouch \he effort to tollov a plan, and wl th the clireotloa Ci Ten bT the ftne Arlt and other OoaJllltaiona, and with the pl’14• Oonci-••• ha• taken la Waah1nc\on., the change ha• mot been a• 1.nd.1aonmtaa,e at \lle growth la lit• othervt,e mtgh, llaTe Gav.lei. the 4nelopaent ln pu\llo nlldiJlg ha• ‘beea tnumleus, pantcmlarlJ” liace the he1U.ea07 et Ber’ben BooTe1’, who ‘bepa new oo••–•Uoa aloaa Co.11.1\Uulloa ATenue aid. the Jfall. 1h11 •• upande4 u4e1’ lhe actatal•traUoa of Pretliea, 7ruldta looteTell bu\ aooorte4 vi\h older plaa,. the \npH”&J’T ‘buildinge of lhe Ji1’1I lfol’ld War are ••’11 pa. !boee wbl ob f1llecl \he pla. la front of UaloA fta\ion. for \ha 701UIC voaen Yho oa• lo WathtDg\oa to von: dub.g the war. are ao aon. Book Cnek ?ari: hat beea creaU7 erlen4ecl oftr the 1eara, and 1• perhaJ>• \he greatest 0117 park in the world, wllh 1\a ova apeolal beauty ta – 38 – • the fall, 1n the winter anc1 in the sprlnc and. 8Ullller. I usually drlve throqh toll& of U tt•e17 a.7. Howe-ver, I m1H coot w.l.kl.ag pa\he. • • Mr. l>arlincto11•1 ol\7 home va1 near Dupoa, Oirole oa 80t;h Street. .ill that area •• red4eaUal 4.urin« 111’ earlier 7ear1, an4 I ,hbk alt0 ta 1920. The 1trHtcar1 vent all tbe va7 out OoueoUcu\ ATeau.e to Ohe.,,- Oba•• Lake. ‘!here vere ae bueet. A\1.tomc’blle traffic •• relaUTel7 light, and. there was a great ute of phae\oa•• notcriae. e.ad baolca. fhe old E’bblt\ House, oa the toutheaat corner ot 1 and. 14th S\1’ffh, wa, an latere1Uac apot in ou atutea, da71. &.ne1• •. oa the tou\h. 114• of lenaqlft.D.1& A·..eau — eemewbeJ”e aonH froa \be laleigh w., ano\he-r. !he St. Ja11e1 ic\el vaa al10 on the ao1t.\h tide of the AYefta. ? -, father wn\ lo Wew Tork on b\11iag \rip• tor \he t\ol’e, whioh •• mu.e abo’llt \vice a JMI’, he vouli ,top off a\ least d.uri.Ac part of a clq and wo\114 …… Umee ‘8.ke me to the St. Jame,, perba:pt for a •teak. l enjo7ed. hb rlei\a. lo other member of the ta.m.17 liTed. here then, but ln Ute fa.ll of 1911, Mother came north oa a Tla1 ,. We wen\ froa ‘Waahiqtoit to ••• Tork Oit7 toge\hel”. Ve 1toppei duriDC the tq at Jtriaoe\on aa4 I 1av the Tale-Prlaoe\oa foo\\al.1 p11e1 ,r1’h Dal1, ff1’ triem the pre’f’io11.1 · 7ear a\ lo\re Da.s.e. vbo ha4 coae oa to Prlacetoa. 11o,ur )loped lo ••• her old. fl”lea4 Mr,. WUaoa at Prlaoe\ea ‘bu\ 1he wa• aw&T. In Jew lork Mother looked \’Ip tome relaU•••• oao qal te ol4 and 111 vhoa Mother helped, a, the helped to •BT duriq her lite. She •• alwa,e ctul•Ut help1ac tomeone, bove.,er mob. the de-.ncl• 11po». her. Of oouree \he cod of living w.1 nch lower then. When 1 fira\ caae \o lfaehington 1 paid tas a IJIO&\h for -, room ud thne meal• a 4a7 — u4 the mealt were ezoellen\. After the w.r in 1919 1 t va, perhapt a 11 Ule 110re, ‘but not a grea\ cieal. (Dul’ing Ohrie\ma holidqa of 1914 I exchangei • • • – 39 – greetings ,.,1th rq two roomm.a tea of these. earl,- 7e19.rs, :&tymonc! I. Kiet • who bat continued ,o live at DerJ’:r, PenneylYanb., tulc :F..$l’litul P. B’s.yea. whc for some rea.n aov bat lived 1n 09.l!fornia..) ‘t/;y reeolleotion i a \hat m.r f1rat :,ear ot practice. ‘beginning in 1914, gro1aed $1,200, which ene’bled me to g?t along. ‘!’here vas no income 1:ex. We.th1.ngton h&.d fi ,outhern l\,\mN1phere. ‘Pht- poCE’ -wa? tlo,.,•r thU!. now and tru.» ei tr \flU l’lOt crowed. Bu\ eve,n ‘°day, in contnut with otbP.r l?rie cUiea, WaehiAgto.n 1 • dov-llOving 1n a Hnte. It on? go•• ?n a ‘Yid t to lw Y?rk. tor example, there 111 a 4isUnot ohenge 1n peo♦ a.nd trattio ooncUUons, aJ:W. in no1ee, smoke, Nid collgettion. IJ’he ,1ee.ther 1n the BUE!Jiers of the ee.rller JM.:re ‘ta• certainly no \tiOl’H ‘1:an now. J,t U11es we -eould hev? one of tho1!l iaco?a.ra’bl? s,rings. A.r? \he cit7 has continued to grow in b?auty, not?i thsta.n.i.1n,t: aome very bad housing condi \ions. In 1911 and tor so.me year, there,t,fter ‘lashingtoz wa.! )!10l’e dhUnct ?s a 01t1 in 1 h ow right NtMr than a1 the oap1tel of the nation. ‘!’here 1eemed. to be J!IOl’e looal oomuni t7 life. Of cour?e I might bs mistaken, beoaun nt the obange in rq own vo1’k and auoclPtione. Sino? l have b@eil en th• court, p.llrUeula:rl7, ruid for th? tw prec&tUn,; years, 1947-1949, when I ha4 returned. \o pdftte praoltoe, I felt closer to Waahi.ucton as a co111111.U1ity than during the years in the heaut1ve !ranoh of the Oove?’tlment from 1933 to 1947. a. ‘the S\l.”‘Ulcl’-‘ Ov?:r tl:i,e LAS.?@ W1l1on• 9 thinkin& about our entey 111\0 thA wa.r srnd a’bo-u.t a world or,a a11atlon tor puce Hfl!l1ed to •e to b? Mund an? ,,ortn, of our great • • • – 40 – Christian herl’\age. Jut the Senate untor,untel7 was unwilling to raUf7 the CoYen&nl of the Lee.cue. ‘ftd. • I tlaought a great tra.gecl7 • . I do not mean for a JDOaent tbe.t ,he League of Jattoae, with u •• a aemller, wul4 haTe 1:>roqh.t penaaneat peace. U la a oonfut1on to aUrll:n1te to 11-•• who baTe favored n.oh an orca,nization a belief that they are a aoluUoA tor eTel’7tbing. °’1r ow go-verruaent with all 1 te great tn1ti tuUou ba• D.ft”fer .been able to pre,.en.t aerloua problem• from arialng within tbe la”” Uoa. Wea if we had coae law the teap.e aertoue ln.tenaUonal prol>l•• voul4 undou’bt-17 have ariaea. Ve alght not ha”fe aTClded the Secom World War. Jut U ae … d pre’U7 clear to me that there vae l••• chance of it lf \.bere vere a atronc tea,ue of latlon•• aa4 no ohaace of a ,tronc Leacu.e ualet• the UAited. State, were a … ..,.,. of U. We ba4 \eoue too at«Aifloant a part of the vorld. to expect that ,he problem• of the world would be eolT-e4 vitbout our active aa,iatance. l cto aol feel \bat Wilton retleotet in the end the popular will 111 the UnUe4 State• bo.t I thlDlc he d.id reflect the popular will of the vorl4. Origiull.7 he reflected the populal’ Aurtoan vlll aleo; but the tight•• the J.eacu o.balced the 4ollluat eenUlldt 1n •v oout17. U i• naaonable to -, that WUaon. 414 aot huile t.be whl>le pro’ble• ta a -, tba\ we.a conduoln to n.ooe••• Jut thi• waa •’• •• baa been •ua••’•• du to a aiatn.at oA ht• ))&l’t of the ctemooratio proc•••• VU ton bad pn, coaf14eaoe 1A the peoJJle. le ba4 lood reason to belle’f’e the people wel”e vUb. hi.a. • atateuan. in oenturi.et perhaps ba4 the world-wide aoclala .. Wilton noe1•e4 at the end. of the war. lte had 4ou eo auch to win the •• .. in.cl u41n& h1• etfecU Te appeal• di reot17 to the German people o’f’er tb.e llu.4• ot their go”Yer•ent. Our people were vUb h1a then. Re had reaeon to np- 41 – • poee: ,also ,hat ,he leader• of the lept&blican Par,7 were wi ,h Ma. S.•,or leaq 9&bo, Lo4ge ad ‘been one of the foremoe\ U”fOO&tee ot a wo:rl4 OJ’IU1- satloa: tor peaoe. .W Wiltoa bad ne:r., N&toll lo nppoae aleo \ha\ ••• like Oharle• J. Hague, m.1,- Boot, aa4 Willia• Bovard fat\ voul.4 -,pert bi• ,tf’orta to o’b\aln noh an OJ’Pll11&,ioa. • Wll•o11 went cl.lrecU1 to the people when bl •v ,a, the Senate llf.gh\ be lod. ‘1’he \rlp aon11 the cou.\?7 vhioh ended ta hi• brealatowa va• a 41reot appeal te the people. b4 nen, after tbat, la the aen eleoUoa, be -,,..ie4 apla to \he people for a p•t referu4’WI on Iha 1,eu. ·. Other•, so•• la pod Uon• ot grea\ reepoanblUt7. cbuet4, not 1’1l•?n. fhei,f •tlYe• l 4o aot attempt \o appl’lli••• ad l aaftlle the pahtetl .. ot’; all. Soae, like S.lllll\or :Borah, who perbape u•er ba4 taTOred. the Lea,tte •t all, were teadul fro• the beat of alttaken aoUTH. Aa \he great cleba,e ‘begaa we bad a· i-,not wbea efteoti’f’e •• were llr:epUoal and crltlcal ln one or ‘• atter•, alMl a• thalr lATOl’Yemenl in. the debate taoreaaed the7 bacaae 9kep’1-1 1a larcer -tl’U’•. 4rgueat vaa 84484 to al’paeat aUl ‘h•7 , were loet la arcaeata\loa. allloat ln 4laleou·o,, a uncerou• appnaela ‘° p•’ pnble••· .Aael’loa lla4 ao\ ao•e4 aloac the roa4. •• tar •• Wileoa t.bo,agllt. Alleri.oa 1a faot r•tnate4 ad.er tbe pn••re• of the luaM 4•l»al•• 11.84er appeal.I \o a •tlou.11•’1o aac1. at■el’le4 more palnotto potat of new, which tn ,n.th wa• 110t. !b.e reaeon• adTaDce4 wr• tear of foreign ••tangl.ean\ 11 in”Yol• … •• la peat deoiaiont vhtob ve aight not ·b• a\le to . 001\\l’ol. and • forth. So we bad the grea\ ol•ftC•• lohithatu41ac Ulla. Yileon could han voa it he hacl ‘be• vllliJtC to accept \he 10-called 1 1a\erpretat1ve nterft\loa,.• la•••••• he W. ‘1rotbir4• of the Senate vUh hla. !here i• -, orltlcl•• of Wilson in reapeo\ – 42 – • to tlle League, and it 11 mde with diffidence and uncertaint7. l thinlc: it would haYe beea better for him to ha.Te aaoepted tbe ln\el”pretaUTe re,?rY&tiota.t and tor ue to have cone int\t the Leape. “. ·-.-,>··–r:,.1, I CllllnOt go back now and anal7se those reaenatioae on the epur ot the moiaent. but 1 ‘belieYe if the Senate had passed. the treaty v1 \h thea the other .:aembere of the teague vould baTe accepted them. We would b&Te ‘been. a member and perhape could have ade tke Leagu.e a veritable ud etronc organiseU011. Wllaon, bovever, wae uavlllln« to ba”f’e the Oonnaat reeubld. ttecl, with our reeenattone, to the poven that bad accepted U •• lt was a.t hl• own ia1i1teaoe. AD4 eo the great hoJ>• w.1 lost for a Ume. But 1, was not lo1t per-.aea\17, because there S.• no qw.eeUoa the experience thl’Ough whioh we then ·paaeed wa• ueed. to ad”f’eut:tace later. llooaeTelt •• A■1iatan’\ Seoreta17 of the laTT under lf1l1on, and IIQ.St ba·H gone through that -period in u • intelligent, iho\l&httul. manael’, •• many other• did who l1Te4 thro\lgh boih var,. When he va• Pretident in. the Second World Wa.r ancl agaia there vae the problem ot a world organisaUoa, JooteTelt handled \he pro’blea quite differentl7. O’bTiou1l7 ? bad pnfi\e4 by the 1•••011• of \he •rlier ••• • To 111••’•’•• loosnel t naae4 •• dele,ah• to ,ne San J’ranci100 Coaferenoe Senator Artlmr I. Vandea’ber1, the pr1ao1pal 1-publioaa lea4el” on. foreign pol107 ln the S.u.\e. Be broqht Senator Vu.denberc lak the aohal formulation of the Obarter of the United. lfaUon• 10 that the Sea’er became aa adYoca\e tor it rather than one left ouhlde a• Senator Lodge had been. John 1oeter D\ll.l••• another proalaeat Bepubl1oan lead.er la intemaUonal aotivitiee, and other•, were al•o brough\ lato the t,?Oo••• et fol”SltllaUon. In 1919 … 1920, the fight oTer the l,eago.e •• a liTe nbjeot 1n Waehlngton. I •• not to be a part of the goTel’11JNat until •117 7ear• later; I • • – 43 – was oal7 a rew.n.e4 partioipan.t of the war. and a young lavter. The d?’ba.b wa1 .? Bt”•a\ atruggle tor people’• mlnd.a and ,h1m:1ng. !ut after \ht clefeat of Qur partlcip&Uon 111 the Leag\le I doubt that eTen those who were the Tiotoz-1 had a teel11’« th•1 tad done well. ‘!’here wa, great 41eappo1n,aeA, on the par\ of those who felt as t clU .• Borah a!d l,oqe had. their Yliltery, ‘but what kind of victory, b11torioall7. was iU 1′ did not have pel’llanence la an att1rmat1Te aenae. One of U1e moat et:fectiYe Sen&tors ?lnet Wllaonc. waa J?ndepe of OoaneoUcut. I would BO dow and lhten to the clabat,s. Senator :Branclegee waa able in his •r•hallin« of reaaone v)q’ ve aho1al4 not go into the League. h.t vnat 1• Ma ]’)OtUion 1n h11to17 tor ha’Ylnc won? And Jorah d.14 not d4 ‘° hie sta-.n l>,- hi• oppoai Uoa. On U• oon\raq. fheae men von not because of oon’YlcUon. on the part ot the people lnlt becau• e ot uacertalnt7 about 001untting ouraelTea so tull7 aa Wilson withed • Ye renounced our leadership of a great cause. 3. ‘Phe Practice of Lav After Mr. Darlin,’°11’1 death in Jue 1920, Mr. hl.U.T1u1 and I coaUaue4 in aaeoa1aUoa a• 1 haw said until 1924. Mr. h.llhtul •• aa t.D411.atrloua la,qer. ex.bauaU'” 1n re■ea:reh, au. areful la :preparatloa. !tu-ouch ?• ne-.r praoUce an4 tbat ot Mr. ni.t.rliacton ln whioh he bad parUolpa.,ea, he ‘beca.a a an of ,unu1ual e,:perienoe. I •• and am ver7 foad. ot bi■ am ha•e good reaton to be cra\eful to him. He wa• alvet7a kind tc me and neTU” neglected an opportlUli ty • when I •• a JO’U« laqer, of ti.l:pinc •• in OJ’ V&7 he could. We a\qed in \he old btlildiJIC ot 11tth s,ree, tor a “hlle lnlt about 1923 mond. 1n\o the Phillip• hll41ag at lif\eeath and lt StNet,, lorUn,e,,. • ‘fhe r.,ract!.o• –..a, a general oi.,11 practice (“1th an ocoa1lonal forq on -, • • … – 44 – part 1».to aoJN criminal work) embncing probate. real eetate tn.nucU.on.1, dete••• of aegl1gence caee1, rent control -pl’Obleme, pe.rUcularlr 1aYOlTir>& the Alonso O. Jli•• properties, l”&l)Naetation of eo11e ot tbe mercantile · e1tebli11:uleAte like Juliue Garfinokel & Oo., real ••tate f1n• aad. a11 law. ?nce company. ·MT firat adllliniatraUve hearince came in oa■ee before \? l>ietrict of Columbia Rent Control Ooulsaion, vhioh grew out of the bouetoc couge&tion of the period. of the Jira\ World War. Mr. Sull1TIU1 alao did eou conde1m&Uon work in which he waa quite expert. N¥’ pn.cUce was reaeoaabl1′ eaUafactor., from a flu.noial atudpolat. Each year •v eo•• grov\b. ‘fhe oovae of eTeata 1ad1oate4 a nah.? d.evelopmeat ot a local practice draw fro• the coallllll1t7, a.related to Vathlagton as the capital. Du.ring the early twenties the taao1ae Albert B. :fall-la.van t. Dohenr oil pro1ecutions took place in the Supreme Oourt of the Diatrtct of Oolwabla. Some proainen\ Washington laWJer• partlo1psted, 1nolud.1ng 1rank •? Bocaa. and l ‘bel1••• Will.lam E. ?. A Bev Mexico laqer, whoae name eeoapea •• !no11paoA pel’hape, cu• lad u4 aoU’fflJ’ aided 1a \he ti.et••• ot Mr. l’all. So•• tear• later 1 w.a to ••• aea’ben of the Fall faall.7 la Saa• 1•?. a.114. later 8’111 vhen I •• Solicitor hnel’al Mrs. J’all oue to ‘” •• on 1-ehalt I wat aero•• \o the oourtroom durlz,,g part ot the trial•. 111 the eame court I bad tiret heard George lfbarton Pepper argue, 4etend1ng the 1ecieral l3a .. ball Leap• againat \he olar«e ot violation of \he an’1-tn.1t la.vs. ‘-‘hi• caae tu.nlshed the precedent \be Sa.preme Oovt tollovel at \he lad tera (1953). Mr. Pepper •ie a ?:rllliant argwn&t l thought, \holJCh -r own • vtev of the legal question 1• that the court• made • que1’1onble deciaioa. • – 45 – Du:ring:,th.11 A$rlier period in We.11h1ngton t became e. member of the Knig?t9 of Colu.mbu1, and 111 1923 or 1924 ‘Naa Grand Knight of Potomac Oou-.. ctl;;?fUlignlng when % left Washington ln the IUUI’ of 1924. Am 4uriac 111 . earfl•tt 7ears or aa90ciaUon with Mr. Sul.11ftn he waa (tuite actin in the Na.ti.onal Catholic AeaooiaUon ot Yo’W’JC Men. I helped hi• in thte work. !he organization went ClUI of existence some years ago but was one of tu earlier lay auooiationa for Oathol1o )”o\lng people on a mi,tional scope. 4. !he llaA Oa.ee ·On· reewning practlee in 1919 I ‘became aaeoo1ated 1:n. an uuaual •••• ttanc ·Sane Wan. a youn, Cbineae a\udent iu thle cou».11’7• waa i.ndloted tor the arder of three fellow coul17aen who bat charge cf the Ohineae 14uat1onal Minion bou1ecl oa lalol’&JJlll load near ConneoUcna\ Avenue. ‘!’he Ua1\e4 States bad been awarded a sv.’b1tanttal 8UJll a, ind.amt \7 to be paid b7 Chiu. • ae e result of the :Boxer l’ie’bellton. A.a a ge1\ue of frlendahtp to Ohl• we refused to accept the aonq. A.a a return ge1ture of friendt11Mp · China e1\ahliahed ‘Ul.i,1 Chine•• lM.u.caUoa.al Miuton to educate ChlneH toun« un ia America. The aiuion vat in oharge of Dr. ‘1’. ‘P. Wene. Mr. o. lL Hale wat ,reasurer. Mr. Wu w.1 1eoreta17. Perhape U •• the o’1ler waJ’ aro’Utl a• to \b.e latter two genUaea. 1, &D7 rate, \hay all l1n4 in a boa•• oa Xaloraa load, and at this parUoular time bad DO aenants. !hey admialatered the ‘bulineu of the m11t1on, a.Di bad a aube\anUal depoait of a1as1oa funds in \bet Rigga llat1onal llank. Wan wa.e not a •”‘-dent under the aupem don of the 111 u1on. He Yas l1Ting in Jew York bat he va• a friend of member, of the 111H1on. Be visited Washington in Janua1’1. 1918 and wae seen at the 111aa1on bo,iee late • • • – 46 – on a Wftllelie-7 aftenooa when e.no\her 10\\DC Ohlae•• fr1e:n.4 of the 11la11oa v.bo i1Te4 aoJto•• ,Ile ,,reet oau lo laqutre it hi cov.lcl ••• Dr. Voac. Waa, \he aooue4. aa,vere4 llMt d.oor am tal4 Dr. Vonc •• no, la. 0a \hit tollevlzta ‘1i.4a7, ,tb11 patleaa retume4 \e lb.e 111111011 ho1He ucl ao’1oe4 .• .,..,. paper• ltlng a’bo•• and too aooalNla\ed. 1111.k bo\Uea. tookla, la a vlD4ow u.nrder a 1bai1, he ■av a bod.7 • \be tleor. !he polloe were oalle4 ali4 411- 00Teretl that all. \lire• aem’ber• of the a11alon had. been ahot u4 ha.cl b••• 4-4 for••• U•. Wu •• -.a••• of. t!utir amtera, the •tlTe a,onbe4 ?, the ao-reJ’JWleat belag ,u 4ea1n ‘° oaah a ff Te tlle•tallA 4ollar ohllok oa \he •••l•• t’IUllll.a vhloh tlle ae••na•, -14 he la4 foJ’lei. .l ouok of that uout ••• t.a taot, pnaealed to ‘• ll1C1 laUoDal B&Dk on ‘ftair84a71 the 481’ ‘belwffn \he Weclaetcla, •nUoaet and. the 11’14&7 w.ben the ‘bodiea were d.1100·.-.red.. !here •• t.d.enuncauoa of tu 7ou, •• vbo J>N .. ated the cheok a• Yan, ,he brother •of Wu. ‘1’he cbeok •• aot bonoN4 beoa11.11 ot laok ot tv.fftcteat 14en\1- f1ct.t.loa, al while Vu wa1 1n \he •• o•• ot ,11e ottlc•r• oalle4 \lie alaaloA hou• o• the pboa• am noe1•• ao re-,oue. •• ••• ,, .. it •• ,ILffel’ apia •••• ‘b7 ..,-.u wbo •••’lftel al ,ae \rial, lnlt the ••’It, lt•riJW the lee•• •t. ! .. WoJtC – te,ooo,• we la Ille o:beck’book la the alaeloa Jan••• Soae of the llan4m Uq •2P•rt1 •”rilnatecl ‘the V1″ltla« \o Waa. Wan vaa ‘8.ken la\o ov.•to47 in Bev ?one and. broqht to Waahiacto• when he •• hel4 taooamalioado la the 014 .Davq Hotel for a’bou\ a week while the ••• •• ‘belq thol’O’IIClal7 1aTetUp\e4, vi\h off1oer• froa ‘1• to \lu Cl’l8•’1oniac Wu. A\ \he eDll of a Yeek be •• lake \o \he al11loa llou• where \he Olia• ba4 OOG\U”NCl and. 11:-,, “P all alghl, followlac vhloh he aa.4• a 4e\aila4 ooate111oa • • • • 47 – Mr. Jamee A. 01 Shea, a la,i;yer of re?u,e wboae practice wae then largel7 criminal. aakecl •• \o help defend the oa■e. vhioh I dtcl. Mr. o• Shea died onl7 a tev 7ear11 a«o at about ae-vent7-tive years of age, M1hl7 respected. ‘b7 th6 bar and \he oovh. He 4efende4 perha-pe sore bomlctde caeea than all o·ther lawyers in Washin«ton put together during his ,tCtlTe life. Be vae lrieh, likeable, diligent and fa1 thful to hit obligation, to his el1enh. As a 7oungater 11.t the bar I he.d enliated hit help in the HattlJI.U, ea,e preTiou1l7 aentioned.. A fev year• later he allked me to help hia 1a thi• ,Waa ca••• I worked pereonall1′ on the caee for about f’1Te 7esra. Wan’• meagre h.ndt fro• his fam.17 in China were all absorbed in prtnUn« costs alld \be like, so there va• na fee. Te\ he had some of the 1101t eaineut laW7er• in the ooun,%’1’ on hit brief 1n the h:preme Oou.rt. L -wa• convicted in the trial court, a.nd hiss conTiotion was affirmed on appeal by- the Oourt ot Appeal• of the District of Ooluabia. 53 App. D. O. 200. 289 Jed. 908. Our principal contention was that the trial court should b&Te held ‘\he confeseion to be inYoluntacy and therefore 1u.dmi•dble in. mdence. Inatee.d the trial court. affirmed b7 the Court of Appeal•, had left \he que•Uon of voluatar1u•• to the Juey. au:u1 peraltted the• ‘° hear the conf eetion read. to the•. ‘1’he 9irp’Nllle Court gr&nted. certiorari and un1uiimoull7 reYeree4 in an opinion b7 Justice l3randeia, holding th.et the confeesion \l&S involuntacy and should ba.’9’e been exclude4. m •. Uni\ed statea. 266 u. s. 1. Mr. John w. Da•1• be0&.118 aHociate4 in th@ case in the Su:pre• Court, as did aleo Mr. Frederic McXenne7, a leading Washington lsqer, and Mr. Willia• a. Denn.ta, vho wat then a prominent Wa•hington lawyer in interna- • tional. affair• and later preliden\ of llarlbam College in Indiana. – 48 – !he oata waa argued. 1n the So.preme Oourt in ,he aprtnc of 1924. but vat ‘ao\ 4eot4ec1 util \he fall. la \he mean.UM, 111 Auptl, I ba.d JDOftd to lev Jhii:doo • . •tu oi’iaea were n.o\oriou.• all!d ,he oaae ‘becaae a ta110111 one. Mr. Johll L. Laake7 •• the United sta,ee A\torne71 a tine laV7er and a man of character. !be lH1ate1 United Statee Attorney, “‘bo did ao1t of the work on \he ca••• va• Mr. J3ol1. I. Laws, wbo 1 e nov the able and :reapectel OM.et J’Q4ce of the Distrtc, Oovt of the United. Statea tor the l>id:riot of Oolubia. Mr. O’Shea combtoted. aa e:roelleat cn■e-eaatnat1on of the polio. off1oiala, \ma llakii,c the reoord oa the ‘baaie of vbieh ‘• oonviotloA •• later ••t aaide. Ione of the otticen felt they ba4 coerced Wan, aad there • w.s ao conoeuion of p?aloal &11\reau.en\, except, ot eourae, theft wae the tnthful teatlaoq ot \he officer• about ,he all-.alcht aenion. !her explain.ad ln detail the 11etbode u•- in the 1nTettl.itaUon, including the tollo1’1nc of lea4e and th.ea coalag back to Wu. u4 queettoata« bia b. re- 1&7a abou, vbat they Ux,v.p, la4 ooovrei. OYes• a pel’1o4 of da.7• the -•1 4ue•Uom.a.1 a1■,111ecl a CJ”Nt veal’lapowa cbaraotel’. Van.•• Nal• v•r• brougbt to hta. BoweYer, h4t w.1 not well. n.tfenac ffM lnteatinal clitftcul t7. Ae •ooa as the oonfe18loa waa obtained. •• he •• put ia Jail, the • doctor tor the lna.te1 later ,a•t1t1ed., Wan•• ta a wealceaed con4111oa, not through undemouriahaen\ but ‘beoauee of thl• lnteaUnal trouble. 1 oould not eq \bat \he NTelation of the taotioa uel ‘b7 the polloe ca\’leed U’I’ public feel.lag ot outra«e. ‘Phe colQIIUllt7 proba.”bl7 tel\ \hat Waa vat guilt7. ‘lhe rtndicat1oa of our poai tloa vUh re1p•ot to \he coateHioa dld not come utll year■ ha4. inte”en.ed. !he crl••• were ooamttt-4 ia Juu• • – 49 – &l’J’, 1919, and the hpreme Oourt dec1•toa vat aot util October, 1924. JuaUee lln.meia •? 1ear1 later told u that ,. ha4 expected ht• opinoa wouJ ba!• had. a grea’8r tntluenee oa ‘h• Mtllo«1 ••ed. ‘b7 tu p•lloe •·’– he teared had been the caee. 1 atayed vi th the oaae con.1te.nU7 un\11 after the e,rguaeat ta the h.pNJDe Oovt in the spring ot 1924, altho?h at different ti•••• a.• I •v• inc:Uqe.\ed, & muaoer of otb.e:r lawyera were connecte4 with it. The peU Uoa for certiorari -.1 1)1′-pared alao8′ •atirtl.7 b7 Mr. Dem.iia a.nd .,.-,. vilh a final nn-lew ot it b7 Mr. Mclezme7. n aa.4 alto the appro•l ot Mr. loba V. Dane• office. When tu petl Uon “‘1111 tiled Mr. De.Tie biaeelt •• la Lodon, and hl• JIAU •• atd.ecl later.· · fhe hpr•• Oourt then. tat ln the Oapl tol. X re11eaber Tel7′ deflaltelt du.rill& Mr. MolCcume7′ • ftae arcument vhen he reached the tao ts abou, Van. belag kept uder queetion.in,: all atpi la the bouae where the holllcld•• had ooou.ned.1 Mr. Jv.sUoe Sol.lie• leaned forward ad aaked. if be had heard 00:rreo\ l.7. Mr. McXeanq replied that he had and ,hat it wa1 after thi• that lfar.FJ:lad. conte•••• Ml’. luUoe Bolaee then leaut back and eatt a\11lll,l7, •• it \o hiaaelf • ‘V•ll1 ,hat 1 • enoqh for •· • ‘lb.eH were the til••t JvAlolal. vord.• of encov.n.ge•nt we had bad for ftn 7ean. Mr. Dennie, who 4i’f’ide4 the arguaen, for Wan. with Mr. Mox.an.,, wa.e aa exoepUonallJ fine la’qer and persoa. Mr. lle.n.• wa• viUing to &l”C\le the ease. but I thought \hi1 110uld be m>.viee ‘beaauee, no\vithetand1nc hl• CHAI qaal1Ue• aa aa aclvocate, l wanted the oat• uped b1’ thoae vbo lacl \eooae moN lliltl’oughlf aoquainte4 with it. When llu ,., J>e-triecl after the NTenal ot b11 con’fictioA 1>1 the Su- • pre111e Oourt, Kr. 0 1 Shea •• out ot the oaH. Mr. lfll ton. I. Laa\ert, a – 50 – prom1Mnt Wa.shtngton la1’7er, defended Wan at the second trial. l was in Santa le, and came back e.t Mr. ta.a’bert•a request to co YbPt 1 could to help. ‘l’hia aeooAd trial reeulted. in di.agreement on the pa.rt of ,he Ju:ry. Wan was tried tor the Ud.rd time ,.dth the same result; that h, the Juey could not agree. Tb@ government then realized they would neY1tr be abl• to oonTii\ b1a “‘1th the eonfessien no longer e…-aila.ble. and nolle-prosaed the case. Father 0 1 0allagbian, of St. Peter’s Parish, viaited th? j?il and bee.11me quite intere1ted 1n Van, who “18.I not a Oatholio though a OhrhUan. rather va, coAvineed Wan was innocent. l n.e-ver vas oertain of thb. I vae oonv-inced he ebould not be oonTioted on the basis of the coateaslon ud tmt he was entitled to a trial on \he adaiasible evidence alone, vhiob wa• largely o1roUlllStant1al. • I 1aw and talked with Wan a na’ber of times and he never gaTe the slightest indication or intimation of guilt, s.nd if he was ‘1’11lt7 he was a ver, • very oonaummate actor. Yet he did not ieem to be aeting. It was !l strange caue. OTer thfl 7eare I have heard from Wan from time to time. He f’ina.117 returned to China ud 1• ,here now. I had a letter from him thera w1 thin recent years. 5. Departure for Santa -,e In late winter or early spring of 1924 pulmonary tuberaul.oais, fortunately diaoovered in 1 ts early sta?e. brough’\ about a detini te eha.fi8’9 in the direotion of atT life • .t’.otb.er bad oome to Waah1ngton as a re1nu t of the following oireumstancee. My ehter iannah w.s here attend.in? !rin1 t7 Oollege. It va• -planned for lfT aiater Agnes also to enter ‘l’rinit7 the f’ollowiq ?ar. Leo waa at Georgetown Univerdt,- and Joe and I vere li’Tin? here, and WUl also at • – 51 – U••• la Tlew of \he fald.1,- aUu.atloA Mother 4eo1d.ecl \o alee a hoae in. Waald,n,gtoa fol’ a tl• tor u ell? lo, with Joie and Sarah. vho were .th•• vi t? Iler 1? ,11e 014 ·•- t.n ••• Mother oa• ‘° Wathlncloa an4 we ll’f’ed . 011 18\h Stt-.. t aeer Colubla load.. !late •• ta 1921 1f umo17 aene• ooi-noU7. !he f0:llowug 7ear•, vi \h ao JBaAT of lhe fuil7 again tac\he tall• bouehol4 — l>wce and Alber, w’lll.d dop off to ‘q4 fro• ••• am lew Tork — were crowded oaea la the lite er \h• fallll7, am eomewhat phyaioall7 crowed too la \? •4••’ olt7 4velllng. lor •• 1, •• a period of oollece e4.uoa . ·. ? . . ‘ ·. . ‘ . : . aa4 ki•recl aoUYlU•• tor tu ao•t part. I nppoae thl• •• J)•?•· the . eeatral pba■e of •••• year,, thotch there ver• iate.reeUag other aotlrlU•• alto for Ibo•• not a\tu.41ac oollep. It M,u].4 ao, be ••7 tor • to reoaptue tho•• JMI’• oa paper in an adequate •••1″• it I co,ald ao eo at all • the capitol and beoav.•• of it■ 1>al”lt• and ‘beaut7, 1’8 ecenel’J’. and &l.eo lta · arlceta. Ad.. of cou••• •• alva7a, ehe lo•ed to Jake a bo■e for \he taaU,­ a.lUl to do all •• oould. to help a..a4 eaco,u”&p \he cb1ldrea 111 lhe1r dlY•r•• llT••• w1 in tbt •••r,;.ud.tac J)robleu to lte •’ t.114 adJut.-.ta to be a4e. •• tor the Nat of u•• opiaion• aighl d.ltfel” a’bov.t lbon 1’9&”• !h97 ww• ao, emooth on•• tor •oh of •• in all ntpeole, wt the7 ven aa ’11e whole 7•r• of o•a\1aua« cleYelopmeat, aad., I ehoul.4 •UJ>Po••• ueN oaee la \he faall7 lit•• ‘b7 u4 larca. ‘Whan the break O&Jl8 1• my health Dr. Slerlla.t iuttln. an •1aeat clootor, at,er a o.ntul 41apolis, advieed. • to le&ft Vashiq.toa U4 U.Ye tol” a vblle a\ Saruao oio A-ehnille. Ia the aeaavhlle, am l)edlag other Jlaa•, l •• at Valier lee4 Bo1pilal foia a week or eo. Mr. hlli’f’llll, ·., olo•• • aaaooia\e aD4 pod trlem, •de arl’lln.-en\a with • abo11.t -., 1>racttoe, and • • • – 52 – I ‘#ent to Asheville. hoping to be able to return to Washington in six months or so. The ailment wae fortunatel1 in 1 ts early st.age. · While in A8h•T1lle, Mr. Dewa, with whom I had worked eo lon« on th♦ JaA oaee. sqgeated the aivi aa.bili t7 of -rq not re\urn1ng to Wa.1hington ‘bu. t of ta.icing advantage- of an opportunity in Santa Fe, llT”w Medco. Santa Fe teemed very remote, l knew ver,- little about it. but the rell.N.lt wae that I beG&me an auooiste of Mr. William J. :Barker there. )1r. B8.rker ’48 Mr. Denn1:i • brother-in-law, and a partn•r ot Judge Laughlin, sn elderl7 former Juritt vho had practiced in Santa le for man7 7ears and wa, aos\ highly respected. Judge La.uchli:n had ,n1ff1’red a stroke end was in hls last 1llne1e. Barker had vrUten to Mr. Deuh to keep on the lookout for a 70unger law- 7er wbo might be villin.g to Join hb in Santa Fe. Dennis, knowing ,q eU\lation, suggested the opening to me. So in Augutt, 1924, I c?me through Washington for a last v11it with the tam111 en rout? to Santa Je. nev?r expeottng to returu to Washington to li Te. !fhe f1.u:ail7 had moYed out to Invernets be7ond the Dieilriot line in Maryland, into a 110re aUl’aaUTe place than the 13th 3treet house. During this short visit on the way to ‘f.11’ n•w home in Santa Fe I was pleased to btt able t.o see Mi<!! Apes Lana vho was to become ·my wife in 1929. The AeheT1lle months were !)leaaa.nt an.i helpful. l made progren at the little Sanatorium there under the care of Dr. Minor and his aasooiatea. ‘M.a?lJ’ year, later Agnes and I, driving :t’rom Washt.nato11 to Bome, “‘•nt \,7 Aahe”t’ille and I tound the old 1San11 deeerhd, overgro11a and run down. ‘fb.ie wa1 1n 195(). as I reoall the year, when we were driving do\Tn for the marriace of Albert and 11111an • • • • – 53 – ?nta. le Yearg, l924-l?3a Santa le proved. not only a health-restori.ng ‘but a lovel7 place to ltve. Before long I began to worlt at the oft1oe pa.rt ot each day. Gradually the work da7 beaame e. normal one. I •tqed at first. for about six veeke, at 9wuaount Sanitarium, conducted br Dr. Frallk Mera. I became friends vtth two other 10ung men th?re, !Cffler e.Dd McDowell, and thn three ot us soon rented a house 1n tnn 1:1here we kept house. I was never hotp1 t1’lhed. after this al.though during ‘1117 bachelor life I did live at s,. Yincent’s SAD$tor1.u for a vhile 1Jl a noa-patient ,tatu.s. !he good Sietere had eo■e rooms aTatl- 1.ble for a tew. in the building at the Ne.r of the Oathed.ml. !his p-rove4 e. con:.-enient al!d. pleau.nt place indeed. 1. Santa Je and Its Va1• Santa :re was then a eolmltlDi t7 ot about 11,000 1nha’b1tatllt!!. end as l • well knew is beautifully situated on a plateau acuae S,900 feet 3’bove $ea level -. with awl hills near and, farther north.ea.at, the great &.n.gre de Cristo Ba?e eloping s.gr;.inl’t the alt7 upward to oTer 12.000 feet. !e70%¥1 are the still higher ‘l’rucba•.. !o ,he mrthweai a.t a far,hel” distance h the Jemez Bange, a blue border on tha ho:rbon. Saata Fe waa the firat capital in e.JJT pe.rt ot wba.\ 1a now the Uni tecl Stale• .. II had. been an Indian oap1tal and the capital of a 9pM.ish Pren.ace before tt-.4!1 founding of our or1c1,nal colonies in the Jla.tt. In the famou• el!lpedition. of Cabeza d.e Vaoa \he Span1eh had reached lh1s area earl7 in the 16th centur,, crottdng the southern part of the continent from l’lorida. !ht! climate ts superior, the ataosph.ere usue.117 clear• fairly tree ot moiatu.re or dust except iometime• in the spring the vinds do e\ir ,ip a Ter, fine dust. there are gorgeoua nights and days – sun1et1 and sunrise• • • • • – 54 – ‘l’he weather it cold in thft winter and in the ,waae:r 11 oool ln the eftninc. Vnall1 tnov co••• earl7 aatt. l’e•1•• all winter, with 11′.ae 110un.ta1n1 ?eanl.7 lad.a. t ••• alwa.71 re11eJ1bered \he beauty of 111T Tel’J’ tlr.t i.111pre1atoa1, vhea Mr-: aa4 Hre. larker•’• in the •••Aln« at?. where the Saat•t• train pauaei. The a11″ wa1 the cool air of the nigh.ta of late Augu.9′. .A.1 ve ol1Jlbe4 from the 11 ttle town of 1,a,q 1l? \he wimlag roa4 to the higher plateau. the a are seemed ‘brighter than l bad eYer 1eeni and as we d roTe on. atop ti….plateau, the dark hllla about were like low 1oue17 fooUnc the creat aoual&ln• ‘cvard whloll we clro••• leaYlng thee ureaohed, howff•1″• l>•? ton, the \ow 1taelf •• a\ band, aeatled there•• 1, hacl. ‘been oYer tti. oentute,. the Sangre de Orieto 110utatna are eo callee\ \ecau1e at IW!l4.ova a ‘beauUtul N4 clow ia often \ht’Ovn back an4 91>reada oTer th•• to tlMt ea.at u4 norU1ea8’ ot Seate. le. !hi, i• panicul.11rl7 l,eauUful and YiTid when 1110w 11•• on the 110untain1. At the first SpaniaJide oaae up from the eouth a.Ad reaohed. the plateau \hla crlaaon glow led \hea to e.zolata, ‘Saner• 4• Ori ,to• – blood. of Chrl at. !here •• been a nco•••ful effort oYer the ,-n \ops-•••”• \ta. ulqu• ai-ohUeo’h.re of ,M area, and the adobe oon1\no’1on. ‘l’h1• 11 a n.riatlon of the Spaniah. ll beC&lle known at the Santa J’e at7le vh1oll, while baaloall7 Spani•h. 1• dmpler. !he Cathedral, hoveYH’, ia not of thi • aroh1 teoture. l\ wa• ‘bull, by the fu,oua Aroh’b1 abop 1 ean llaptiete Le.mr, vbo v,.1 a henobaan, tbe h4tro of Yllla Calher’ • ht,)h Coat■ Jo \he 4nlab1•• lfhea l va• there \be Arobbi •hop vaa Al ‘ber\ fbo•• l>aec•r, a l’Tanol•- ca.a. The J’ranei scan a, who ha.Ye had a large part in the Me tory- of the • • • • 55 – Southveat, came with the Spanish qgnQ)rl.Uadpfftl a.nd hi.Te remlned. ,U, an ‘h• pl’leat• a, \he Oa\bed.ral • vhioh 1• the center ot relt11oua aatiYlV la Sa.a\a 7e. ArohbS.ahop Daepr va• a aimple am. bea-.tttal epirtt. known to h11 J)eepl• a• father Albert. It we.• -, hoaor to become one of hh legal adnaere; and after h11 death 1 bad the reapoaeibill t7 of pro’baUn« hi• will. 1 shall neTer forget him. am I feel that none who lmew him, of wlateYH’ religion. ahall •••r forge\ hla o:r think of him vltll011t tlankfulne•• tor hi• ceo4 ••-.:,le and t.napiratloa a• a true ‘Pri•at ot God.. Death oaae n44eal7 to hla at be opeaa4 a vron.g 4oer fro• a eul.11 •tnet and fell lalo a lovaw.l’d •’-11″WA1′ vbea he expected to find. a noor at the lnel of ta 4oor. fhe collll\Uli t7 retains a great deal of the ol4 reltctoua custom• ot Spala ud. Mexico. the feast of Oorpua Ohriati 1• oelebratacl ‘b7 a p:rooeelioll through the atreets, with the Arohbilhop oar17ing the lu.ohar11t. there are pauaes at epeoial.17 prepared. 1hrlne1 and altar• along the rou\e where \he Arohbi•bop bl••••• ,he people and the7 kneel ln vor•hip of ‘• Beal Pr••••oe. I shall not go oa to deaorlb• other n,,oae and celebra,1oa1 beaau•• the7 haTe been ‘• nbJeo, of better pee tllaa ld.ne, 1AC1u41ac Uao1e of ou goo4 friend. Buth Laqblla Ale:zaue:r aa4 of Pau Borp.a. 2. the PraoUoe of Lav in Bev Muioo Mr. :Barker •• ,he eoa-la-lav of Ju.d«e Lavahl.tn and bad ade hi• oareer ln l’Wlce J.aughltn.• • office. He bad gone lato the Southweat on work ot ,he Vn1tecl Slate, Lan4 Office. l belieTe, aD4 though a naUTe of Vaah­ iqton decided. to lake hie life ln Bev Mexico. !he people of coune eleet ,11e1r pu’bU.o oftlclal.• in 1.,, Merloo, ln oontra■, with ‘h• Dlatnot of Columbia. Barker liked poli tlcal act1vU7 • – 56 – • He became State Chairman of the De110c:raUa Part7. After Rooru1Tel ,, • eleoUoa a.nd 111’ re\u:m ‘° Wa•h1ngtoA he •• appot11te4 lhli ted State• Atton.e7 alld. &ften.rd.a va• eleoted Jwlge of \he ftrat Ju41o1al Diatrlot wht.oh ta””. .· clu4ed Santa 1e Oou.’7. lie died onl7 thie lat\ 7ear (1953) after to•• 7•l”t of bad. heal th. • • Ke waa an exoelleat ,r1a1 lawyer. We oo?leaenhd each ether. becauee I think I w.a a better ottlce than trial laqer. Oar practice waa 1a\ereat- 1r.ig u4 ftrle4. VS.thou\ 1peotaltsa’10A1 whloh would. b&Te bee 4itt1C\llt in a amall ooll&ldt7, alt!:louch Santa re aa the 0&1)1’-l drew more lepl •* tMA otherwl•• wo1114 ha.Te ‘been the oaH. 0117 l)ftlolice includ.d a geo4 teal of \Ula vork. ottea lnTolTla« sui 111 te (l’lllet U Ue. We bandl• aleo eo.b.•?• II1 Rk? onr earlf’ land. 1ru.t1 -.de by the ltnp ancl Q;tleea• of SpalA, inYOlTl•« pro bl••• of enoroaohllent an4 oontllota of t1 Ue. We vere attorne7• for one lal”ge land gn.nt owed b7 a llew York family. ‘l’hh crant ba4 told on 1 t but at t.be U•• I wae there the gold. could be reco-re:red 01117 1>7 aa expenein plaoer proo••• vhloh vat U1tprofi table. Ollr praoUoe alao 1ncll14ed to•• orlalnal ca•••• partlC’Glarl7 aeTeral latereatiac hold.oide oa•••· ‘fbere wen al10 vlll and. pro’bate Miters. lfaen 1 went to Saa.la 1• tbat part of the atate va, Bes,\1.bllou. the DemooraUo .Party kept p11tttnc up the beet tlolcet• awlla’ble tn etate, G01Ull7 u.d 111Ualoipal ele0Uon1, anll grad.ua.117 ‘becau the •JorU7 party in Santa J’e County. DaTe ObaTes. the 70,mger brotber of S.utor l>eani• ObaTes1 waa eleote4 MJ’Gl” of Santa J’e, aDd he am hh council appotate4 .. cU7 attornq. l wa1 called upon to ad.Tise the oounoil about all Ml’II of queaUona, but the wrlc vae no’\ parUcularl7 burden.some. I enJ07e4 \hie tirat goTel’llJMntal poa1’1oa in the ano1ent oi t, of Santa Je. ‘l’here were • • • – 57 – able lien on the olt7 ooucU. One vat a l)l”Ollinen\ dootor in the oo-.alty, :-:? -, Dr. ltobel’t o. ll”Owa. ·Sa.Ai& re cUd IIO\ ba”f”e publio ovaerthlp of uUll Ue■ ‘bv.t oouoil was 11e17 •oh ooaceraed vith the v.Uli\7 rate,. The eleotrio power coapaJ’ll’, pr1Yatel7 owned, vas thfl principal uUlit7. Water vae n.pplled b7 a public enterprise – from a reaenoir fed ‘by lhe Sant• le iln:r la the 11Dun-tain1. Ja:rker alld I opeae4 a branoh lav offloe ia ‘laoa. ‘We placed JloJd, iwUer ln cha.re• lh•r•. lie vat a JelU’.IC •a who had ooae o’t:lt for hi• heal th aJ.14 wt th whoa l had. beooae well aoct:11&1alea. Be vat a gn4uate of ti••• parUcularlT vh•• ,here va, a tena of oovt. tater …, Yo’WIC81′ ‘bnther Leo, after hi• graduatloa la lav at Waehlncha & Lee Um.Yerlit7 • .,.. • to lew Mexico and Joined the offioe in ‘l’aot. Leo did not a’-7 Tel7′ lone. Jeu.tler. howe•er, baa :remained. In time he eeTered bit connecUoa vi th u1 aJ:114 went oa n.h oWA. Be baa ‘beoo•• a well kaowa and fine ot.Usea ot \hit !here vae a fair muiber of laW7er1 la Su.\a le, ba\ the ,ova •• not tYenrowded, cou14ennc ,bat 1t wa1 the oou,7 ••’ am s-.,. oaplu.J.. fhere wen about ,wea\7-fiw laV7ere lbaH. 1A \bo■e yean. Soae were ••17 able. ‘?hey worited hard at \heir proteaalo,i notvUhatan41nc the pleasant aocial life and the ao\iYUtea attributable lo the oountr7, vi\h i\1 ln4iaa pueblos and their danoea, and the old Spui■h ou1tome. During .., laa\ 7ear in Santa Ye I arpecl tn’eral intereatiq oa1e1 iA the Su.pr•• Court of tl» atata. One ,., a fa■cinaUnc oaee fro• a legal etandpoiat. Attar her )m.ebancl had beea oonnolecl of eeooacl degree IRU’4e1’ a – 58 – • lady eame to u1 one day to appeal th$ case to th(‘! Supreme Court of the State. The aocuwed lived in a Yer, re–,te part of Rio Arriba Oount7 at a . high A.ltUwle. During e. very cold da7 he hld dr1TtU1 w1 th a friend into a oommul t7 some miles from his home, in the high oount17 of the ‘l’:rucbe.s Mountains. Another mn vho lived in tm same area had ts.ken u-o ?’1th them and. e.ll started baok homeward together, traTeling the snow co’f’ered roe.de iza a sleigh drawn by two horses. • • At the ator7 ca.me out later the •other man” be«an to climb out of the rear of the sleigh and walk, and taua alo,ited up the homeward Journey-. Night vaa comin& on. ‘fhe accused becaae 1ape.t1ent and told hia th.&7 were go1ng to freese to death 1t the7 didn’t get on home and if be got off a«ain th.et would Juat go off and leave him. It was bi Uerl7 cold and. there waa evidence at the la.ter ttial that when the surrl•ors reached home the7 were pa.rU.all7 froa\’bi tten. The nex.t dq tb.e United. Sta.tea mailman travelling that route found the body of tb:• other man in the mow. face doWll along the tide of the l”oad, dead. Hit ‘tnok:1 in the snow indicated he had walked about a IDile before he fell down and apparently f:rtne to death. The acouaed va.1 oonrloted of eeoond decree mrd.er on the theo17 that he had abamoned the deceased and left hi• to die. In the S’1pl”eme Court, I took the position that the trial court erreci in ta111nc to inetr11ot the Jury on anelau.ghter, although defense oounael bad not requested the inlltruotion. We aleo B.rgued that in aq event ‘\he e’f’idenoe ’49 so ucertain that the Jul7 could not U7 beyond a reaeonable doubt a crime bad been oomml tted rather than that death waa due to the cold. ‘l’hel’e was DO mortal wound of aq sort. ‘?here was a little bruise on the • • • – 59 – deceaeed 1 • face• which might have be?n e&ueed b1 hh :tall. and. there were tozae abnaion• on hit ahin which might ba’t’e beea due to hie getting ln al14 out or \he be.ck of ‘\he 1leigh. After the case VtH brieted 1n the Supreae Oou1″\, another ca•• involYl? a 11.S.l.ar quettion as to a.n inatnction on -.nalaqhter, oric1nati.ng ia aaotber part of the state, vat clecicled by the Supreae Coun adverael7 to our contenUon. I than ooanalcated wUh ooun,el ta \he other caae, explained the aitu&Uoa. and atJced that if he filed a •Uoa for rehearing would he Jllind if I helped bi.a brief \he qu••Uon. ‘fhe court grant.a. a rehearin, in the other •••• ohan«ed. its Tiew■ oa the legal quet\1011, ••’ ali4e \he con-rictioa, aad reun4ed the oa1e fo1′ a n.,, ,rial. !hen in our oa•• the oour\ decided tba, tha evidence w.a tn- 1uftio1,u,t to eata.’bli•h a orlae and ordered the e.ooueecl released on that gro\UM\. ‘l’he cout no doubt believed the deceaeed. bad frozea ‘° death and •• llO’ killed b7 a:117 aot of o-ur client. I have pY•ll the for•goi?g froa recolleoUon. Since <l.otnc ao I ha.Te found the oi talion• of the two oaaea. !he •other ca••• 11 reporte4 •• §ta,, T. IU.u.. 36 llJ. M. 284. 13 P. 2ml 883. •eu.r• case 1• reporW a• Sta)• •• :Btra. 31 I. M. 319, 14 P. 2114 434. la \11.e ume cov.ri llaat ,-.ar I presante4 Uw. ca•• iuol ‘ring t,be U tle \o om of the bi? l&Dcl gnm\a, a oonteat which grew out ot overlappiq olal•. lt was a TH’7 complicated. C{Ue•tion peoul1ar to the countq. ‘!’be deoiatoa 1• report• 111 ,laqtgqp. •• hJ.logp•ft 38 llJ. M. 211. 30 P. am 179. on rehearing a.O’er rq departure. I also arped and lost a case 1aY01TlZIC the con1Uh.Uonalit7 of a p.toliae tax 1ape•e4 ‘b7 the c1’7. ‘.Pb11 appellate won: •• vUhout the help of a juni’br • – 60 – • t os.nno\ 1a7 I found appellate vork lllOre int?r,eti!lR than trial•• bl).t • • I did f’lnd it easier. fhere’ • nothlnc quite a• latereatlng a• the ,rial ot a case, which’ 1 oone14er more diffioul\ tor a lawyer than moat appillilte 11Uggt1on. A good. trial la\i/7er ll’WI\ potteH 9011e qualitie• oTer ·and.· a’beTII tho to J1eeded b:, r111 appellate laqer. He mu1t project hb poai tioa aoroet th6 footlights. ae it were. to a JuJ7, which ie different from presenttn& legal arguments \a other laW7era who have beco111e Judges. A1 IBQ\ter• tu.med out, althouch I encaged in a •tc\l1t1oant awaber ot \rials, I ha.Te done much more appellate work. la the appellate lltl&&Uoa •. 1 handled tor the pvez•uent I 9-lva,• ba4 able a■1liatant,. !he aaout of original work varied with d.ifferent oa••• and cl1tfsrent ,tatt■• Oral arsumenta became pentull7 perbApe the met lntereaUn,r part of mt oon.tnlnltioa and this, wbateTtn’ el•• a1ght ‘be said of it, waa ‘lfll ow • As to taelm.ique in oral ar«ument. Jline went through change. Ueual.17 I wo,ald no, :teel safe, and ,ht, included. oe.aes in lower cou.rte, Yi thout first fully writ1n1 out the argument. I felt uneae7 unles1 l fo1’1111late4 cl.eflni\el7 what I ought to 9a7. l kept io this Mthocl ot preparation tor • lo-. \iae, lnlt craduall7 a’b&DdoAed 1 t, a• I gained aore 0011fidenoe thnugll experlenae. an4 used motet 1n•tea4. Allother faoet of prepa1’t.’1on wae a Tel7 tleliltera\e concentratioa on “Vhat 1• the heart of \hi• ca••'” rather uaa-., 9Wha\ 1e thle case?” in a general ••nae. Uauall7 ,here i• a tu.rm.nc point ln a ca••• it on. can os.ll 1 t t.ba\1 a kind or eaaenoe. ‘l’hie h not al.VB7• true, for eom• cetes are too ooaplloatM. to lead tbeiate? to thh appraieal. h\ quite often there la • ·core. Once i, la touad \he poli Uon beoo .. • olearer, not onl.7 the pod’1on tbs court ahould take but the method of pr••eata’1on • • – 61 – While oral argument sb:>uld be oonstistent with the brief 1 t should no1 duplicate it. 1’here i• little point to oral argwaent unless 1 t make-a a contri’buUc,n beyond ,he brief. It 1hould be a reetatemen\ of the case la; ditf’ere.ut for.11 a.ad in a. •nner to add ‘P•reonal perW&don to tba.t of the printed word.. ‘l’his i a the challence, I think, ot oral argument. tt afford a an opportuni t7 to point u:p the eesenoe ot thA aane and to remove doubts in the mind of the court. !he spoken -word becomes a vehicle for an 1n\erpia, vbioh 1• often an laportant l)&rt of argwaent, giving ooUllael an opportU!li tT to help on mttera which otherwise he aign:t not lalov are iroubl1fl& t.b& oouri. ior thi1 to be don.•• howe•er, the oourt U1aelt must be an aoU•• pa:rUctpan,, .not merely a l19’eaer. fh.ere 1• perhaps e difference in the relat1onah1p of an awellate law- • 7er to the court and that of a trial lawyer. iut I would not ,a,. it is fundamental, because in a trial there is also the taak of aiaing the oourt. lf the trial is before a juq the law,er 111.Uijt a.id tbe jury as vell. There is thia diffen:aoe, too, in that appellate litigation creates preoedenta, wbareaa 111 a Ju17’ • Yeid.tc, oa the faoh of a particw.ar O&H, eepeciall7 a cl”i1111nal ca••• no precedent uaue.117 arh••• • z. Indiana am ‘!’heir Problem• Kr. John Oollier, ?ho became the first Collliliasioner ot Indian Affair• in the liooaeYelt administrations, under Secretary of the Interior &.rold L. lckea, va• vell acq,uainted wt th Nr. :Barker before I ca• to Santa Fe. Oollier vat the executive secretary of the AID8rican In4ian Defenat11 As9ociation, devoted to promoting the velfare of tho Indians. He vat la Santa. J’e from ti.me to Ume, though his home w.s in Otlli:f’orn1a alld he lived part of -62- • the t1m6 in New York. ! beorune one of hit ??Tiiers on ma\\ers invol’rlne.i; the Indians, 1:noludin? legislation • • • . .An important :problem affecting the Pueblo Indian, had 4nelQl’ed. before I went to New Mexico, but had not yet ron its course. !hese Pueblo Indian• are }Jretty inu.ch \where th?y \iere when the first !u.ropeuis came in.to the Sov,thwest, along the Rio ‘.Jrande and other waterways. They of eourte had the firit. choice of placos to live. ‘l’he Pueblo Indian as the name lic.nifiea is one who livei in a vill”ge. ‘!’he Spaniard.a did not t17 to exterminc’!.te the Indians or to driT? them from their hoJllee e.nd i:tdj.acent lands. !hey did assume dominion and grantetl s.rP-es to the Indh.na adjoillin« their Pueblos. ‘!’hese became known aa tht°’ Pueblo Lend Grants. When Mexico beCQme the 8ov?reign after :the revol tl!d from ::)pEdn the Indin.n si tUtL.tion was not ohangad. American tovereignty follollfed our ‘tr-1:ll’ with Mexico. Thereafter, Congresa confirmed \he old Spanish Lar.d Grants to the. Pu?blo Ine.ia.na a.a community properv bi,longing to tha Pueblos, thu? following the Spanish ?attern. ‘l’he individua.l India? ll.’Ould mive hie ow house !or his family but the lands ware owned by the community. Years paued.. Individual Indians lraded otf plots of land. Amerioan. or Spa.llish or Mexioan eottlera be$;An to eke into the old ,tl”B,D.te and take posseesion of parts of them, often w1 th oolor of U tle. “t’his mi3ht have come nbout by?. trade of <!O!’!l? $Ort, Aith.1r with the Pueblo or with an Indian working u p?rticular :plot of land. The 3p?.niah or thfl! Mexioan famU.7, or lahr some .Amerioans, mad.e these places their homes in good f’e.i th. ‘1’he7 thought the land was their own. All time ‘went b7 this created both? l?gal and an economic problem. ‘?he Indians needed for their own euatenance the • • • – 63 – land laolw:le4 1n the original grants. The tran■fera referred to we:re of qu.eetionable ‘ft.1141 t7. so that the non-Indian 1e,uei•1 •••n U’ he had IO .. – thl? to •Y14eac• hi• \1Ue and bad. been in po•••Hioa for gera.eraUone, 414 not ••• good U ne, beoause an Indian va, no, .lllr1 Jurj.a; he we a ward of Ui. pTenment and he aould aot oonTeJ a’Wa)” the lan4. Tne el tuation vae oonfu•ed. OoagrelS took a aenetble 1tep in the •rl7 •201, b7 enacting \he Pueblo Land Grant Law. !he law created a Bo.nt and lald d.ow 1\amard.1 tor th• Joard to follow. Briefl-7 • the law proncleA th&\ if a 1et’1er who waa in po11e .. 1oa could thow color of title aa4 actual poHetaion oftr a 1peo1tte4 period, ,he Joard should confirm lt.11 title, but \he In4b.n• should ‘be ooapentated )7 the United Stat•• for the lose of thl1 land. The VaUecl s,atea took reapone1b111t7 beoause it bad. aot proteote4 the land. troa enaroaohment, so ti. Go•er1U11tat wul.4 P•1 the heltlo the reatonable T&lue of the land confirmed to tbe aeUler ‘Utder Iii. ttaad.&1″4• of the statute. It the olalllU!Ult could not •how -poaaeuioa ud color of u,1e undu• \heae e\aada:rda the le.114 oame back to the Pueblo. It .,, a NA• .. ,w et t17lag to adJud a 41ff1oul\ 11tuaUoa. •• Joa.rd inYeau;a.-,.a aa4 hel4 heartnce – a treau4ou ull\enaklnc. then waa & pl’OYi■ioa ln the law that af\er the Boa rt a4e it• aw.rd.a the alter ahoul.4 ‘be klc:en into eoun a■ to eaoh Pueblo u4 renew4 by the 0011.d. 1a follc,vel. Mr. larker and I were retalaed b7 •o•• of the ae\Uer• claimlng ·U’1• under ,he atatu.\e. Oa \he wbole \be deoieion• of the Board on Utle were pre\tT touncl ia our JudCJNtnt, ln aoool’d.anoe vUh aTailable informaUoa tna – 64 – • old ,•C)C)Jlll and fro• ,e,t1aorq. Jut \he compenaator., award• the loaJ’Cl mate • •• ., . .. ,o •? P\iebloa were lud.•flU te. [:1la .•tev of 411•thtao,1oa. pl’laarU,7 la Ud.1 latter reo1’4, ‘••• t•? ?, .. ••?;.?-?• in ln4ian welfare threa\eu4 lo ‘1J>••’ ‘• wbole pnou b7 .-ol aooepttitg/ tb.e reftl.11 aJ.14 ueJda« Jv.dloiall.J’ lo oTerihrov Oil oon1’1.tutlonal.. CN’1M• all tbat the Board. had. done. It •• eald. t.bat Ooaar••• could not take •Vll7 Ind.tan Ii Ue eNn ad.er ·• •ht.:• ate.ate. fml• there aroee a •eriou1 threat of pNlracled. OO.iH\1tu1l••l . . ‘ 11\lf,&Uon. !he wJ:aole proble• vould lie lhrova ‘baok: in.lo the uu.111ta<ttot’f’ tl”-:tloA pr•ee41ag the 1’8.lv.te, or ta’9 a wr•• elate. I 414 aol ‘1d* thl• abould. ooftl’. l f-11 the pro,raa va1 to\UIA. I felt thal \he Joan, &D4 0oll1er a.n4. bl• ach’laera tel, lh1• too, had. Md• r•eoaaltlt goof. deolaioa• on ti ‘1•• ud.er r••ne.’ble ataata!d• laid. down bT Ooqre1a. We a&J’eed. • . hcnteffr, Iba\ the award.• wen taadequa le to ncolll)enae the Indiana for their lo•••• of la.Dd. eepeolall1 ln ••:ra• ot \helr aeeds lo npl&oe eooumioall7 tbe area■ belna collfll’lled. torenr tn others. I ngpetecl that a Join\ approaoll of la41aaa aml ••”l••• ‘be aa4• ‘8 Ocu1cre••• to 1q \)la vbol• •Her \eton ti.. J>l’Op•r collllittees, aa4 ,., •••• the ha1’4’• , …. oleio•• on tlU.e tbo1114 be aooepte4. L1’1pt1oa elloulcl be •••• lhlt we au 0oanaoe ,ou tat •bl• »oar4 ha••’ a•J’de4 tuft1o1ent to coapa••• \be 1a41an• for their lo•••• of land. A441 Uonal oompensattoa •houlcl be aa4e b7 Oongre■aional appropriation.• Ou.r Senaton, lroaeoa 0a.,unc ad Se.a o. Bratton. and lepre■eata\lT• OJaTes, tbo\lCllt ‘hl• va, aoum. the •tt•r •• pu into ••1’7 •refulJ.7 llF \u appropriate 0011111 H•••• oa the Senate d4e lUlder the lea4ereh1p of Senator OllUing and Senator lh.”lltton. Jfearlng• were held 1n Xev Mexico aal • • • in Wnshingion. – 65 – Su.ch an adjuetment of the -oroblem we.• reached; IUD”Dleaen- — – … tary lectsla.tion was enacted; the l1 tig&Uon was ellded; the decree• became final; the title• were setUed. And Oongrau lncreaeed the amount to be paid to the Indians. Before a aubooami 11tee of the Sena,e on ln41an Attal?•• I explained the si tuat1on as I ee.v 1 t and nade reoormaendatione tor a ■olution, at .Taos, Ma,1’ 9, 1931. See Pert 20, pp. 10058 et seq., Sun-ey of Condition, of the Indians in the United States; Jlearinga, etc., ?lat Oong., 2nd SeH., Pueblo Lande :Board. 1 alao te■Ufied in ‘Wa.ehington on both \he Senate u.d Bouse eidee. 1l’he latter appear,, at leae\ in part, at pp. 75 -1\ HQ.• of Hearlnc1, ?2 Co?., let S.aa. • on I. R. ?071 – »oou.mellt 597. Former Jud.1e 11. H. Banns waa the principal attorney for the Ind.lane, a ital.wart lew Mexican of great 1\a.ture. Durin« th.in per1o4 I eaw Mr. Collier frequent17. Bis triem1hi1> manifeated 1 \self in 110re W8.7• than one. He has ‘been at times a tomewllat oontroTeraial personalit7, but he hu been deTOted to the Indians. I do not know the beginning of hie interest 1n the Indians, whether it waa tna.vel and contaot vith \hea, when he eaw ,heir 91\uaticn and wanted to help, or whether 1t vae through some other aeeociation. He w,11 the eptr1t ltehlnd the J..•80olatio11 although 11here were other• ot coune who alto -,ported it. A.t the Hae of which 1 speak the IndiMie thou.ch c1Usea• did no, enJ07 all the rights of o1Ueene. ‘l’hey were the ward• of the goTernaent. wb1ob. wae ree-poneible for their welfare. fhit va1 an enlightened am c1T1l1zed policy, \»ut man, ccntroTeraiea aroae oTer detaile. The Indiana had a great d.a.1 of autonoJDT ‘Within their pueblo•. One eource of controTer17 aaong friend• of ihe Indian, ,urned on whether the Indiana ehould be subjected to the «eneral law in ?reater meaeur•• or per- 66 – . — —- —- • mitt-4 to k••P ,heir own police power, a.1 it were, ln their pueblo•, Yi’h \heil’ tribal form of co•ermnen,. • • OolliH· pro11o-led and. perhape im. \lated an all-pu•blo council ot all the p’1e’bloe. which would ••’ ta 1oae central i,laoe, u1U-ll7 at Saa Dom..aeo, \o diaft8• problea• mutual to the pueblos. parUcularl7 legtalatlTe matter• pend.inc in Washington. When Oolller planned to COM to the State it vat Ukel.7′ au.ch e. council meeting would be called. I often vent “1th hia to \he•• ••\S.q1. Some’U.••• the7 ware conducted in thne l&D.guc••• So• of the older I.n41ans ueed their own lupage, whiob ftr1e4 fro• pueblo to pueblo. ‘1h11 would \e tranalate4 into Spanleh, whloh wa• u.denteo4 1>1 all the Indiana, and \hen lato lngl.1 eh. ‘!he •e’1aga vere ve17 deliberaU,Te, v1 lh the lad.lens @1 ttlng arou4 the room vi th their lobaoeo ‘before tho fol’ their ciprettet or :Pipe■• .l 1eoreta17 would. keep notee. SoaeUaea reaol11- Uons wM’e paaaed and g11’en to Mr. Oolli,n•. who alghl be coming baclt to Wea:tu.nctoa. lnd1cat1n,c bcv the tau.ans Tiewed pelldtnc •tten. I wa1 talking J••t v1\h1a a tev week• hire in Walhington to Pree14eat Jiaeabower•• Oo•1HioMr ot b4.laa J.tfab••• Ml”. Glon. t. luon1 of Oall,ap, Jew Mexico, on the edge ot \he •ft.Jo count17. Mr • .a• 11 a clo•• tri.ead of nu ‘1’. XellJ’, a proal.a.enl oi ti sen of Santa Ye u4 an old tneu. of ou1. Daa and hh wlfe ha4 oo•• last for the ve4dlng of theti’ son 1n Jfev York aad then had. COile to tf&•hlng\on to speud a fw da7• w1 th ue. While here Dan pt in touch wt th Mr. llaoae and ve ha.A a •1•1 t. AJ.tboqb. I have personally JIOt been cloee to IncU.an -.tfa.ira now for IIU1 7ear1, l woul.4 •7 that the baalc diff’ereaoe of oplaioa &IIODC thoee ln.terested in them la whether tbe Indian should be pl”Oteoted. ln hi• owa <nllture or whether he ehould be euco•rac• to a’bandoa U aad ‘become •••lndlatecl – 67 – • into the ord1mq American life. Thie baeia problem breaks dovn into J1an7 fac•t•. Collier was of the 1chool vhioh ,hou,ht there wa.1 a great cteal to ‘be p;.-?•ned. iv.t he atn•• aleo fo1′ thell’ eooao•ic, health aad e4uea•t•Ml dffelopaent. I he.ve 117eelf e7q.,ath11ect generall7 vUh thie poi.at of Tiew. • • !here la the brpor\ut subject of religtou• d.e-velopmen.t of the Indian. Moat of the Pueblo Imian• 111ould ea7 thq were Oatholloe, ha.Tine bHn ooaTert-4 1n earlier 1ear1 und.H’ the Spam.th :reglu1. :But vi th their Oatbol1- e1o there hat lteea. a\ leatt arrionc a aba\anUal muaber, a reteaUon ot a 1004 teal of their ova ln41aa religion. ‘!be hu.oi,oan father• aeea ut to b&Te oond1t1oned their aeoeptaace of Oatholloiu ‘QJ)OA ehucie, all tlMti:r · ouatom• and pna.otlc••· fne7 laave re?lned any of their dano.1 ot which the QOm dance at Suto Domlago 1• a now.bl• example. t tb1u: U can tftly be charaoterba<l aa a pr&7el” for rain vhioh anted.ates the Ohrhtiu en ln iew Mexico. ln eas,ern Unihd State, “here the Indian was largel7 exteminated. we do •’ appreo:t.a\e full1′ \he Yildoia ot the Spaalsh pollaJ” \oward, the lncllp vb.er• ? eUll llve la th• aa11e plaoea their aac•ahre live4 ¥Ma th. lpaaieh tire\ oaae with tu Oonquhtadora and \he lathers. 4. »conealo Oollapte and Poll \teal Change !be 1989 colla-,•• aftec,ed. 9anu 1• but perhaps l••• thaa •r• lld.01117 populated area,. There va• a good d•l of speculation. about wha\ ahculd \e done, wba\ the eo•ernaen\ waa and va• net doing. am tlaere were anxletle• aa to \1- h:\ure. 1 recall no liaea of b.u«1’7 men ta S..:o.ta ‘•• but there vere people not able \o nppor\ \b.euel•••• poor people who, through unemplo7’ment or illne•• or old age, nee4ecl help. One of the aoU•e med.la of this vaa the St. Tia- 68 – • cent de Pe,ul Society, which made thG poor its apeoia.l uolic1tu?. Then there were the welfare agencies. and the Red Oro••• of which I•• Presi- • • dent for a time, actively functioned. We received and distributed. a good . -,,. de..”il of “Red Croat J’l.our.” No doubt we were as ..,ell off. if not be\ter off than moat plaoea; and we looked upon the ei tuation as tempora17. We did. not fall far into the gloom, due to the rather simple econom.T of the !lr’Ja. There ve.e a groYing feeling the administration vat unable to do much, ..a.e not imaginative or furnishing needed leadership. There was d1uathfact1on. but e. feeling the CO\Ul.tr1 would reooTer. As to a demand for a chance e.• the 1932 eleations awroaohed. of course beina; a De11Gorat I wat read7 for a ohe.nge before the depnaaion. I could not eay aocuratel7 from reoolleotion tha.t we e11need in advanee the strength of the feelin& of nEH!ld tor change that the elaotion of 1932 •bowed actually existed. Ae in the eleotion of 1936 when the Republicans oarried only l?ine a.nd Vermont. I suppose moat people might have :felt \he President should be re-elected, ‘but few sensed the.t so man:, felt the ae.me va:r. Thi• was probablJ tr11e S.n 1932. The bank holiday created 1nconTenienoe in Santa 1e but we managed to get groceries and keep thingA going. The bank w1u sound. ‘he people were not serioualy ooncerned about it. It closed only es part of the general closure. though a good ma.ny other bank• in the state neTer reopened. I could not u1 that the Demooratic -platform in 1932 foreahad.oved to me the Nev Deal to come. I came into the Interior Department from New !.fe:xico thinking of it in 1 te tn.di tional eense a.s concerned with pu’blio lands. oil, Indian affair•• geological survey. reclamation, etc., the De• – 69 – partm.nt most concerned with the West and the Southwest. I did not eome as a Bew Dealer 1n terms ot later deYelopments. I do not ■e.n I came as a oo••?nativei on the contrary, ‘but 1D1Uall.7 1111 vcrl’k wa, the kind one would. have anUcipat.ed in the 1-,al branch of Interior. ‘Before loDB. bov6Ter’, I waa en&a&ed oa quite d1ftei-ent problems and neTer got back to the •re tradi tionsl ones. Soae 1!1kling of the detail• of the adminittratton•a program came from the oan1pa.ign. ‘!’here vae a nev, Jll()re imaginative and more Tigol’Oua appn>aob, a 111Qre 0011.raceoue and Neouroetul etton to Gol Te the coat1’7’ a probl••· l’rom the caupaign I had no parUC\11.ar conception ot a prognua tn terms of the Wacner Act or the Oil Code or the Incius\rial lfeoovery Act. for example. ‘mere vae sose forecaat of Social Securl t.7, control of the st<>ak: -.m,, · • perhaps lecislation in connecUon with publio utilities, and other epecifio matters. 1Jconom1 also wae streued.. But generall7 I look baak upon. ,he oaqJaign as more a torecaet of greater imaginatiTe etforb to cope with ttmteTer the probleas were, an asaumption of leadership rather than d.rU’\ … 1ng Qd d.efauJ. t. looaeTelt came throllCh New Mexico during the cuapa.ip. We wa.\ 4ova to LamT. where his tre.ln •• tra..-elltnc East. Re C&Dle out on the rear platfors, lookl.ng nr, healtbf and. in fine apirita. lt •• th• first time I had seen him since e.s ell Aaahtant Secretary of the la.Y)’ he bad walked. acron our airdrome ia northena. France in 1918, before hh tllneu. >ronaoa CuUi.n.t, who lived 1n Santa fe, wat at Lamy. !be Preddent called to bl■ to coae up on the -platto:ra vUh him. Cutting wa■ a Progreuive Repu.’bli0&11 but aupported BooaeTelt dur1Jlg \hie aampaign. There was a well-defined • • • – ?O – rumor the Preeident offered him the Seoretaeyship of the Interior, btit that he p’x-?ferred to remnin in the Senate. Ve h?9.rd. the Preeideir\ oYer the Nldio oa inaugun. tion da1. ‘?he 1’.ff”P,. Uon.. ?• a little diftioul t bu.t ‘1/’e aouJ.d hear his atrong voice, c1Ttia,; ·1,\1.• stirt’iJ,tg addreu. -;,\,::,’;,.’::.f•; . . ‘ _’ ::···-._·-· ·•:’,- – . l .never expected to return lo ‘iaahington to l1Te. Collier t\opped ott on bi a way to Washington 1n the spring of 1933 and: ve ,allted abou, who should. ‘be Indian Commleatone.-, etc. There ‘w&I 111eaUon of Ioket. Collhr*J: own in\ereet wae unselftth and impersonal. le wanted a ,;ood Oo-1Hlou”. · and seemed to prefer \hat eoae pert1011 o\her \baa himself be aeleoted:. l told hbl I thought he should IIWlk:G himaelt available. eapeoiall7 1f …….. ‘l’he Prellident appo1n.•e4 Icke• Seoretaq of the ta\erlor in8’8ad of Iadia.n Commissioner. Ickes Jmew Collier favorably in the Indian work. in which Mre. tokes h.!td. been acUT’!. Other good ua were also oona1dere4, iacl’udlng James W. Toug of Chlcaao, who I thiAlt vat tlOI available. Ooll1•1′ •• appointed. l&\haa Margol4, of Nev York. who had be*n atto:n.e7 tbtu•• for the Amel’loa.A Imtaa Defense A.t1ooiat1oa. vld.c.h t had. helped. la Bev X.noo. wa.s made Sol1o1’\or. Barr1 Sla.t\er1, u ol4 ola••••• and frlu.4 et earlier day1 in li••h1nc\oh, w.a also brought 1.a\o the »epart11en,. ‘llm.1, lhel’@ were lakes. Colliel”, Margold and Slattery, with all of who• 1 bad. ha4 l decided to do to. at it teemed to me. And pu,ting all things together, I thought l should • • – 71 – aecept. I came on about He.7 l, 193.,. not intending to ate.7 indefinitel.7 in ?aehing\o.n. I am relucte.nt to leave S&nt& Fe among these notes vi thout saJ”inc a •·:· ·.-.;?·i’ :•. good detl )l’lOre. W’hs.t bas been sa.id does so 11 ttle justiae to 11¥ feelint• for the coun.try, tor the personal1t1es associated with it, for its history, and tor m, friends there of those 1..art a.nd .now. My Mother with Agnes, rq future “1if, vid ted Santa J’e in the twamer of, 1925, e. lovel7 oocaaion notwithetar:ding the illneas then not ent1r•l7 rttmedied. We bad our m-.ls at Mrs. Abbott’ a, whose husbe.nd, the J’U.dce, still greu:ed the 11 ttle houtsehold. Mother remained e. while longer tban Agnes oa this viait, and l1Ted part of the time at St. Vincents, where Slater Genevieve of bleased memory couducted the ‘bee.uU:f’ul worlc of the 11Ld1tut1on. At time& tr.ere oe.me to the Ab’bott• a household. ‘Algene Manlove Rhodes ane. I’hil Stevenson, then rq good am kindly friend, had many years ahead before our pat.tw parted so definitel7. Dick :alley and ou:r land purchases and friendship are a part of ? Santa. J’e Tears, aa ‘tlell as the hov.e• tor children enteri,ri ae in vhioh I waa a•sooiated 1d th Mias Da.c:aan. ‘?he Be.ricer, Laughlin and Iall7 homes, aa well aa other•• oo•• Tivicily to mind in pleaaant e.nd grateful recolleot1on; &lso, good Father Barna.baa, Father Jerome end others at the Cathedral Hector,-. Nor shall I likely forget the country ride to Parkviev a.Di the da,ya there, studying the \lj!Bter rights case. in ‘the home of the gentlemanly J’ranciseo Lopes, nor the Miguel Chaves, Celeat1ne Bomero and Palaer caaes. M7’ lister Sarah came too for a while, eeeking to rid he?’aelf of dnti.e • As I have $aid Leo also came to Taos to 1tart his legal career. • • • – 72 – Ag?a and l ade our first home after our marriage, which w.a •o?? … hed in )/aahl’°’ton, Jue 26, 1939, on College Street in Santa l’e, lA a house .tented troa Buth Barker. Mr. and )frg. Joe Sena were our good ne?):l … ; . ? -.-?,: April lo, 1930, our first children Charles and .\nne Maria were bom •·? St,. Vincente, and Jul7 19, 1932, Se.rah Agnes, slao at St. Vincent,. (Dr. Bolls and Dr. Ward. Mi.s• Sta.plea. tb.e nurse.) J.17 ‘brother Joe, who ca.me from We.ehingto». \o Albu.qu.erque to 1napeot the nav vetDrana hospi t&l, viai’ffl us in Sa».ta le about the Ume of Se.rah’• birth. laoh ot the children bq·? ir. Sal:it& J’e was baptised in old St. 1rancie Ca.tlM!dral whioh I lovecl, an4 hope to see $.01n. Memo?’7 return,. to Archbishop l’e.ecer on Ccnt’irmatioa a.,,, spfl6k1ng firs\ in Spanish and then in lilnglhh• wt th the Cathedral crowded 1ti\h parents am babies, the latter filling the edifice with their voices • Some good friends no longer llTe there, lfordfeldt for example, vhoa we have seen oc?aioru..lly over the ;;ea.re and whose painting and etchings still e,dorn our home, together “1th the litkl)graph of Ken AAamt, the African dunes b7 Cyril X. Scctt, ancl old Santuario by Joe Jakoa. 1 aid a word. in tribu\e to Charlie Eckert e.nd bf.a “10rk among the pool’ of Saata fe. Joth Diok and Lewis l’d.1•1′ have gone be,-ond. In coatnet, -we recel).tlt met Dan l•ll;y’e infant gn.nd4a.ugh\er, Susan, at the airport here, en route to kar,land to vhit Su.ua’ 1 1rand1110ther. I have aot mentioned Senator Batch. but t shcw.d. He alway• atootl tor me 1n the year• ahead, and vhen I \rla.l leaving the Govermaent la 1947 kin0.7 spoke ot me oil the noor of the Sell&\e • • • • – 73 – I came on to Washing\on alone. Acne• came vi th the oh1lclren tome ..,eeka .later. not an ea17 trip. And here ve have ruabied, though un,­ meaoti•• ear17 u• back to the tla.e and ,ae place we fire\ IWle t!>llr ho-me. In Bo• the Store had some bad times during \he depNHlon. Borroviac to the hilt we aece11ar7; but with Duke and. Alltert &t the ulmt and with Motur’• belp anti encoura.c•ent, ,he old store rode out \he ston. Dc,ar1uaent ot tl)e . Jn11e,r1or. Waah1ncton 41 Jtr1t Aadatant Sollo1tor ln the Interiol’ Department 1111′ 4utie• laclwte4 lniia.n affair•, queation.a ari11nc in the Gaeral Lu4 Otflce. •• lleoluaUon Sen-ioe. the Oeolocloal hner, ma\ter1 a.ttect111C llinina 100&tion,. oll lM .. a, am the like, and u. oocaaional pNbl• in \he BaUoMl Park S.moe. Soon, hove-Yer, uader the impaoi of the lec1alat1Te propu ot the Pr•ticl.ent, the \nd.1 tional oharaoter of Interior oba.JJCed. Secretat7 Ieke• vaa put in obarce of the -publio vorlte prograa; but v• of ,he Solloltor’ • eta.ft he4. lUtle to do vUh thh, adTiting the Secreta17 onl7 ocaaaionall1 ia the torma U Ye period. of thl • program. Mr. Id ward ll. Jole7 • la \er UJMl•r Seol’e\aq of the lfr•tu1″1′. vaa geaeral oo\Ulffl. for P. ‘W,. !. ‘l’hen were other ao\1Y1’1••• tnoludtng aev grating leglllaUoa vhiob ‘became e. 111A1t1oaa, dtT-1.op .. a\ for the cattle oouatey, and 1a a ataor fa.1hton. ve helped .. uvba\ Dr. Artmir Morea.a u4 Ml’. Dand. t.Uientbal. in ,u plaaalnc 1ta.ge• of ffA. I vaa not tleeplJ 1nY01Te4 1n the opinion affffUDC Ilk Hill•• or Seotioa 36. but re•iewed the opiaioa before it vaa 1•••• It •• preparecl priaoipall7 •• I recall b7 Mr. !el ford ‘ra7lor • vl th SoU.o-1 tor Marcc,lcl d•ine mu.oh peraonal a\tention to t t. lte”riev ot order, vi?awlng publ1o la.Jl4 from entq. am thoee affecting re1er,ation•, •l&h’ alto be mentioned • • • – 74 – 1. !he htroleua Aclmiai•traUve Joard !he tuller of 1933 wa• the aoe\ aoth·• perio4 la the ehol’\ lite of \bt XatloMi Ja4uttrlal leoo••17 Ao,. ‘U4er whioh hmral Bqll Jotmsoa •• tor.-iaua, ood.•• w1,h 1114u1t17. Oil• of \he aos, 1Jlponaa\ cod•• •• ‘-t of th,,. petl”Olewa ln.d.111\17. the. P:redlen\ 1eleote4 Secre\a117 tclte• to aa …. mlni:1\er it. ‘fhi• •• the onl.7 code for a lal’c• lntlue\17 ahinieteNA out• li4e the lecoTer, MaiaittraUon t taelt. S.or•la1’1 Iolte1 4eol4t4 Iha\ a gl’Oup in tu Solloihr’• office tlleul.4 ‘be U• rip\ ara ta aulai11lel”lac the Code. le orea\ed. tb(t Petrol .. .A4- ldal•trat1Te loam, v1.,h Ma:golA at Cba1naa • .,-,.it a, Tloe OhaiftllA !Ulli B’ovard. Mal”ahall, •orau .,.r,, Joha w. bq, u4 Jllwu-4 J. lwa.nton u -ber•. Dr. ‘Ir.-, ud Mr. 8wu.1on were oil eape:rta – han1oa, ot l».\eJ”loi•, one et \!ut coutq• • toruo,, ta p1″04uo\1oa, alll Dr. he,, a like av.tboJ”ltT in •neUnc •• well a, tn other brancbe1 of \he ln4.ut17. Manhall aD4 M1e.-1, altbouch they had had. little praotloal nperle•o• 1.n the oil ‘bual•••• ha4 -4• eome 1peoial ■twtlea. I had. ao Hperleaoe of u, 11.plfi- · oaaoe 111 11- lnclus,r,, u4 l bell••• aet,ner 114 Jfaqo14. la \he tonaU•• petlo4 et ‘• Oode, 4•rlnc ,i- ftllller of 1911. wl.th ••• lulcta\loa that perbap1 1 t •• lo come to laterlor, ve .bad a111ete4 \bti lleooT•rJ’ Matll11tntloa, parUaa.larly “1th napeo, to the 1u•odll0Uoa conil’Ol proYiaiona. the Oo4• vhich alao coatalne4 cletalle4 aarkeUnc an4 reft ..i aa proY1■1ona, vae u. ettor\ on the pal”\ of iu in4u9’1″7, ta coll&-. ‘boraJloa vith the so••••••• to ellmina\e ufair aa4 uuairable cxu11>•UU•• praotlo••· It waa 4eatped. to 1\a’billse ’11• iad.u1t17, t.bea ln a …. ,., vba\ orittcal coa41’1oa. fhla cond.ltlon g:rev out et ‘Incle praoUoee 111 • pal’t. but prlarll1 •• 4•• to e:soe,11ve 1>n>4ucUoa which noode4 tbe – 75 – •n•t with cl”‘Qde oil. panloularly •bot” oni4• oil, pr1no1pall1 fl’O• ·? ••1 !eat oil tlel4. vhen 1t va• prot\uced. ln n.olaUoa ot crao•• pN•oribed. by ,L Jallroa4 Oolllll••ioa of ‘•••• Uae State ftC\llator7 ‘bot17. fhlt •ut 011• WM1•1’111nt4 ,he pl’iOe of cntle, ¥1th Nf,ft011••1on• throucbGut ,u ta- 4u.1t17. !he J’a.Uonal ?D41ltll”ial Reoonq Act contained. a special :pron.tea, Section 9 (o). 4etiped lo «s.ve \he federal «oTemment oontnl o•ei· •aet” oil. lt pro•1de4 1n tl11>•tu4• tbat the President could prohl\lt the \ru•J)Orla\i oa 1n latel’tlat• ooaene of oil prod’tloe4 · tn noeH of \he ueu, &1dborile4 \7 •••• npla’cf’F lava. One of •v pnbl•••• paralleiS.111 tbt a4al.A1t\raUoa of the Otu, •• \o edoi-oe tbla pro1’l1lo11 of the ht. there•• alao ••• cru,U&l iap1’0Teil•t in aeaeral ooad.1\10111, •• I think ,he adat1l11\n.’1on et S.oUoa 9(o) asut of the Code, la oollall••tloa • with ,? .Plamdag and. Ooord1aat1ng 0oam1 Uee o’I \be iDttue\17 helped •- \eriall;r. ‘UDdtr the ie00Te17 Aol a nolaUoa of a Oo4• pron.ion vae a onaiul oftea1e. la a4d.1Uoa. \lier• wae a.u.tatetraU•• eafoneun\ through ,. ••? oall.414 IJlue lacl•. • vhtoll l ‘hi* plqe4 a a1plftcaa’\ par,. h.\ 1 oPJIOt gift a ••rJ fair appalw ot ,he “Blu •el•.• Perbapa lt w.a •t parttalarl7 1aponaat ta the oil ln.ch11t17. t do naahr u-., Oeaeral Jehaaoa an4 hi• a4ai:a1ttrahra attrl’bute4 a pod. 4•1 of 111portaao• ,o lt la. geae,-al. !here ven ••••• ln. e’f’e17 tow.. aad. -people beOUle llv.e II.cl• ocu,.t1oiout. It vae a ••17 ua.nal per1o4. Bu\ 1 t ‘beoaae ,manal beoaue• ooa4l \1omt were so de9peat•. Coapllaaoe au. eato–.., wen alto o\taiael b7 pro’rietoa1 in •••n… , contracta. AaA there•• pol1o1ac of Cod.•• ‘by ind:ut17. vhioh,,.. per- • 1a1t-re but wt ,.bout the eaacUoa of penal Uea. inforoemeat etfor\1 were • • – 76 – al10 •d• at ti••• in the court,, by wits in equ1t7 to re•trai.n. Tiolation•• and bf crbainal protecu:Uone. I bell•T• l arped the t’1Ht caae to r-eatrata a ood.e ‘riolatlon, here 1n the hpre• Oollrt of the DS.ttl’lct of Columbia, before JuaUoe Ad.kine. ‘l’he “hot” oil problem we et,t’bborn. It va.1 difficult to dense a method of prevenUng 1 ta lateretate •hil)ment. We drucgled and ex,perla.nW. 11nal.1T v• formulated the 11 !der Plan, 1t under vhich, 1n ai?le tel’Jll• – althou«h adld.1111,ra’\lon •• 0011plicated. — the tra1u1portatloa oo\lld be pre … ••nted unleH the oil was aoooapanie4 ‘by a 10-oalled temer, or pw111t, vhioh had \he appro’Yal ot a tender ‘boal’4 ,et UJ> ‘b7 thei cova>:”ZllMDt in east fexas. rue •11tea aotua.117 beoaae effeoth·e ud “hot” oil waa brought Wider control. Parallel vi th the•• eftortt 11 UgaUon aroae in east fen.a and in the Dietrl.ct of Oolu’b1a ovet• the ftlidi 17 of Section 9( o). I def ead.ed the first ease before .Tuetice Coz here in the Dietnot of Columbia. lt ••• unde:r the :S.coYH7 Act. tu.ct by the Pana• iefintng Oomp&Dl’ ap:lnat the S.oretar, of Interior to eDJoia the enforcement of hi• reculaUo.ae uader SeoUoa 9(o). Plaiatiff contedecl tble pnTieion wa, aa ueon.■Utu’1.onal delecattoa of lepalat1•• pever to the execuUYe. JuaUoe 0oz 4enlad the 1ajuoUoa, but a1 ve ahall ••• ih11 was aot a penaUAt victory. S!lbHqUenUy, the same and othe1′ coJRpantes instituted dmilar litiption in the Uait6d. States Dieh1.ot Oourt in eaa\ Tent, tome of which eTeniuall;r reaohtd the S\,.preme 0our\. !be Supreme Court teclarecl Section 9(o) to be uncoa1U\uU.onal, with a cU.ue12t only b1 JuaU.oe Cardoso. ‘!’he· be.ala for the dec:lelon we lack of d.equate 1tandarde preacri’bed by Ooagreea • to guide the executive, the l•eialatloa th’l11 amoun:Ung to an uncon.nn- 77 – llo•I 4tlep\toa of lecf.alaUv• powr. l?tMIA 8tQ1J.ar Qq. v • .ltu, 293· . U. sf 8-8.(1931). 1 ba•e alV&J’• lhoqa\ that ,be d.i11•at va• sound.. },.i’ia<-‘• aaati••• Janna vol”ked ou\ thi• temer boar4 plaa, whtch;w•> ? ,, ‘ . ,,_.,. • • . , . c’, .: , . ., ….? _,. .’ (·:.-:, -. -·’ , ;.-:_ -:_:·:’ ·,.’·-·.· – – . . _· Y/:·>_,-.·) ncoi,1:tul. we aov aikecl Ooacn•• for leg1alaUoa to replaoe S.Ollon 9(a)< of tM lteco••17 Act. Ia reepoase OongreH pa••• the Ocumall7 Ao\, • called ‘because 1pon10Nd ltr Senator foa Ooanall7. It wa• aa atoptio.n ?f the ?••r ‘boar4 17,tea. U •• enacted o1″11inallT a, tell)on.J7 lte1tlat1o, a, 1″1.t l lteU.eTe •• beoe• pal’I ot the peraneal law ot the 11a1 tad s, ……. Got-, baok to the •ool4 • at 4btlnot tl”Oa •mt• oil, ‘111’ ow J>8.1’i took a nrL Ma1Weld oeuutn.1t4 more•• •r• oil -. ceMnl lepl wn of \he Jes>•t..t aa4 1 oa 011 Oo4• aad Ooa.aal.17 Aol pa-obl.•••• So 1\ •• , …. • o14e4 l t1M,ul4 become e.bainaa of Uw board, aril 1 w.1 u that poliUoa aa4.. tor so•• tiae had been d.eft\irac ••• ot a, ‘1•• lo oil. when the lchtfhltr ca•• •• deo14e4 ta 1935, encltn, al.l ood.••• 298 l1. s. 49& (1935). la the uant1• l Ud.Dlc t • t&l:rlT tboul.4 be atd \he oil lnduetq r••W. a , .. ,.. of 1tal>tllt7. 0.i’tlllalT at \he ‘1• o t SQIMOAttt. the t.a• 4u\J7 •• •eh b•”•• ott , .. wlaea \be Oode •• a4o,ted. ta 1933. lt ••• lie r• .. •NCl ,hat tlle p’U’J)o•• ot ,ne Ood.e prOTlaloa• of the la.Uonal. B.­ co••rt Ac\ ,i,ae \o aH1et 1a rell&b111taitac inAu.8’171 vh:loh vat ln pMI cU.11?••• lb. period wa1 one of great effort throqhout Watbln«ton. 1’reaen4ou1 ••ra, vi tlwn,t regard te peno-Ml ooafon or ao,n of ve’l’k. was ••••b7 10Tera111AI pereouel, an4 alao ‘7 1D4uat17. fh.e paoa of Ia\erlo1′ •• 1t-i,pe4 vp appNaiabl7 beoe:a.•• of aev reapoadllllUee •• the ettorl to • • • – 78 – illJ)?”• ?oaoaic CQnd.1 t1on1. There vae un.spa:ring use of ttu and. abtltt,-?’ ,, vit!:\(:i….,. ace••• to \he Secr.etar, am, when the oeca,ton nqUired., t.o, \bf’ PNtf.l.eA♦:. , mention, Tel’J aon.ratelJ aocol’d.1q to a:, ow recoU.ectica. ?Jut tbing ot a a1».leaa prloe for oftd.e> oil•• ‘.•inc 11eriouel7 oonddeiied. 1’he matter •• 4.11cu11ed ‘With the P-r••?•••• when he was about to l•aYe ,owa tor aoae ptll’po••• ‘Ille crontere. ,.. a.: •1?.raote17 oae. fhe PJ’etH.••’ 11,11ve •• hl• &JJIJNff.l if n thouch” i prio …. tisln& both n•OeHar, &114 lepl. · l• bi• ooadd.eraU.on ot a ooaplu pro’blea llk• thl• the Preat4eat -4• a Ae-,. iapnwaion oa ae. J manele4 at hle grat,p ot our parU.cmlal’ pttobl•• k.eowia« bow Jla1l1 other• u •• ooptnc vi th at the tlae. Be •• not lmniecl o1′ ? .. .a. ?e17Wb.ere in V&abingtoa there w.1 ffl11’2’7 tu11, exo9J>t at the heeJ.Aen\1 • ot:tieeia. ‘.Phere one •••ud to moYe 1ato a 41ffere.at atmosphere, quie\el’ .- wt.? better oraulnUoa. One tel t aa &-H\’ll’Uoe Uie Prel14•• . vaa •(IIJll to hit tao, vUllq u4 a)le to llllk• 4ec11ioa•, 11ai11& aftU.a)l? .uly,n, aot f•Uilll to ••nae napoad1’1l1tr, n-.Uac oeafl.4a.oe la ht• a\il1t1 •• ,. ’11• «r•’ ottloe. 14o actt reaemb•r tbat ,he P1’••id.e.llt cowtecl oa the hprn• Oolll”I aner the Paaaaa 4ectdoa, a■ he cl.14 after Sc:heohter. He was probabl1 aot tro•’bl-4 .a.bout the Oourt, tor S•ct1oA 9 va• onl.7 a ,epct of \ha Jeeon17 Aot 1 ..? ao doultt we were able — altbough I do 1&0\ r••••r th1■ parU•.,. larl7. — \o rea■tUJ’e hia, if he wa• coaoerned • tl:lat tba al tu\1011 eoul.4 lie re•t-‘, aa U wa• by the Comaal.17 .lot • • • • – 79 – fher• va, eo11e relatton.ship be,ween our Board and Dowd lliohberc, Jla?l 8mtb aad other• in ,11e lepl aectloA of lb, ‘bllt it wa• lt.•11et , .,- C • • at,?i lhl, Phti4ent appi,,Te4 Ille Cot• and S.oreta17 loket beoa•• i ,, . ?n- ;,:,:-,-_ ‘ . %\. vae lneTltable thai the ftlld.1 tr of the oode• would be tee tied ln coul”t. · We telt that t? Petroltn:111 Oode W!ls the moat ta.-onible vehicle tor . thitt tee,. Primarily the authority ot Oon«rH• to authorise the cod.ea re•t•4 u,e• 11• oo••?oe power. ftMt pe\n,lewa indu1,r1 lH a whole ud in 1h parie. va• to a gr$at •x•eat aa 1ater1tate 1nd:o.•tq wUh a \resemou, l11.t•r- 1tate tlo.v e>f oU •cd 1,, p’f04110t■• !be Nib ••••• ta ••t fezaa. 111Tcl•eA a n.ola.tloa ot the J)ro4’1.oUoa pro’Yielone ot the Oocl.e. lt bad bee11 deot.4.el bf the Di■trlot Oourt Ht.ere 1n 1984. •• t recall. aa4 oould l!taYe con.e cllreotl7 lo the Supreme Oovi, a.a we thought, undfJr \he criminal a:ppeal• atat<ote. Ve reoo•eD.det to Attoru1 General Boaer C.-S.age tha\ he ••• tu ••• tor t••ltng the coaslttu\1oul quation• of \he lleo0Te17 Aot. He call.a a oculferaoe 1n the 014 l)epa1″laent of luaUoe on Veniont AYeau.e. Ir••••’ v•n a.u?r loltert Va.per, \he leci-1&\lTe a11lbor of the leco-••17 Aot, Mr. l•ff• J’nJlk, vbo va, t.Ma, l ‘belie••• •••n.1 GCIUHl ot \he .U, ?•-..1. lolmHll, Kr. ltol’lb•”‘• Mr. l&rol4 Stephe••• wu va• then hn4 of the Aati-tn,t D1T1•1oa of llte ».,an•.nt of J11.ettee, loltoUor O.ae..al. :Btu■• ltooteYelt•• fire, Solloi\or O.neral, a.114 Margold. Mar•hall, KJ•r• ana a,e.it ho• ta\erior. Maybe Mr. l3la.okwell S•ita •• then. and 1 •1 v.- dl1n11e4. lUlgaUoa pollq, am •11r reoo•e»daUoa vaw mt tollov.a. the lttorne7 haeral wae Yer, tnoughtta.l aad oon1id.erate of oar •leve, btt 41d not acr … taeral Jobnsoa himself, aa I Neall. aad.e 110 – 80 – • definite tugcest1on,. preferring to leave the a,ter to the la¥79n. S.a’ct r lfaper took: pretty auoh the aue :po•1’1oa. the ceneral feellac va, • • tb&t it w.a be\\er to l.et the cod.•• operate loqer am pia DION p1t)lt•.?•oeptpce \ttore 0&1T111C to the 81.pNu Oovt the oonatUuUonal lltt.,ca.Uon. l ,i?b* \hi• •• a wroq 4eateioa. ·. w-.a the IAAtMltZ ••• cue OD we tel, that ov ·deve obtaia.e4 to•• · ••rlfioaUon. ‘!he tlelq put the control of the lUtgaUoa 1a hand• other . ,bu ·,,- eovernae t’ •• fu ••• ••cbed the hpNM Oov, WM1•• ‘tlllfa?On.’bl• 11 Up.tin oirouataao••• llOtvi taetandln« the goTeruent bad pNYallet lll th•.Ctnnd.t Oovt. 1-.., 644, boWTe:I’., U1ai tlle ,ue result llicllt Jla:Ye’. come about l». an:, .,. •• ,. One oa.nnot ,. \bat b the end. the ltUcaUoa poltc,r w pl’eterNJA voul.4 haTe beea n.ooe■tM. or w\’ll.4 laTe beufi ,.a the 00\t,t\27 more t.baa. •·Hntuat• • Afhl’ Sob1ohtg the work of the oil adllinie\n.Uoa wa largel.7 a cleanup am noori.in.c tau. aal a ooaUn.uatlon of the eoatrol of 1bo,11 oil in east.’•••• .whioh waa mot aftectad b7 Soi,t&.ltr- ; ‘1-l• +enP •••• aa wll •• the !IMII ••• ualer S.eUoa 9(e). r-.olled. the hpnae Ooun ltdore Squqh)er. MINA ante in eaet fem• Ullel’ 0. pro4ll0\1cu pro’fllioat of u .. ao,. u4 … ,o tu lapnae Co? fro• \he Clrftl.t Oourt of Appeal• for \he J’inh 01Nlli\. · ht in the 8a;n••• On.rt. 111 oo•trae\ w1 th the aouae of …-en.ta ln the 01rcu1, Court, where Ule eo•••••• 1 bad. n.co•••• the •••• •• ao’t cleo14M on coaatlh.tlonal gn’GJ:141 wt oa the groud 111&\ there ba4 been an … n4.a•I \o the Oode rel&Uag \o p:roduc\ loa which olli\tecl a proTlaion ln tbe oricinal Code de•mecl •• .. ••tal lo Judicial en.foroeaea\ of the production coatrola. r,oev ht\llM g,. T. Jaa. be,01 f•lr1ina •· &tu. 293 u. s. sas (p. 2&0) • • • – 81 … . 1 tbiiak l tbould ••1 tbat we in In:tserior, vbo were l’eepon.tble foJ’ the dra.fUn, 4ef•o’ la”t’OlT.S., thola.gh’ the ca•• wat not -properly pre•e».\84 •. U · we.a ou •1•w tbat ae • matter of a\atuto17 ooaatnotion the ao-oalled •at.••- 1nc• para.1n.ph vae aot Jlleeln,c at all but reM.tn.eA a part of the Cole ln the UffndiDC proc•••• at reflected in the caplet of the Code in •••• Ve tel t that, along with tall 41sclowre to tbe Oour\ ot the aoourat• faote a’bo\lt th• matter wb.ea awareaeas ot the probl• aro••• the cate ahoulcl haTe 1′?, 1troncl1′ pnaented on tlle theory Uat the entoroaent proYlt1oa had zaot be•n o.111 tted or npeale4 1>7 the •o-calle4 1oaltdea. 11 I t:boQChl tbat O’U’ reeearoh. the beuf11 of which w p.n ,u hparaent of Ju•U.oe ta a llftOl’U.d.u, wau•,-nttcl thi• poal Uoa. ht acaln n.r Tlewt were aot aooeptea ‘b7 Uw I>epartae11\ of lu1Uce. fhe eetablt.tllllen.t of the :Jeclen.l Bectder largel7 grev out of ‘\hie ine14.ent, and. Ho.non.bl• larold. M. Stephen•• later Qluef Judge of the Ua.1\ed Stat•• Oourt of .Appeals tor the l>tttrto’t ot Oolubia Oircuit, ie enUU-4 to peat credit for that excellent d.nelopmen\. At,er IAMtl\Stl: \here va• ooaalcleraUoa of amend.in& the leco••’7 la\ \ct pro’f’ide \•Her ,ooi• wl\h which to police \he probl••• 1, •ouch’ te solft. Ther♦ ven eoateJ”ence• at the Vh1 •• Jloue • wht ch 1aol’lld.e4 u, abo11′ a aew 1tatute. dra:tte of vb.ich were pnpared ,,. the le00Te?7 .U.S.ai ,,rattQ.. I ihink U la falr to u.7 in appra.leal of the lep.l quettiea• of the period that ‘houch’tul lav.,era were troubled about the rultication• of the cod••• ..,i doubted tha11 all ot thel r pron alone ooul4 be euatalne4 ‘UCler the Coueroe Ol.&1l••• !we was al•• que1Uon1n,. \bough perba:p• .1••• • about whether the 1\atute ••’ up 1utt101ent 1tanclard1 to gu14e ,he exeouU·ve 1D foJ’IID.llaUnc 004••· there*’ a belief tllat it aou de\&111 of the atatute • ant\ codes oould not ‘b• 1uataim4 \he ttatute a• a whole need no\ be 0011.demed.. • • • – 82 – ‘lhe 1eal Na.ton for the detail• ia \he Petroleu. Ood.e wae not prlarUy that’ ,. eo••naent viehed to eo eo far. l>ut that ind.ue’\l”J’ vithecl to .. clo .•<>• ,,- I . .. IY•Jl ilt .,. of ••• oond.••• prao\t.oee 001114 not wlt.4lr be pnhibUed lt7 •• < ? • • • • : • ‘ ‘ • • • , … lav. lhe,1A41&1t17 v1the4 \bet• 4e\alll •• p.14•• to fai1’ praoUcett. ·. ‘fhe code effort — tl:dtJ ia likely to be torgo’l\ea with the paHege ot ‘1• and all that•• ocovrecl eiace — wa, 1n aoo4 -part oae of 1nduelq 1 t••l.f ( vllh ex-.p’Uou fro• the an.ti ,ru.at lav1 &at •••1 e’\aaoe troa ,o,,eralltdl’t) to rehabill tate itself aD4 ‘• eliminate prao.tio•• 1\ withed to l>e r’-cl ot. · •• ooa4l tloa• lapro••• 1114ut17 beoaae aore tel.t-ooatlde»:t • and 1110r• ooaedou• of po11t.ble cU.M4T&Jnap1 of cl••• oolla’boraUoa wt th CoYenMA\. In4•t1″1′ -. …. teal”ful. \b.1• ,….14 lea4 to aore ooa\rol thaa •• 4eai ml•? It begu to 4raw baok. At the ‘1•• of IAMIMII’. l nppoee U 11 fall” to 9a1 that 1adea4 ot the ooie• ba:Yinc o’btahie4 gi-ea\er public aoceptaAce, ae was boped. tor at tu lUipUon co».feNao• w1 th \he At\ome7 General., \bq bad. b•co• l••• popular w1 th iaduelr,- and ,_ coun,17 aa a whole. Vi th 1•proY4ltl oondl\ioaa, llld.uetry •• •r• vllling to e\&nd. q&lA oa U • ow f••’· s. Colleot1 ft Ba,calaina Pro•l•loaa .·,-. oelleoU•• l>arplat.l)C pro’t’l•lo.D of \he oo4••• S.otl.»a ?(a) • .-.lJ \• ••U•• •• ot laaUq •1«alftoa1u•. Oeal.ng after the •xp•r1•no• pt.Del dvtac the 11Nt Woiol<l Var and. 11n4er the latlvaT tabor Aot, thi• -pronelo• ba4 ‘P•ranen\ lntluace. Uter lshtah\or Co11gNae pu■ecl loln.t lteaol1l’1c,n lo. ‘4- a, a •.,1a.1nc11 pl’O’t’llloa to proteo\ colleoUT& l>argalatnc ud • ..,. plo,-.- atlf-orpnisatloa. .&ad on lul.7 8, 1935, the Vega_. !at itself ‘b•-.. law. I \h1Dk S.oUoa ?(a) •• r•■ona’bl7 eftecu.,. 1n \he pelnlna 1114.u•\17 • A sepa.z-ate auxiliary ltoar4 la the Petroleua Achd.ntdraUoa a4ain11tere4 thia provitlon, under Di-. Willia• Leieereon, an ead.nent an 1». the field of • • – 83 – bbor relations who later ‘beoau a aember of the l&.tional Labor Relation• :Board. le bad pined. pl’Ominence in railroad labor work, and alao ae 1111parUa.l. &l”bU•r ot the garment 1Dduat17. l am: not Te’f7 4ef1nUe in ‘lfl1 reoolleoUo:n about the oil ind.ustr,r• • attitude towaJ’d.1 Section 7(a). I believe the induetr1 wai relatiTel7 friendly to it and that oolleotiTe bargaining gn.d.ual.17 increased amon, tae on co?aniea. Later, howe•er. uae •ez7 tr,ying labor d tuation• arote 1n 1egmen:h of the industrr. 3. Barold L. Ickes Mr. ta.ea pve great n9po.n.1ib1lU7 to the CZ’0\1/p of which I •• a Jlle»­ ber, tn.ate4 ue, and looked k u for aeahtanoe ud ad.nee. We reepon4ed and. th.i•e grew up a tin• r•latlonahip. Ye could ••• him vheneTer Ye vi&Md.. J’ro• Uu to Use there were ro-u«h epoh in the l’>epar\ment. The SecretarJ hlld rehabll1 tated Mr. Loui • 0.le.’fi,, a1 i a well known, and bad brough, hi• into the Department. where he be?•• a ■ort of npe1’1leuth. we thought at tim•a the Secretary •• chine h1a \oo 11Uch authority. lat the proble• vorke4 il1elf out in tlae, aa4 t only aention it in p•••l•«• lclte•• a• 1• vel.l kBowa, Wla a h•emendoue worker. unsparlnc of h1aeelt. le va• deTo\ed. \o \he i’rea14ul – aotvl thetandin& aoae eoJUNat• la hit diary vhich, con.tderefl alone and taken out of full eoatext. are critical, I as sure he bad a true fondneaa for the President, who pl•ced ao moh reepoa• 1?111 ty on him. lelr:e• had a eoDDOn touch and •• acutely outepoan a\ times. One could aot vell agl”ee with •••r,\hinc he did or eaid. iu.t I ad.lid.red. and liked him. and l•tt the Departaent vtth rec,:,et and with gratU’Wle tor kaflng • been al>le to verk w1 th him. Some 7eara later he reoommetld-4 • to the • • – 84 – Pre•,1tlent for appointment to the Supreme Court -,.,hen 1 t seemed that M?-. Juetiae Mu.rpby’ might redp. I never knew a.bout this until I read ht• dia17 publ¼;ehecl .aen7 7ears later, “!he Lowering Oloud.1. • p. Ml. I wrote hill then and had a very friendl.1 respoaee. I.ekes w.e Vf!lJ’Y anx1oia to b&ve .Agrloul.ture, e.• well as ln.terlor. re-organized. me wan\(‘d tbinga to be in Interior vhieh were in. Acl”ioul ture. This was a aource ot conflict. And. he “18.e a showa.n. reflecting :perhe.pt hia ntwtpaJHtr ‘background. I thinlt thi a inn uenced h1 • met bod a ln eontrover9. :But l ?d not R7 he we.a undiao1pl1Aec1. I th1Alt he knew vhat !t.e vat d.ol• and ..-11 deliberate about 1 t. He va• a great def’eader of the Depatt•e:i.t anti, 1 ‘\s personnel.. At U.a•• thl., catt•ecl batU11 with other, — for eXIUII.J)le. hit defense of I. lt. Burlew. One gets an laldin, ot tbat in the dla17, but we knew it at thP. time. Sinoe our oil adm1n1atration vae n•ver un?er serious attack th•re •• no parUcu.le.r ocoa11ion for hlm to defend. ua in \he same sense. But we .k.nev he ‘WOuld do so in oaee of need. He •• -prouel of hie o..-pni •tion .·ud stood by it. Of couree he 4eman.4ed lop,lt7. but no\ llON tban h$ should.; be ••• too, ttifoa.ea\ Harold. i, He had oll, u4 ‘l>lllioas of doll.a.re for public works to epenA, aJ:ld he ..,, 4ete1″14ined there wo\ll.4 be no 10,.uiAal. Onoe our 011 group went to him b. protett that Glavta •• tapplQ our telfl’})boAe wires. Our office• were located then in the old Leaon :Buildiag acrou th• etrett fl’Oll the main. Interior buil41ng. Ye wanted. him to stop the nonteH, a• we eaw U. :But lake• said \bat Glans tapped. hi• viree, and aa lon& •• he perm. Ued th11 he 41d. not think we oqht to obJeot. Re would not 11-ve 11.1 an,- aa\is,faction. liater 021, tho-ugh, be realhM there • wae too n.ch of the.t eort of thin, and put a ,top to U. • • • – 85 – I found. bi• a tnendl7 person, but ,i,i th ,trong fe•linc• about p•ple aa4 1th111go. Be •• eo•U•e• urrpredlctable. He would. be aake4. fer .,1 •. aa Ajad.nt1\ntor of tae oil code to gin u at4reH at ao• impoi-taa\ … ,_ ·lq ‘in. \he oll 111AUh7. Be …. liable \o ao eaetl7 \he oppod ,. of WM. – . one atgh, expect. S. we e:d:remel1′ b.4epeme11\ and 1n41T1d:ul11Uo. 7e\ aa excellent ad.ainlttn.tor, 4evote4 to hie reepoali’billUet and. d.etend.netl \o … that he «ot the wo:rlt done ss well as he posliblT eould. Jte wa• o.rtai2’l.7 ut ca1’tl••• no it ,mpr-41cte.ble a\ U••• Afler l lilad. let\ la\el’lor Seor•\a17 lclc•• asked. .. abo11t -, ol.A la».\a 1• frua4 Joha I. (la.a) D.mp197. •• a potti’ble Under S.oflbl7? I ,.. .. hi•• coo4 reoou-4atioa. I alll •v• -, on f&Yorable •-•’• vel’e •’ oont?lliDI a• .Deapeq a’°°d well en hi• 011111 feet but the 8″reu17 414 vllh my opinion • ‘lot\d.the,anAS.nc 1 aaw a gro.\ deal ct hi.al neTer i:new \!Mt Seoretaq •• lteepin.g .- a TOluinout die.17 aa later vat pu’bl1ebel, th&-.h I pnbabl7 knew he Y&• bepinc 11emoran4a. law Mr. lck•• a\ horce\ovn Bo1pUal .,, long oefoN he tle4. fhe,agh la hit laa\ tllnel8 he w.a ••17 al•n and ••’8117 enerc•Uo. Mr•. loke• ha4 .Uel •• lb.en •• a Olll”l”eat •”•” u v11bed. to Wk o••r vi tk …. l pthere4 u intt•Uoa \hen ot h11 41a17, )1 a. r•ark M -‘• th&t a oer- talA atter va, AOt JDU.tl•n..4 la 1,. I u Ila.cl to ba•• lla4 \hie lad YI.tit wt.th-, old friend. ‘•17 8001l dea\h NIIOYM hi• tJ”Oa tu …. when ba ha4 pla7e4 a -Ye17 ln41Yid.uall•Uo aZMl helpful par, – a ,troac u4 covac.., ,…?tc,a.a wbea 1\ rencth an4 00\ll”a&e WN MCM. •tba1l Maicolcl Nlllllaed so•• 7-.r■ •• SolS.cltor. Be •• &a able laW7ttr ant a fine J)erson. Bot rel1ehin, a re\urn to pl’lvate praotloe he hoped. tor • • • – 86 – Jud.id?? appotn,naeat., in which aabiUon Seoreta.17 Ickes tllpper,ed bl•. .14- ‘•r 16me 7-.re M&rcold wa, aolillns.ted b7 Pre1ideat Joo,nel \ for a V.Uec! Stat♦s Dh\riot Ju4&eah1p in the Didnc\ ot Oolubia, ba.\ hi• •–Uoa ‘>/:.- ‘ . ‘ vat not reporW out \7 the Senate J’u41at.q Couittee l>etol’• Ooncreu a4 .. Journed and. •• not teat down agaia. He later aooepled appoiat•a•• tor whtch he wa.s eon.ti r-ed, bo the Municipal Oou:rt here. l 1tl’On«l7 wp:r,ort-4, hia before tba Senate aboommi ttH tor the Dia\riot Judgeship. 1fe va• v-11 qualitiei for hi&h J,141oial oftlc• lnl\ laboi”ecl ‘U.der \he J!AaJMlS.oap of ••• •ftlldu-e\u41nc of Me Juti·eonaltt7, tu.e \o b41T1d.\l&l ohanoteriatio• vhlob. ba.4. ao relation to hi• hoaeat7, a’btll•• la:,egri\7 or hi.th •l’al. o-., … acter. Jfe 41ecl eou 1•n •eo. •tUl a TO’WIC 1811. I haTtt aot ,eon Oollier moh 1n :recet yean. 1 recN\ to •7• Be re,­ ma1ne4 •• Indian Oolllll1H1oner tor toJae “••• ‘but •• mon noen’17 deftW hiatelf tc ethnic aoUdU.et of • b10ader ecepe. \boqh l aa ftl’e. ••tu alert to the welfare of the Iad.ia.n.. Perlua.p • 1 t -.e he more \baa a,q o ,her oae pereon who •• 1’etpons1″ole tor ‘111T Jobiq the lepl a,at:f of Ialer:lo. ia the Sprtnc of 1911. !’he pwl>U,1hed opt.utone o t the Depariuat of \be Iatef’ior. h.17 1, 1932 – September 00, 1934• are in Vol. M, ».01,to•• of tu hpar-.a\ of \1- lnterlo1′, publitbel. la 1935. M,- vite oaae to Waahlngton. with Obarl••• Ami• and Sarah about tvo montha la\er tb!l,a, I, la early auuer, 1933. We flr1t took a t.ni•hecl hoae Oll Oxford s, ….. b Ohffy Oh&••· fhh -· toll 4.urin, O\U’ oocupuq u4 ve JIOTe4 into ,11e Talley TI.1’8. Apal”taea\e, \heaoe to Oourtb.m Place, u4 at\er that, 1:u 1135, to Mllitaq ioa4, due which U• ve have lived 1a Ble••e4 Ss.crame11, Part sh. About 193? we lu,,acht 3’i00 lo1’tbaurptoa Street, and. 1a • • • – 87 – 194’1 our p r,Hent hoae, aeoo Ohe,y Cbase Parkva7. Ou!’ 70W’lges\ child. lifatJ Agnes, was born 1n ‘\fa.eblngton in 193!. Our four Ghildren, Obarlet, Arm• Marte, Sarah AP•• and. Mary Apes, bad th•l:r enUN pr1ma1’7 •• ,tJ’&flM1′ achool edu(la.Uon vUh the Bol1 Oron Sis\era at the •ohool ot Ille lleete4 1a..-u11 Pariah. Mo1u1i1nott 1117,h was Pastor tUlUl his death tn Kq. 1981. We beaame good friend.a R.nd I 148.s dno\od to hlm. UpQn. hie 4ft8tb ve t’o?’lllet a Ooaittee \o rain n parhh •emortal fund in his bono?. !he “bronH plait”• ln the tea;- of the Ohurob, and tile flu b:ron•• bust of Moadaaor 11’ •he foho.ol,1 are \he .retUl\. In addition, we pTe about $7,000 to the Ai’ca’bi–p tor t? li’bJ:!417 !!ll the aew Arohbhhop OaMll Itch Sohool. Xontipo., a.;-u, was a. remal’ka\le man. Re lo•ed Ood, we a build.er. a t1’Ue prieet .and our ut.tnnc. en.4 tat \hful Paetor. <Mr work took me n.t ot ?w aov and thea during the earl7 period 1n Iat e?or, to t,ler, ‘•m•, or lloua\on, on a case 1n oouri, or on soae pm•• ot “.bo•• or eold oil. ta Yaehington 1helf the hours of ‘Vork wn lu, am l was not able to have 41.An.4’r rt!!,ularl7 w1 th -‘Ca•• and. tu chll4rea. lor va• Saturd&T a tne kJ ,h4m. In ,he tw111er ve bepn to f!IJ to tu l•ch, ru,.ce near Wildwood., oncte or ,\doe to Jnh&IJ,;f, IIOre often to lehe’b&\h,Jea.oh. Acn••• \be children an4 l 11ked \hh •nr, nch. ,A\ ltebo’both the 4lllld.ffft lla4 their J”>Un& friend• TisU ‘W1 th•• at ti••• ‘We bad a oo\”8&e. uauall7 for -. moa\h. fhoee were bapp7 d41″s ftcationtnc together. MT brother Joe aad h1a taat’-7 vere 1n Waalli?on, lo• ln \tut oonahuaUon “n&ineerl.ng ‘branch ot the Yet•? Mmiahtration; and Leo and hl• frunil7 11en here then ?o. And Aga.1• aoti-r 11i1:· father were 1Ull 11Ylng and her a1tter• and brother wre in Waeh1ngton • • • • – 88 – ff1″ mother died J’ebrwu7 10. 1934, at the old home in Jome in the 74th year -of h•r lite. She died peacefully while 81 Uing in her rooldn.g chair in hel” leJ’el.1 rooa on ‘1:ut second. noor, one window taoinc ea1t and another eouth, b.1.Ch aboTe the ground with a aoft, beautiful rlev. Mothe1′ bad T1d· ted. ua • few 110ntha before, when we were at Valley Vista J.,partmenh. She made the round•• a• 1 t were, of her children away from home, and then went home- to go f l”011 there to her reward.. In her later 7ear• she bad Hen her child?•n 1eUle into their own U •••· Her anrleUee aocord1ncl7 leHeae4. thcruch Ule7 ne’Hl” co11pletel7 di aappearecl I u nre. She bad ooa1tanU7 kept in touh with ue all, b1’ tatthful leUer• and oocaeional. Y11ih. ‘l’h• tranqu111 t7 &Jl4 ‘beauv of her olcler ace were enbanoe4 b1’ her nnoundiq1 in ioae, where Duke. Janie. Albert ud Sarah, to men.t1on oal:, her child.re& there, mdenoed \heir devotion to ber, and she contirra.ed. to receive \he lov? and i h outward ••tdence• froa all ot ue who were ava7 • tbouch ln .., oase not eaough. She reained aotlve and 1n ver-r good heal th uUl the laal. Aa her cares deoreaae4 there ••••ed. a noticeable ab1li t1 to \urn aore Ml1 toward Oocl and •’•rait7. Hert w.1 a beautiful JlaUh Jl&Jt.ifeste4 1.n a ‘beauUtul Ute. She a1a’WNI(\ 90 well the bard.en• of a good aolber to a large faaU7, al\d. took the l1Tel:, later•••• of a 1004 0S.U1en in the life ot the aoatmall7 u4 •t1oa. She va• 4evote4 to JtT Ape• aact Agnes to her. I ltnov 1ke was a bappJ 110ther when .I.pea beoaaie ay vife. Ber ow life 1• record.eel ia imperlaha.ble lancuace amonc lh• lmortala of v•r’7, ,..,,. 91:1ecial qual.it71 am. in the aemriet aDd. hearh of her children u4 oounUeH othen vho knew am. loved her • • • • – 89 – IATIOaAL J..dOlt mA!’l018 :BOAIJ> ftlo•• .rton, oaae lo tee m. at the Petl”Oleua Joa1″Cl aad aeke4 • h ooa• 114•r beoo.ain.c c•••nl oounael of the Jatlonal I.abor Belatlo1ia Joard. -•• th.• aew Waper Aot 1 vh1oh had beea app:roTe4 b7 ,u Pre814eA, Jv.l.7 Ith. I m4 IOI \eton met Maendel’ p•runal.17. lie ba4 be• ceuftl oousel .of ,1w 1..a-..:.- load. ••’ Up uter Jolat letoluUoa •• 44. tat.. lloari W ltHa ••· po•e4 of hu.o1• 11441•• Llo74 Oun••• lu17 ‘11111•• am oU•r•. Jla«”4•• wt•W to :retun \o Me t-.olalnc a\ lanai,t, a»4 •• uaAertutng to o\tala a 1..-ra1 eoueel for tha Wacur J.ot :Boar4 tua belac orp.al1el. Pnl ler­ •oe. who ha4 beea with •• oa tm Solioltor•• atatt 111 laterlor •• a Aollar•-1• 1′-aa froil lav •o.bool, l lean.a ba4 :noo•o4e4 •• to Macnl4•1’• ler, oc later becue oalniaa ot \he lw Tork sta,e Labor lelatioa• Joard u.4. lat•r •Ull, obalnu of the Wa’1onal J.abor lelation• loarcl iteelf. l baTe eo .. s.a.• too tat c•rl•• W,-Halld., thft Solloitol’ of \Ile Depart .. , •t Lalo I’, .,.,, u ••••• Nee of •• Val M4 lwt•• 111\no, Ooun 1.a Joaloa, al•o neoaau.4e4 … ‘bat I aa ae, oer-talri. \’hie ta•••••’••• ut I took the•””‘.., w1,1i lhe leore’617. Re 1&14 tbat 1f I wan:\e4 ‘° co, all right. lnd I f♦ll he wnl4 11ke • to re­ -,,11. l ooaten• Yllh the Boal’4, aad ••’ tua fol’ \be ltrat U•• l. Wa:rna MaU.ea, wllo had co•• ea to VaahiDC’on to be lt• ollaiftlU. !he e\MI’ –be?• n.re lobn M. 0.,?110’7, who 414 Dot remain ••17 1011&. allAl lllvta s. · Id.th. 1 took the poaitton la SepteBer 1936. Macm•r, a aeocl friend oTer tlle yeara, •• hla1elt oalle4 lieu to publ1c ••nloe a tw T .. r, latH• te iA1- • • • – 90 – ttat• \ht a4m1a1etrat1on of ihe J’a1r Labor Studard.1 Act. a• genenl oou••l. Afterw.1’41 he wa• appoin\e4 ,o lhe Otrcnli t Oou\ of .Appe&l • for Uie J’tnt ‘-”<‘.”-‘· : 01r”1-/I,;.·>_1· •’/:.(?.·-::,f:-‘ ,,hich he S.• aov, a.u. .ba• been tor eo•• 1eare, tu 411tl»oi’11• Oh1.,J,l-,e. ,……. . . 11’be Wa,ner lot put lnto effect veq salw.tar, lecltlaUon tor tlMt CO’D• t17 a• a wbol•, U.1ouch i, •• ‘bv.ll, pn•rilJ’ around \he proteoUoa ot cer\a in Nd.ameW rlchl• ot \he working people. I wat graUt1e4 iA •twlJ’l• ,m Ao, to tln4 bev well clnfted 1, va, • .lor W.,ner ha& beea lit pl’lnclpal 1 .. ialat1•• apoanr, v1,a Ooagn?a­ •zi ftlllaa Coaae17 of •••••••”’• Magra.d.er lla4 helpel ia the &ratu-,, a• bu. t.eoa le7aerlla,, tbea oa the 1taff of laa’4,a- Wacur &D4 7•:t• l•••r 1retl4eat !’naan’• eooaoaio a1hi1er. A 1’0UC l•WJ’•?• Phil teq, alao tlu. wi \h Senator Ya.per, ha4. M\e1″iall7 atthte4. !he repon• of the oe•ltt .. , of bo\h the lout• an4 Sena\• whieh aooompanied. the b111 on\o the floor o-oat& iaed expluater:, data 1-lpful 1a uderataa4l».1 the •’•’•’• u4 Ua u4er­ l71nc coa1U tuUonal ba11a • . n. J w.1 appioaoW •• lt•ao• paeral oouatel ,JMt loarcl bu aot …,. to tue\t<ua. there •• a boJ.AoYer daft fro• •• pre-Yaper Aot beart,, la­ cl’Wll.111 a4ala1a\rat1Te aDl lepl per1ouel 1 of whoa .. reoa n• ou. a. lbalea and Jecu,lationa of Procedure · !ht auber• of the old t\att were asud.011• to woric out w1 \h •• 1’111•• am feClllaUoaa to aftor4 the Joard the bet\ poaalble cbaaoe of suooeas 1• the fortheoalag Judicial te■\1 ot our method• of pnoe4ue. ‘1’he :Boe.id hel4 no heann,• until •••• pwceclun• were adopted u4 put lato etf•o\. lotvi th•u”11nc the hla\017 ot tba Ao\ and of the Board. which ••’ be cle• • – 91 – 1cri\e4 at one ot –.itao,u o-pposiUoa, our :rule• of procedttre wttJ’e tO’UCl \o …… 11.-,1. 1atpl’OT _ , &I ,1 •• vent Oil. ‘ fltAt lepl a’laff wolke4 la clo•• touob w1 ‘\h the Boal’4. OhaiNU. -…a … vbo •• ,llllaelt al). allle lav,n • •• eap•ctallJ UJd.0111 to kaov vb&l .,, goiai?n in the whol• orgut•Uon, ud. \o ‘be olo•el7 ad:t’laed ud •••fll’l..t •• -.. atep• lead.inc to tu becin.ung of aoUve operatt.one. W• W to thiu: oat •• b•8’ we oould the ldDd ot M\erial to be pul ia e’rifu.o• ‘° support the ooaatl w.tional applloatt.oa of th.• Aot in par\lcalu oa .. 1. •tter \he hitA\11 4•o1 •1011, ud the 1.u:Nl trend ot hp? · Gov? teo1•1oa•. w• aw w lMt.4 u UJ>.blll tlcht to •••ta tu a.ppl.U•M•• of Ille 4ot to 1a4ut:r, ,…-11,-. But we fell ,bat Ooagnea bad lahlMlel 1, ‘° a.ppl7 WMl’8T91′ ···••Ual later.tat• 00 … N. W&I tn.nlftd.. -4. IO w nat h7 to build recoid.t whtoh vouli ooanaoe the oourh taotull1 of the lapaot of ti. unta.tr l•bor pracUce oa iaters\ate oonerce la the ?’1- c\llar oa.1e . • !here wa• aleo \1- tu pro•••• 11n.e; w, l feli \he ••14eaoe •• ltd• 1 .. ,. wa• larael7 n.aoep’1\le of ?u4iotal aoUoe, taeludtq etau1,1oa of a,nte• NMl \heir oaaaea u4 tll• ht.dory of aelt-orpals&Uoa u4 -.11eo,l’te Ou of our earlier pro’bleaa aleo wae \o cl.n1•• tn•• of ortlera h atfort propel’ relief, tor ea11ple in a oo-.,aq utoa oan, or la ca•• of a· d.t•orta:Laa,ory cU■oaarce, ‘4 tll OJ” vi thou, a t\rike. We were ut ‘bahll&Drle4, becu.ae pr-‘-•oe•ao• boam• hid. -‘• p:rogreH ta •at• 41reoUoa, u4 ve lad. \he 014 land•J’k ••• of ti. rallw.7 clerk• uder the ltaUva, Labor ‘°’• la vhioh OM.et J’usUce Jllcbe• vro\e \he maJori\1 optaioa of the hpre• Oov\. • ha 281 v. s. 584. • – 92 – !be ?oari c.U4 aot 4ritt. U waa aler, au4. allve. Whea we la4 our ptoclC!uret outl11MM\, ·•• ov me,bo4• ot oond.acuac hearincw foNll•t-4, ·,lie Joa? called 1 ‘• f1l”et hearinc in Pl ,hbugh. the Board coA<l.ut.a the .-.. Ueelt, rather tba11 bJ a ,rw exaJld.ne:r. !’aia va.1 the Pan•rl.DAil 9ra.,. hgpd caee. U turn1ehe4 a good test tor \be application of the Act in the f1?4 ot 1a,eretate l1’U.8J’)Ol”taUoa. At a •”•r of taot, lloweYeJ’, the ¢&ff. cot \ladl.7 boage4 down, larcel7 beoa:u.te attel” the Joar.t 4eo111oa v• look 1 t in\o 1Jhe Olrcntlt Ooun of .Appeal.a tor the fhlrd. 011’0111\ tor cfo:r…..,,, u4 that Ooun ucl\u.7 tela7e4 1 ta deol1lo»., 10 tbat the oon1’1 ‘1lttoaal ‘-•’• W to mofl fonl’iud. la other ••••· !hrouch reciou.l office,, each b&na1 a regional dtreo\or, a rectonal • at\ora•1, and. lnTetUgaton, hearing• bean to be called oa loan coaplainte itn.-4 a1ter iD.TetUgatlon of cbllrgea tiled b7 uion.• or el9101 .. •. !hen th.I tn.Ju,notion 11tl,aUon a,;&iad tb.e loan am lt• acenta aoYed lato aoUoa. 1\ aprtad. all oTel” iae CQ\U\117. -lo7ei, rewpoD4eata \o Joan. proc”4 1Jlc• wo-14 go 1ato the 41 a trio\ covt• ot ‘1• Uni \ed ftah• lo e,&Jola llMt ue.nac■• ola1111lnc t!N atante •• uoo1t1U\v.Uonal aa4 tba, a1aoe the proceed.lag, would on•• ll”npa:rable UaJu17 lhroueh d1.r,ipl1nc labe? rel&Uoat, oaualng 1n.oonenteue and e2:pe1e, eto. eto. we ■ho’G.14 be eaJoiaet. We ad.opted. a ao11ele\eat pol107 ot t1pt1n, eaoh •••• rata.r \baa c«u·mnc throu.ch a tev teat 1Jt,Juc’1en auil• vUh a euapentioa of open.Hoa• peruU.ag their •••oo… We wn\ la\o tlrt.e 41 atnol oour\1 ••n•ei· a nl t va1 tlled and •’ 11 b:, filla, a ••ton to dial••• lf that He-4 appropriate, or b7 ausweri.n,: the rul.• to •bow oau■e if one had been 1aeue4. We appeared. • and unde,-\ook to oonnn.ce the 41 ,t rt ct Jwtge1 1A each inataace that ve – 93 – • uou.14 no, be •aJo1ne4. Concnu \1 \he •t•tu\e bad -prowl.a a · oollpl•t•l7· at•t#’• a4J11&11,rail•• prooe4ur•• vt,h Jw.4lolal rnt.ev of »om ••U•• t•: \he)t•?-tt ? ot aweal• after ,be load. Mt 4eol4-1 ,be •••,n •• :.- :\;-!?·\’\” . … . . . . . .. • • rffti.? )ta.cl♦· ltefol’• 1,. 8o we ooa\ealt4 Iba, ooa,tt h:Uoaal ..,,i.-. ·\ ? ;’:-:_. . shcNlcl noi ‘be toucht out \hnnach 41niq,’1•• la.j’UoUea llUcaUoa, lnll . 1Uld•? the prooetun pl’OT14e4 ‘b7 \u Ooacr•••· —-!ha renlt we.a noceHful. Mod of the 411\rlot aour\a lhro-abo•• tbeooua• l’I’ • o.a U1e ba•l• of oaretw. l.epl •1WU•••• 4eaitd. 1-.tuottoaa • peflllttal Jc,•1’4 lleulac• to prooeef.. ‘tt we l••’ 1n a ctt■triol oev, – vhio? va:• •’ of’8- w po.HUA u appeal lo •• clNllt onn ot IPJ)-1.•. ‘lhe \9\al -‘ber ot taJuotha •••• ftal.17 4lapose4 ot •• •’-•’ … •- 4″4. v1,>1 per-.p■ en• ublpou, esoepU.oa ta Uae elp\ll ,1rn1,, l -…11 … al.1 ffUW.ally were 41apoeed. of tawrabl.7 ‘\o the lo…, ••’ ot \Ilea ltefore the hpreaa Co•rt W n.1\at11ed the ooa1\l\\l\loull’7 ot •• Ao, 111.i.t. We aoncl aloac -toward ,u hpr•• o.r, wt \h oet’\ala •••• 4eol4e4 b7 \b• Board •-• ncort• •• a\ ll•l’lJICI uA•r nr proo..S.u.na. WllU• *• •• 101- ea llMt lllpn• Oou-\ ooa•l•t••? 1tqlld. ol•”• \1 4-,lac nnten.l”l, of the lJt.JQo\loa 11\1•\toa. !b.le •• tile po•1Uoa we 11.111.t, eo •• \o raeb. Ille a.pr- Cnl”I for ftl’ cou\ltu,10.i ••••• ud.el’ tu •••••• prooe&ve. !be lolloltor O.aenl, .,.,., •• laonoa. a4b.eN4 \o ’14• 11.tlgaltoa pollo, ot \he Boal’4. We lhoqhl t, •• clu \be ,,.,,.,. aarl Ooacr••• that ,he ooa,u w. ,t.oaal Clll••Uoa• ebo’Gl.4 ‘ba 4eoH.e4 la \he ..,.r ,a.. ••• t•’• ou.tll11d., oa \Jae i-eoold ••• lMfore tu loan, ao\ \hro\’llll altoti-\l•• ta,an otloa lltl,a,ioa. hrilll all ,Ma perio4 we we?• faoe4 vllh a d?oq lecal altaoJr, n.atalae4 ta par\ b1 a \rlet of flt• pl’Olllunt ••ber1 of tu Aae1’leaa be.I’ • • • • – 94 – ‘fhey.c,irculated a oaretul an4 le.net? brief, contend.in,; that the Aot •• u.contt1w.\lonal. ‘l’hla l>rief b•oaa• &ftila’bl• acata•t •• \hrouchou\ ti. coQ.,n. I . .ba1’e alvq• coae14ered thi• -pa:rUcula1″ oupalp qalaw\ the atatul♦• in the tora of a brief ao\ f1le4 in a ca1e, of Tel7’ q,a•Uone.’b1• p:rofe.••1onal propriet1. Ye\ \he brief wa• aigned by men ot the highest atancttaa at the l>ar. l make no pneral ori Ucha of tb.aae laW79s-e. ‘1bit wa• a parH.oular aberraUoa, aa l qv 1t, ot epeoial and lild. hd ohan.oter. A ••• an•• in t!ae bu• t 1,en•h\lA Steel plant la Peua7lYanla, • hu&• .ln.teNtah operaUon. I\ reoe1Te4 ore aAd ra.w •t•rialt hoa out of sta.t• ia lmc• qaaatit1e• a.114 •hlppecl lh pro4uote all o-rei- the Uaited Sta\••• !Ja. ca•e would tvn1•h a fail’ tesUnc of the ay,plloatton of the 1tatute to ma.D.Ufactuinc on a large acale, 1there the lnduatr1 1 helt hd national rudtlca\10111. Ve mo•ed 1 t on at well a• ve oould. ‘°vari. the Sa.pr•• Oout. Another oa•• aro•• ia Ohio, at the plant ot U1e b:eblat !ail1r 9.staenz- alao a la.re• ….. taow.naa operation•- not •• -,. •• Joa•• .A liaqlll.1a. !hen •• • thil’d aanutacturing •••• ld:IP4MP. … IU:U: lllkltt a olo\blJll aanuta.ohrer 1a l’1rcb1a, soaeUae• refe1″n4 to •• •• lttU♦ –.taoturer, • bat e11plo7lag about elcht mm4ncl people. It, lilt• heube.\if aad Joa•• & Lauchl1n, drew it• ra11 material• froa aoro•• eta\• line• into the plant 111 ‘1rattda aa4 1h1pped 1 te procluota extead••l7 1a inlu•1t.te ooaaerc•. !be•• three oa••• became the ••b1•1•• for the ecuu1Ut11tloaal \eat. of the applloatio.a. of the Aot to aanutaoturlng. !he 11ell Jmovn. AIM9Ue\d En•• •••• growia, o,t of the 411ob&rge ot an uiployee muied Morrit ‘lfatson becauee ot alle&ed actiTi\)’ 1n the lev•- • • • – 95 – pap?r hilt, vaa to tea\ ti» appllaaUon ot the A.oi to a la.re• tnten\at♦ 00.1 … tton en\el’pl”l••· wl lb Mn gathend fro• all 0TH’ \he YO.it ·d.l••-• hd . like exteat. flu• let\ transp♦riatloa. Ya had. bope4 \M P1nntt1inni1 Cb:u:bonDd ••• w1114 mo·H aloac, w,. a• ttate4, it waa left Wlde,Olcl.., 1n Uie \h11’4 c1rn1t. In ’11e mea.aUae aao\ber wa• AftilalJle l•- !lme ,,. . hnalau& the Sa:pr … Qo11.rl the opportuS.\7 tor a bJ.”0&4 renew of ti. ••- · .. aU-\llUo•l applicaUont of \he 1tatute. I lllch’ laterpolal• here a little tao14•1 a’toul the Ptu1rb:tll• &tr· bePD4 ca••· Ml’. ltolu>n Watt,. • .. ooiate cueral ooueel ot \he -.n, • Te’f7 able law,er, parlicularl7 competent — al thft&h aot ao 11■1 \e4 – la trial woric. preeented the e’rid.•nce ‘before the 3-1″4 la a11ppol”t ot \he ooa- . plat.al. When th• hard. had llad.e 1 t, ol”der reqa.triac certain atttru.tln aot1on to ‘be taken b:, the ooap&JIT, inolutttnc rein.1tateeat ot •o•• aplore••• ud. t» reoord wa, tileA lfl th the 01rC\1.l t Oourt ot Appeal• tor the fhl.1″4 Cli-n.1\ for entoro•••’• Mr. Wat\t am I la d:a.a oov•• wen, up to 1’Wa- 4elpl.lla ‘- u•cu tlwt oa••· ‘I.be o.ourt •• ooapotel of I>reai41ng l\ldce Jotepll Ja.ttt.n«to•, Mee Ttetor Voolee7, and Juqe J. 1farna Da.-11. lmce luttl.ag\oa w.e then I tldlllt la ld • etghUeth 1ear • qi vae eomevbat baid. ot hMl”I.JiC. · Ia a»T 8’f’ent, vhen I atood. v;p 1n the ftae 014 courtrooa to· lied.a the a:rguent, \he follovtnc1 nlletantiall71 oecu.ned. I u.id tha\ tu ••• aro•• thro\’ICh lectalatioa enao\e4 under tu oo … roe olau•e of tu Ooaa·ututl. oa. h.4ge htflll&to• l,atel’T11pted •• aJMl. leaaiq a ‘bi, forwa,t aoro•• Uae ‘bench, tai4, ‘Whal 1 t \haU• • • • – 96 – l laid the case aroae u.adtn• the co11J1eroe clause of the Conatl tuUon. He •••• •Do 7011 •n 1u• I •14 110, I 414 ao\ baTe • COJ’T of ti.. OoattUutioa vl th ••• bv.! t refe?NNJ. to lta poalH.oa la the Coae’Uttltoa. Be 1ald, WVhere 1• tit• I repeate4. 1ArUole I, Seo\1oa llll. olauae 3. tt lie thea 1a1a. ‘Well 1 ba.ve tt.• !.ureupoa. :Ile took fro• the ‘beach or froa hl• -pocket — I•a not “1Y9 whioh — a atu 11 t,1e booklet contai.rdq \be tut of tlle -OOneU •••••• ••’t- 41 Tl4-1 nt>:utr pla!.al.7 iatG 1,a 41ttereat arUole• ud 1eotloa1. AJl4 be bUc!ed t.t to •• aoro11 tlut ‘beach al4 aake4 • to polat out ,ia. ola•••• t took the 11 Ule book aa4 foud the –•N• oln.ee aa4 l’aaAed 1 t bamc ‘9 ht.II po1nUna to the ol•••• a.ad 111.H., •!here l, 11. 1 lle then leaned back aad ,o..,,iat audi\17 read the co11merN olauet •to rqul.ate co•ene v1 th \ru, torelp aaUoa1 1 and AIIOJSC the teTenl atatea and with the Intlian trtbet.” !hen. he said. •Are \here U7 toretcn aation• 1a’fttlYe4.?• I ea14. DO. lie ea14. ……. tun • .,. In41aa trll>•• ln.YOl ‘YM l 1 l ea14 ao. Re aal:4, •u IIIQ.at be co••”• a110na u,. ••nral ■tat••·• I uid. im., vat OOl’reo,. Be \hea au.a what lh1s lav MA to 4o With co … toe uoac \he 1\atee. I 11ho pr-ooee4t4 vtU1 ‘Ill” arguea\ wt\bo\ll la-. ‘\enupUoa am “1th apparently ••rt olo•• at\enUon. 1 vaa fleftl” q,d.te aure vh7 Judge .h.ttinatoa ..,.n, tbnql i-.t little perfonumce vith •• OU aich\ apeoula\• about 1 \ • • • • – 97 – The A1gaiatt4 lrt•• ea•• cue up \hrough \he S•oond Oirfti\• an.4 loa,e t ?W.&A tuoqh \he Jitth. lormal.17 1 t vould bl:re been take to \.h• fb.11’4 C1rou.lt ‘bu’l •• Coapa.BT tu. 1rulu•• ta Bew Orl•••• &ad l>e0&1Lte, tf the 4-1a, we wr• •s»•ri•JlCin« la baul’lnaia lttDAJP4 •• cU4 ao\ o \bel’e. fr«mmuf vat in the Sixth CircuU • ad ‘Jrt9tpp-Bara: l!IIDI in Ule Secolid:. ‘lh1a OOJIJ)U7 414 bulla••• 111 Bew Tone. Al though aortilal.11 the ••• a,aiatt i, would JaTe ,oae to \he Jourth (ft,r•·U• w had a oholce u4 wtahect \o ••• a –.faoftring ca•• ‘be.tor. ? S.oend Oil”CUi t. lunzrc• ven Ml.cl am cleo11ion1 ade ‘7 tb• Board la ….. ether •••• aotwltutud.iq \he iaJ,lActloa lt Up.Uoa. !he priaolpal araue••• a,aa,, the 00111t1tuttonallt7 of the ,tatut• weh twotolcl. ftnt. 1, wa, 1&14 Coqs-••• atkap,e,. to OOYeP too •• 6114 had ?c•t4ecl the oo••i-c• power nen if a etat11.le of ure liai tecl appllcaUoa would ••• b eea ft.114. A aor• 41ttieu.l t question., •• U •••Md to •, •• whether lhe relaUoaab1p of tu oon4eaa.e4 unfair labor pn.ctioe• to the prot.cUon of ta,ental• ooueroe •• tM 1a41reo, or reao,e. !be U’I\UNJll \lat l t -· ,a1ne4 qporl fro• lklaa.t,,. reoenu, dect.4-4. · Vn4er our 41aal •7-‘•• of &onnMIII, tederal u4 •• -.. \lie oev,e ••• bep \htt bala?• \etween. wba, l• local aa4 wba:\ 1• aa\lollal, what ta ta,n••- aa4 wta, 1• ta,•r•ta••• 11 w.a coa•••• ••• the repla\loa et uatalr labor pn.oUc••• ban.a« to do vith u aaaplo7er•• 1M.fK1.1a,e 1’81’11ou ‘Willi alt e1Jllo7•••• wuthel’ Jae oold.4 c111oharc• t.b.ea, tor na11ple. tor uiea aettY:l t7, •• ta the local &I’•• IYeA U’ the oJata ot neat, aipt neah&>.17 haw tntera’-‘• reperouHlou tt wat aa14 \ala •• l.Uno\ a.ad ‘8o “•’• ‘e coa• wllbla llbe fed.eal oonerce pewer • – 98 – • ‘l’h? feeling varied vi thin the Bo11rd organization as to whether we bad • • e good chance to tuetain the ,,atute 1n 1 ta application to manutactun.ng, aim.nc, aaul \Q like. vhieh .a, eHential if the ,tatute we to have a ‘broad ara of operation. I was fairl7 confident 1n td\’wt.tions -where th. maautacturln,: conaern, ae is gexu,n.117 true, •1 ther cbew 1 te tuppliee or •hipped 1 t1:1 products fl’Om or in iater1tate coue:rce. But du to the reeen• deelatons in Sgatonter. Mtu:. and .11\ll’QAsi ieuummt tb.11 WLI bJ no ••n• the 4oa1ant view of our laqer1. I thought bM9Mtt dealt wt th a 41fferen\ problem. ftMtre •• 1M) strike there actually lnte:rrupllng 1ateretate co•eroe. Op.((U ws 0lo1e1” to our situat1oa. ht we took hope troa the fa.ct that Obief h•tlce lo.ghat Aid aot Jola in the .111aJori ty opinion 1n 91.UtX• fhe dU’ference b•tween hlt Tiewe and. those expreued in the Su’therland preftilicc opinion w.e, I fel ,, 111d1oa.t1Te ot the dU’:ferenoe \he Chief’ lueUee might feel bet””a the Ooal Aot end the latio.nal Labor Relation• Aot. I also had some hope that Ju,tice Tan DeTanter raight ‘be vi,h “”• l>eca\lae of hi• earlier decision•• parttcul.arl7 1n \he 9111plo1er1’ lla\111 \1 oa•••• Darinc a coo4 part of h11 tenure o.n the Oour, he had taktm a ‘broad ‘f’lw of the ooaerce pow•r. I won’t epecul.•te :tvther aboti meaber, of the Oour,, but 1 41d feel coat14ea\ of ov conttltutlonal argument. I thO’llght our -poeiUoa would be accepted at a logical consequence of the btitlter precedent■, including ‘\he Qarr:Pt4e Qpal and ld&d S’9Ae hitsrt ••••• rud 1tlth •o•e ot the Tiews e:JJ)r•••ed. ia §\attad T. VAl,Aaca aad QM.qyq laam 9, ‘rut v. A&lftl• tho\lgh I did not expeot to wln oa’ the ao-oallecl 11ttNU of co11merce• theory of ikffprd T. WJlltUlt- ht aome of the atatemente of the opinion 111 tha\ ••• as to the – 99 – • ted.•? power to ooa,rol local aoUrl ties “‘ere applicable to our d tuat”1oa1 that{-}?•• :1\ le aot deo1e1n ,hat the natter :regulate4 ta loc:al lf t,•. ?• … -,i<: . i·:-::·.·. pacl:’.J.1•:••••r•tata. • • !’r·? ::·• -? ;’?, :,”_;.;. ?<:” . l?{\·.:.i.,. Beed ,., lollottor leneral, with an. a\le •tatf, iaoldf.-,, Mr. Cb.ilea A. Horalq a.n.4 Mr .. Henr1 M. Ba.rt. Mr. A. I. 1ellett vaa ltofl’odl fro•. the JaU tru.et dlvlatoa ot the ?l11ent of Ju1Uce aad Mr. Charle• w,..-.ic1 from the Depart•ent of Labor. We had &a al>le croup too. tt0•• of vbo1ll wt.11 N:hl’ ‘° la\er. .bi our eooaolli.•t• PT• ftlu.’bla help, •• ,? bu u a,ller ,tap• of •• uartac• and lltlpUc.a, u.cler·•• Dant •· S.,oat. 1M hpi-eme Ooun pu.tt4 oertton.1-1 ta the fl•• •n• I haYe … ,tou4. la ·? -.ataonrlac ca••·· ilhl ·t-kllWbliP.e MIian-inn Ian• ad. ? ll&lat. a 4itterenoe ot opiaioa aro•• between th• SolioUor ?eral ‘• 1taff u4 ou.:t•-1••• at 110 \he bneflq of the oa•••• One ,obool of tho111h\ •• appUQa,Uo-. of the Ao, ,o .,.,,,, large mn,ata.olul”lna •’•’Pl”i•••• ‘bul \bat u· ve ,r?•–‘ ,,roncJ.7 -for Mtlrn-•m Marl£• ’11• 11ap,…. Oour\ •iehl Yell aaoept ,._ al”l\1,JIGI of ou oppoMata ta,, •• thlt Gonnaaeai 1n\e1’J)ft\e4 t.b.e law. u.- Co»,creH hB4 oYenMOW. lt• C011a•ne r,on•. lmM’I( la,- ••-· vbe?. la ‘between .. •• woul4 Mt aooept thb Yiew. belie’rin, u to be 1nooa•l•bat wt th ihe Ooao-••nonal 1n,ea,. l thooeht al10 \bat 11 414 ao\ make good. legal .-,., bellennc ,ta, it tbe ,tatute applied. to Jen• t latvhl.&a 1, applle4 lo lnataa?Hanz -HlrJt•. I ha4 11 tUe fa1 \h la ,ia. •• ,,. .. of co … ?.• theoq. ,ame-r vhioh it vas tho?\ the Oov’\ ate.ht aooep\ the etatat•’• appU.oaUon to /QUI + Lavhl,l1 nt AO\ to Jri,claa-hnx Mntkt• • • • • 100 • Y• .,. … told lb• Soliottor General had aooep\ed the more 11111\84 viav of Ill• ••ft• bu, l re,l1M he cnld. not 4.o to ,-1 lbout lltlentac lo “*• · So a J♦lat \16denaoe vt.tll the hllel tor 0.a•nl vat uru,e4. !he coatt”‘••• ·?/ ‘ . •• .·”· 4•1•rlline bov to apprttath \he h;,r••• Covt vi th \he ‘b•at ohuee ot n.••1A1DC tlwt &J)-plioaUoa of ,_ statute 1011•vMre be70nd tuterata\e tn.ae­ J>O:ruUoa ? 001111urdoaUon. Mr. MaCfllder ?• cal.let back. Ml”. Ibo•• le-4 l’ow.11, I bel1•”‘” then \h♦ ?l”ino1pal teaohe:r at conati \uUoDal. law at larial’Cl* •• alao csallM in. fhe Joard croup iaol”4e4 Malden. Ve •11111-4 1 t out \ef on the 8ol1ol tor haeral. a. 4eo14e4 t4\h •h• Joard. S. 1&14 O’lll.1′ po•U10D •• a laqel’-ltlr:e and !’-.sona1-1e ••• mul 1:t ve wl•hecl the •••• •””1-‘- oa a broat \att • tbe <Jovenaent t.boul4 4o •• lfhea the 4► . oi•l•A a• \o aeope of pnt11u1taUon •• made there•• ao r•Uoao• o.- lau of olll on the :part of hie ,tatf 1n briefing the oa••• in the \eat po .. 1- ble •u,,:,. We contiaud to vonc oloH17 w1 \h thea. the oral area••’• ot the ca••• ‘°ok: plao? in. l•l»rur1 1937, ahor·u, after the p:reeenta\1011 \J \he Pret14a.nt of hle plaa toi- reorpnlsaUoa of the J,ullotaq. lt up, “11 lie tba\ the Pn,114•.u••• pla.a avak…._ … – ,ldy la \he Gou•t vhlo!l ooatri.’b’Clled to the tawralll• renl\. 1 oauot -,. 1 f•lt w tboul.4 vl• Oil,_ •ll’lotl7 lepl ‘ba•1• oa OOAl’1t’1Uoaal law •• l t bat 4eYelo-pel. u4 lla4 ‘been r.1uso:aabl7 oonfl.cleat. tboqb. 1)7 AO aeaa1 nre •. !he \aalo oen.1U\ut1onaltt7 of the statnt•• u4 1’8 applloaUoa to ,., …. , … oo••n• 1 ltelf • tuch •• ir&AIJJ)otttaUeA ud OOIIINBioatioa, W u4 therefor• for Uie oo,mt17. ws \l’U\hel’ 1 tt appliea’llon to anta0’1l1’1JIC u4 malllc w,alt\ alto ‘be llel.cl \o be witld,11 tbe fe4•ral oo•eroe power • • • – 101 – While I bad no part 1n the frea14en,• • plan anA takea ‘b7 wrpri••• t bad. • j,otn\ of -n.n. l ‘bel1e’h4 the 8apre• Cour\ had beta aklq vro»c · con1lt.m,10-.1 A•o11lo».1. I 1111pl7 414 mt a1re• •• a laqer vtlh •i. oo.-e 1\ ba4 b .. n pv.Nut.»c. And Ohlet lu1tioe Huch•• bad. cltHeat-4 .1ll ••?ral cnlieal ••••• for taaple, la \be lstlar ht\aMAt •••• an4 be vould not. go a• tar a, the u.Jori t7 in h,f(R. Jurther, be W. Tlcorou1l7 tough\ to ••• the Cov\l natata atm.au vac• lave. lt t}M fhtpr-. ecnu,, bid. toll.owed. 0¥et J11aUce lbche• l \hlu the hed4•n••• 4tteaUataoUoa wo\lld. ao\ <,llave reaoW ,11e c\ecr•• that lM to a frontal attaOk upon ?. Oovt. flle ooune of 4eo1tloae wa• to e.x\NJN ta 4l•blinc effort• ? Cenp••• to ••’ t!MJ problem• of tlae oountrJ tbat a attoncl7 natonecl ualleap •• ta order. The Ce•rt vat rep•t..U.7 1\l’lJtlng 4owa alatute,. both 1\a\e aa4 tecl.•ral • \7 ••Fr (II.et Hou.bl• coa•ti tu. Uonal d.eot don.■, vi th btpl7 napeoted. mlaortt7 opinion• T1prou1l1 pl”otetltllC vlthia the rank, of the Oour\ 1 \telf. ‘!be 1ubJec\ 1• well bud.led \y lober\ ll. Jaclcaon• • ‘book. ftla !llJlCll• far l»4,1Q1tl Sgrw,z .. 1941. 1 touoheA nob 1••• acteqv.aiel7 upon iu …. abject ln the Oeo’f’le\owa Lav lniew, lall Ml Uoa ot 1949 • tJ, a too haeUJ.7 prepar.a. e.rliole. I 414 aoi like \he part1oular plaa tu Jtreet4eat ‘PIVP••ed.• wbloh el.eo\ l”lfte4 Wa1hl»ctoa am tii. oouatJ7. ? l.a’bor Joari arpaenh •• oa la a dra•Uo atmoaphere. emplaaalae4 b7 tlMJ curreaq of tfferal. larte atl’it••• laoludln« 11 \-d.ovn drikea. li ••••eel raiber otd \o ttueaHoa lepll7 wbat ffeJ7oae then kMY tact.i.11. tbat interstate oo•erc• •• ‘belnc fiqe4 all over the pl.&ce ‘by 1tr1lce• due to ,.. tla4 of thlrag the Wagner Aat •• deelpe4 to pre•ea.t. l tbla ti. – 102 – • the court of \he real. etteol on tater1tate coueroe of pracUoet the Act pro?\?•4111. !he Paa1te•l 11 Mown •’rlke, tor enmpl•• pew out ot untai’:r • • , _ ·_. _ _ . .. . la?)” praoUo••• !he1e did aot Ju1Uf7 nah aa illepl atrike, but the pl’act:l.o•• vhioh let to \hit laterru.ptloa to inter1tah ooameroe were tho•• the Act 80\llht to l’elle’Ye. !be. fl•• ca .. • vere argued ln ncceaalon. J’or \he leard. \he tl11e •• dhl’tl.ed between Sol1ol tor OeAaral Reed., Mr. Maid.en, Mr. W,,aan1k1 uxl 111••lt. la lal• preparation tor the 8’1.pHJ11e Cour\ arguenta lb-. Bee4 had cone vitb. • ln\o the Sixth Oiraa.lt to share the arguaent of the lmbm( ea•• there. Bl• old. olraut t oovt &&Te hl• a 4.lffiaal, ti••• lnlt lMt made a 1o♦t ,tn-c erg111eat. It wa, al••• lJBpotdble then to coannce aq ctrcui, court t:bat the 1\&tute coultl apJ>l7 \o a&m1faoturing. ftlo•• court• \ooJc tu Tiew that if oar oafft vere \o be di tt:ln«a,lshed fros Qufta:, fol’ exaapl•• ,his 1houl..ti be doae by the hpreQ Oourt which had 4ectdecl 9»-Uu. The Solioi tor General. Madden and lf7aa111ld ade exoellen, ,uwumente ia the Sapreme Court. 1 wa• Dot able in the d.i•iaion. of poir.l’h to preeent ‘\boNl’JCllalJ’ m:, 00 … !’Ge tUOri.911 lnl\ Mr. Jlee4 OOftJ’ed \J:aea. Ill’. Jom w. l>a•1• &rC\le4 for the Aaeocla\ed PN••• .&a 1• well knoWD. he la aa aoooaplleb.ed adfteate. llr. leM of PlUaburch arpet for Joa•• & Laughlin and. Mr. William J. heh•• of Wa1h1qton tor the :Bue Oompa1V”. I think all the •••• were well presented oa bl”let, and arg\Ullenta. ‘!’he Oov.a-t we ••f7 quiet, with few qu,u,tton.1 durlng the mJlT hour• ot pnaentaUon. The arguaa\e are pdnhd ln Sena.le ltocumen\ Jto. m.. 75th Ooacn••• together w1 th tboae made in the lallvq Labor Act ca•••· After Ui• pa•eac• of a tev wek• w went 4ovn on. oplalon 41171 avatUnc the deohion.t. O.bairu.n W.d.en and I vere there st tune el.de b7 side whea the oplnloaa did come down April 12, 1937. ‘l’bq are reported 1n 301 u. s. beginning at page l. • • • – 103 – rs. as.”baequent ILB Li Uc.a Hon .’lhe Boa1’4 vaa obltpd. ,o ex:panil u, •tatt. the wr1c: took on eaol”JIOU• pn,-rtt•••• And the?• vu a • teaq nlue of 11 \lptioa 1’eaohlnc tu a.pre.: Oout. Ia the Tera be,taatnc 1n Oolober, 193’1, ve bad f1•e or •tx oaae, \htl”e. ‘ll:Le Solloi ‘°r General a11lgned. Iba to •• fo:r arg,saeal if l vt1ht4• ·at14 t or Mr. Watte, J.11oob.te General Oouuel, would preaent thM. le &1111\tcl the wll lm.eva oa•• ot lttn T. l•\ilthta lM»b&l41&c Otmn $>$, u. ,1 .. 41 (1939), am tt• 0011putoa •mort •m gq. •· bm:utn,x: .. 3:>3 u. •· M. ‘-•• a.e4. the iDJuoUon llUpUon, amt are 1eaA1nc oaff• oa the r•latlonebli, ot the covb to a4.mil’lhtra·U.•• acenot.e,. Yati.. by tbe -,,, bad »la,ed. a peat role la lbe 1Jl.1u».otion lUtptlon. .lt ttt. 1a• 1937 tent I aqued t,pta Qm? 303 U. 8. 463, anolher eonet1,1dloaal •••• and lbe b:91.fi,q Utt EMPftZlDDil kaao»P4 ••••• 303 u. s. 272, 303 u. s. 261. the lUi,aUon oon111ae4 o..-e:r a ‘broad. ti•ld.. The wont 9pree.4 aal pia..4 1n ’90lume. We vere in allot the o1roult 00\\rla of the tr.nUe4 Iv.tee a, oa. ‘1M or ano11her, aail la eoM of 11hea often. ‘Ihle Mant adcU.Uosaal. oa1e1 coa.1\ari tl.7 kucklxac a\ tu cloor of IM hpN• Court. !he Onrl waa pa•rou ln \ald.nc ••••• to ald. in oladt,,inc ,-. load.’• Ju,rte4lotlaa aa4 b pa.Hlag upon \he \11>•• of relief pemi ttea. to \he Joart. A great ftrie’F of ftU•tlon• aro••• l will appeml a lie\ of the hprea• Co\U’t oa•••• with oUaUon• ‘9 the report,. lfbe reaul t w.1 a Tery broad. pant \o the Joal’d of J11rit410’10.11 aDtl reaecUa1 au,ho1’1 t7. the Sapn• Court hll.7 recogni1e4 the .1.Jwor\aaoe of tbe 1tatute all4 of ,he part the Court 1 tselt vae called upoa to plq 111. 1t• appl1ca\1oa and. adralnietraUoa. Chief Justice lluche• nl pl’eti41ng during tht.a perlocl • • • – 104 – .1 eball men.Hon I.Md T. J’aiA)ln,tl, 30& u. s .. 601, in which the “n.•’1- \uttihal arcwae\ took a 11 \tle diftenat tona. !he CompUT d.ld •• tt•elf ebltiv,.;.::, l-\• goo41 la la\u?ata\e comu•oe, b,at aolcl tbu r.o.:a .. ,he -,ia.,. the ta\,;;.u,e ehipaent wae aa4• ‘bJ’ 1alnl>latl•• cudoMr. l•Ye1’the1••• the · Oov\ ftttained the applloeUon of \he Aot in lht• taotuai d\ua:Uoa. 1er it•• no\ a ll’l••Uoa of tiUe to the oo•ene ‘but of \hff coaaerce iteelf. Mr. Justice koJe,-nold.1 •oucht turiq 1111 arcwaen\ to draw ou\ how tar tba Boal’A 1ntende4 to ao, lie au:ed eoaetld.ac to the •fteot 11hat 11 a put• :pr••••r in Jl’ev tori£ teat a pair of pan.ta aoro•• tM 1’\a\e line 1ato ,,, ler,-, would. tu Joan ••• JurlacU.o\loa? l tal4 I thoqht Dot, ‘b•oaue l npi,oaect the dootriu k lltliBlt applioa\1• ln lav ,.nerall7. ‘””‘1.4. applJ ‘° \he ooueroe pove.-. Mr. l1i1Uoe Stoae, wbo wrote the opimoa, eat.4 ••• \he I& aillsWI ral• dld aot spplt \o tbe qu.nU\7 la’f'()lTed.. I bellffe th11 11 the fir1\ r•f•n•• lq ,ae Oou.r, io the 4• l!a&na Nl• la a con.••1 tu- Uonal •••· !ti• oi1.c1a ot ,lM tn• ot order \be Joar4 ueed. ltt. a 0011paq 4om.-.,e4 wd.oa ca.ee … , ….. ,.a \he Joari.. ant oaa \e ,n.cl4 ‘ba.ck to the ra11-,. Gl.•l’k• ••• l ••• •aUoul, lue•.A la Orl.MU J!ai\yp PQ. •• lmtblrw4 ot :t,3,lXl,;t OllRI• Ml V. I. 148, ortct.wl7 d.eo14’4 b7 1114&• Jo,.,Jt. o. lldebetoa, aov amt for •• 7ean •• the Jtf\ll Oll’Oa.1 ,, ta.11 a 41 atdo\ .juqe in iraa,. ·!he 14i1a1tablt smaea,• ord.•r vhioh there lad 1 t• ol’icta vaa adopted bf the load. ill SeoUoa 8(2) •••• anl. wae n.atalnel “V the hp:r••• Cottrt la the Pu\Oa inttlm81 Qa•etz oa•• alread7 1’efel’N4 \o. o,her orde:rt of \he Boatl wre lmportul la aakln, \he Ao\ efteotl •• )7 ?.el7111C ooad.1…. bTOugbt about b7 uta1r labor praa’1c••• tnolwtlng the • r•i•etat .. an.t et ?lo,-.. , wl tb ‘baalE par, vhloll •• exp1’e1el7 au,thol’ltecl D1 the ,ta\ute. • • • – 105 – There were alao pro\lMt of adlli.niatl”atiT& law in term• of tair J>l’Ooed: U:s-et. One Ol’l Uoal penod crew ou\ et the Meroa oaae, 299 u. s. *• •• vhi?ii. came \1p tlanqh \he ».p&rtmen\ ot .tcria.l\u’N in 1937-1938. ‘-· s.p,–. Court nale4 Uat a 4•aie1on ot \he hontary ot Agriaull\ln. •IMl•11 the hck•r• aXMl S\ock7an., lot, va• lllftl.14 because he W DOI ntflolenQ.7 001\114encl the record, or atforied the parUet ueq,aate opportu11U7 ‘\o o’b- . t#f’I \ala h1• 0011,Uentioa ‘befo:re he j{,aae \he final 4ea1aion. the ca•• \ook o• tr•••o•• iapor\anoe to the Boal’Cl aa4 o\hes- ace11ale1. A lal’p part of tbe hr aAd auob. of tu pr••• ooruicterect ti a ael’10\lt ‘bl.ov, partt.lJl&larl7 to·,? tabor Joard, vb1oJ!l •• u4el’ ••Tere1t aUaok. !he po,d\le lapaet of the teoieS.oa crew ou.t of Ute taot 111a, la •• ….. a1 ta balv1DIII irtlrlamaD4- the Joard. l \eelt beaJ’d the end.tao• anrl -4• it• own find.iap a.ad. i.eoidon vUbcnd u. tatenecliate repo:r\ o.f a trial e:alllaer1 vhlle 1a othH• •••• a trial enaiuer pn,tlde4 an4 woultt Dk• h11 fia41q1 and ren•el’ld.&Uoa■ aa to the ordet” he tho•h• proper. !be parUea could \hen tlle oltJ•oUoa• before tu loan. and •J”IUe \hell oran,. er oa l>ri•f•• after vhtell ’11• 3eard., “Uh \Jae •••l•laao• of the l’fflev U.n,toA. of ,, loan.•, 1eca1 • tatt • •4• 1 h teollloa. Aaother .. ,11o, •• to• ,1ut Jean \o 4•c14e th4J oau vl th the a11l1tuoe of the :r•’f’iew it•llloa lt lt wteW. whicb •• 11M&al, at,er the tnal ••ld.aer bat ,uea the ‘••U••lll’• ?a tbea• o&MI the parUe• were aot f\in.lehecl fln41BC• or l’llc&llllea4attona of ti. ,na1 •.zaad.aer or propote4 flndb«• oF ooul.11.tiona of lhe Joa1″4 be … fore final Joart tectetoa. The Joar4’• peUttoa fol’ entoree.a, of 1,1 order la IG»J?l,iq l)ttl, W la••• tiled. in ,be Ud!’d. Olrcutt. !here had \Mn a lenc’to’ hu.r1DC before a trial examlaer, ln:Lt t.be Board bad 4••14414 tne oaae without a trial e-.ad.aer’• report, am without t1rung tenw.Un ttn41np • • • – 106 – ot 1 •• own.. .Aaother laportant oa.ae ln ,u uu procedural aUuaU.o•• ••••»- (.;:, . V?•r \he •’6,ute, a oirouU court of appeal■ 414 not o’bWa Jvl.•U,o- , . ··¥,, . — . \toJf’.dUl tlw l•al’Ct noor4 we f1le4 1d th the OO’llJ”t. t’hie bad. ao\ l»eea tone ln JlculJJ.&A §tt,t1 when lorgg we.a 4eoi4e4. !he Joe.rd alkect u ‘6 Mn•• wbelher. ln \he l.ieht of Mpny., \he proo•u.n the Board had toUowO. la lf»»)lit ffgl aad. lg,£4 wo’1.1d be natalnecl. l ac1Tiae4 \hat ln rq aplaioa the l)rooectue wa1 a4eqa.aie, la con.tme\ w. th tba, the hpN• Cou.ri llad. ,•- 1)\\4?••.S. t.a lama, lnl, ta, t.a nev of l:n:cu tt •• \UlY1 •• \o nu ,.•••• la \1-ia- pr•••• ,01\11.N. l oo,meele4 ttat the Boat’4 reooadler ‘••• lane teatati’N flndlnct. ci•• pel”ll111ioa to the parU•• ,o ftl• o\Je0Uoa1 tllei-e\o, and then re4eo14e tu oa•••· !be Joan. aooe,te& \hlt acl’f’lce a.a4. tmpo•e4 upon ua the t• of 1etUnc ,’l,)l,lq sw,, •• tn• the !hiN Ot:rcutt. We fllH a aoUoa to \bat end., a4’t1.■lac \he covt tul.17 and tJaM17 of ou plant to ••’ ••?’• the oJ’der of the Joal’d.0 to 1e”18 ••n’-u.,. ooa … olutioae u4 f1n41iac•• eh. , u4 \o h4eol4• the •••• !be oomgaq op,oaed., appa’J”•n\17 aot wl tld.111 •r• du• pl’Oo••• lhu 1, M4 o\Wa.a. It -,.a IO 4oul>t to ‘beat ,u Joan oYei- •h• Md bJ r•aoa of Btme? !be atl’O’U♦ aou?, l’efu.ael ov Nqae■t and 41reoled. th• loan to file 11.a.e J”eoonl. Yld•l would be.Te ••• , … the OO’fll”I wl ,ia J\U’ttd.to,1oa. Ve ,ook lbe _,,.r 11p vtth lollolt•r 0.neral Jaokeoa. an4 told bi.a \!at it ve ta1le4, •• ve aov ez:, eoteA, ta tliae ‘lhin. ClJ’O’I.U, ‘° rep1a control of the Jll’OMe4lac-, we wished hl• oa ‘behalf of the :Board to ftle aa orielaal peUtloa la the s. .. pr•• Oeu,rt to• a vrl ‘\ 41reott4 to tbe Jwlc•• of’ the !bi 1’4 Clrov.1 \ to nq:a.1 re \hell to rel••• ■uoh Jurl.ad.lo\loa •• “’91’ alalatd \l\91 ha4 aJlll pendt • • • – 107 – the -a.rd to do what in good fa.Uh 1t va• trying to d.o. Mr. J’aolcaon said that he -would. be d.elighted to do ao. t(e vei,.t ‘baok to Philadel.plda. for rearcuent ot our aoUoa tor recoa• id♦tatlon, it l N1Hm’ber the exao\ pleading. Our arrangement w1 th the Solio1 tor Geun.l’ • office waa that if ow motion were denied. – •• we at1t1? cipatecl – the p&per1 which ver• ready for an orlglml appU.oaUoa to tl:le Supren Court would be filed. tbat afte:rnoont a hid.a,. !he 1.b1rd Otrouit adhered. to its poe1tion am lolicltor General Jaokeon, on behalf of the Board.. filed the peUU,on 1n. Ute Olerk’• office ot tb.e Supreme Oourt t!Mt · ….. at,el’aooa. lo doubt the pap•r• vere oiroulated to the ••b•r• et tu Court for tbe1r oonferenc• oa Sa”1ri.e.1. On Mon4q, who SolloUor General Jaokeoa presented •? peU Uoa ia open oourt Chief Ju1Uoe heh•• 1&14 taat leaTe to file would ‘be granted, a nl.e to ahov aauae vould ‘be taeued. oallf.nc upon t? Jude•• ot the !’hll’d. 01rcui t to 1how cause oa Mol’lda7 nezl, at noon. wh7 the relief aoucht 1houl4 not be cranted, at ‘Which Ume the Oourt would hear arcu.enl. I planud. to Mite the arguaent fol’ the JoaJ”d bat 1n tha tateneninc w•tk vent to S.:naah to ch·• a talk at the fol’WI \here on the “°* of the Joal’4, expeotin, to atq oDl.1 one m.ght. After tbe talk I oame down wlth an aou,e a\taok of appen41cU1• and. vat operated oa at St. lo1eph’• lfoapt,.i \he tolloviag d.a7. Mr. Watte arped the aUer tor the Joard the followinc Monday vith hit u1ul tine a’bil1t7. Mr. loeeph w. ileaderaoa, another able laqel’ am an ot om.noter. who ‘becaae pre114eat of the laerioan Jar A■sootaUon, then one of the attorney• fol’ t:be Bapub11o Steel Oomp&IQ’, preaented the Miter on behalf of \he ,Ude•• of the court. )h•. Luther Da.7. no l••• eaineat, eoa of fo1’111er Juttioe Da,, aDd alto cou1el tor the ?. t bell…• also argued tor the Jude••• On the follovlng Monda7 the Court • • – 108 – came dow w1,n. ih opinion, vri.tten by Juetioe Boben,, 8\l•ta1ntnc the pouUorti it IM Board. In re l,aUQMl M)or 1ti1,1on1 Joa,d, 304 v. s. .49.g (19t); , Ve had. a more pleaean, lat Hal experience ln the .ltJ:i •••• Al ?8’• we bu :l1le4 lhe reool’d and the aou.n acoord.lngl.7 b&4 Jvis41ctton, we ap- , plied w the Six\h Oh•cuil \o J’Malld the case ,o lhe Joat’d, eo that further proa.4.ure oould be had. !he Oout d.1d ao. 1ord peti tloned tbe Supre•• Oout to? a vl’il of oerUoart, w!atoa vae gra11tect. · l arp.ed \he case oa belllll.t o:f . the loan. ‘lhe Su.pnae Oout netain.ecl ,_ · lt.xth Ctreai t tn oae of tbe Obi.et heUoe’• flaea, teol1tou on a4aia1,tn’1Te law, parUoulaJ’l1’ on. ll.w Nla’\loath1p ‘oetwffll ihe J’141olal ud the .,ld.at1ln.UTe 1\laottoaa. ltd lohr g,. •• laU,pMl MME lltl&lhu lotd; all v. · I. 364 (1939h In the Haman· Wta •94 ltlMWl> 9.oll»IDl oaH. 004 11. s. 333. which oaae \o the Court later, there bu al•o been no trial en.Jd.ner’• report or teataUve Joard t1n4tna•. !he· Coun UYerthel••• n.at&1aed thb procec1ure a, O<>Aaletent wlth due pr&a•••· la other word.a, the prooeclue of the Joait t•?l?e4 la Ute lcn@lio Hffl •• Jui ca••• wa■ Tal14 aotwt.that..n4iag ta. lot«M 4•o111oa. h.t 1 ••nr recntuct t-. ooune we atop,9’. U ia 111′ .. l”eOolleo\loll ,.,. allboq)!a .. , req,,d.nct l,J Ooa•Uh.Uoa 01′ ·—-. ‘WMA• eftr the Joart \herea.fter ade a d.eoS.wloa wl thnt a trial uamur• • npoJ>t. 1, tan.i \eata ‘1 Te tim1nca ot th ow before flaal d.eci don. 6. OoaUnued Oppoe1 Hen to the Board · \’be oppo1i ‘1011 nov adop\e4 11aw aetbods. ftaos• oppoaed. \o ,u Ao\ ao 4011’b\ W expected to be rld of lt la large pan thrngh ?1oial deoistoa■• • !bi• falling they ao11gb.t ‘both to uen4 the A.et ucl pul>lial7 to di so:re41 t • • – 109 – tbe ‘??. di the Board. A• a 11&\\er of fact. howeTer, notwi thatandtng 1.a••• ??•lon• .a.ad lleanna•• before the apecial S.Uh Oo•l Hee, the Se11t1\• ,-., ?;·· .,- . ·,; ·., . -; ., ‘ . ,’ .. _·-:.. Octwd_;,? .?• Jduca\loa ad. J.a’boz, and the Bou•• laabor Cont,, .. • • ?? … ,; of iq conseq1D.enoe wn eaaoted uttl 194’1, wh8a the 1’aft-Bam•r iot va• p??°ae4. Jut \h• Board. 4u•1nc all of thla period aeTer ad 1111011 P.•aott .. or q,uie’t,. Powerful elemo\e in the couat17 oppo•ed the .tot due to aa 1lllv1ll.tng:u te to penal\ ‘he eDl&rgeunt of the lntlueace of unlon• am of the rlgh\•_ot aploJ”• prohctle4 b,- \he J.ot. ‘fbia 1• Ulld.eratudable, for ,ei … 4oa 4o•• oAe will1acl7 cl•• up power one thlake n1hil1’ ,o beloac ‘4> ••• Mott ot th oppo•l Uoa •• ea the part of Ibo•• who not onl7 Ulota.pl the a\a’1l\e \o be unoouti w..Uoal, ‘but, when \ha\ waa 1et’1ed., felt Iha\ ta aq .., t.1 l”epnaeaW lta4 peU.07. As tn. T•r• ••• paaaei tbla 1eaUaea\ .Uter the cona\lto.Uoaal teeh our llttga,loa •• aond.110,.a 411riac a n.ataia«l a\taclt upoa tbe ad.ata11,raUYe proo••• ceaff&ll71 4ue •••eaUall7 \o \!Mt ll’Olfih of ac•m•• DA•• ‘h• iooseTel, leialaUTe progn.a. 1-H acn•l•• ver• ct•• 1Alllal i’eepo111l’bl1U7 foJ’ the replation of tm.u,\17 la ..,- M8Jt•o•• •• uowa lteten, ta al’•• no\ •.al.7 ot labor l”•laU••• lntt •f •rlceM,,111 of Mftrill••• •••• of 11,u1tte11 a,1’10llltun •rk•Unc, ….. naioattoa•. we•• aal hova, •••· !he uv •••u.••• ant adld.at•tn.UT• ope?t1oa• touou4 pn••• ind.u•\17 anA lad1T1duala 1a a recuJ.ator, …. , aon u\en•t.•el.7 \baa ..,.,. before. foae of \be aceaei•• •• n.bJeotecl — url I thlak p•rhttp1 ••• ln the vbol• blt\ol’J’ of \lie coulq – ‘- l\1,Ch .,,aolr:e &I ,_ J.abol’ load aAUNA •. Wn•nhel•H• tbe tao, 11 ,., umer deot.sloa at\eJ> cl•oldoa et \be co”-“‘•• • S.aolu,Uq the hpreae Coui-t, the Labor loard. a4111at,,nuon am lt• pl”Oced.- • • – 110 – \U’ef,?ttre w•ta.1n.d a• contit\en\ with funda••ntal fairness. tfne• oppo•i non, la 11i1{?,\at•a. dl4 •’ Na\ to ach on deteo’1n adai,Jl1etl’ll1itoa •• oa 4•,p.:­ root,t,oono•ttioa to ‘IMt 4ot 1 taelt. fhe 4o, p.w lepl prot•cttoa to ••· n1?•- of the 1nd1 Yi.dual vom•• ? ch.o H bl• ecwn repreeenta U ••. &114 •• a •–• ot d.ota« ao \o Jola a UA!on of bi• ow ol:!olce, am throuch •Jor:t.•7 repNuteataUoa. Ullinfiunct\14 bf oollp&DT domlna:tton, to dt at the ,.. · taltl• bargalnlmg w1 th the eaplo7er. !hie wa.a at the TOot• of the oppoetHoh , ,.r.. »oaid. ,hen at ’11.e oealer ot oppodtioa to adaiaittra.’1•• a,eact.••· ··••-117. the t1 wauoa •• ad• 110r• 41ff1cul t vllea tbe Coner••• ot IJMlu•lrtal Orgam.1a\1oa• va• tora• ilpllUS.q the labor •••••• t.helt. Ott•• the Joatd. vaa ln th• oeat•r also ot lhlt con\JIOftl’q, which•• not thpl7 ?•-tween emplo7’9• a.n4 employ•r•• but betweea the Aaerloaa reaeratlon of Labor a.ad the OIO. ‘l’he Board •• attaolte4 b7 eaoh •• ‘belq pa1″‘1al to the otller. The anal attack. boweYe1′. wa• Uia.\ the Board faTored.. ,he 010. !he CIO •• aew ·an4 reoe1ve4 u1J111pa\he\lo welcome from \!M Aaertcan 1ederaU.oll ot J.abot. When.ever the loan\ la tbe normal a4aintat1’f1Hoa of th• J.ol vo’14 pnteet \ht right■ of aea to joln ,he Ot.., •• the 1\atoa of \heir o1’o1••• ol’ voul.4 hel4 eleoUoa• la vldoll the 010 •• •el•••• aa the r9Pr•■uta\lw, the omrte of f&TOri ‘1• •• llkelT lo arlae, 11■ull7 w1 tbout .j\l1Utloatl••• !he Joard \net nq hard to be fair in thla at\el”, partioularl7 1• the teepee, vhtch touch.a. the Aaertoa.n J’e4erat1on at Labor 1101•• olo1el7, 11Uel7, \he pre■er,aUoa et the orat, uloa,. the 810 •• at’811pUq to orcaat•• the uorpalae4, lra.t •• tbreateatac •• ora.t••• 1.11 -‘•el df1 atomo’bil• plant• tor ..,.,1.. fh• loan. worked o,t a fonw.a nova •• •• • Glob• dootrine, vbi ch I nppo1• 11 •• fair ae 00’114 ban \een 4nt 114 oea.- • • • – lll – •1•t?n, with \he pron.non• of ,he A.at. I\ &a.Ye freed.o• ln 1elto ?•ttoa 4eeipe4 w pro,60\ \he craft it the aaJor1 t7 of tha on.ti witaii4 to Nlaia 1, •• \heir ‘barpWq ul ,. l think U tab• to 19.· ,,., ? . . . -??· lf tbere had not be.a the tllvittoa within labor t.,ae1f, their fi1hUnc aoro•• tbe Board 1n tip.Un, each other, alt&okt fro• touroe• aoi-e uia,oa- 11t10. \o the Act •1chl ba•e been 1••• eftectiye than the7 were. ,we u.cte pl.en.IT of Dd.•.:lt•• oureelTea, of oourH. !he vos e,p?ea4. Tery npi,?7 alter \he 10, wae auatalaed. and the ,att ba4 to be eal.arced. ex..­ •••1Ye1J’. We were requre4 to ue •o•• 1ae,rpen.eaoe4 aen wbo mat «-ln e3:perteaoe throuch aotul opera Hon• uder the .lo\. Olli.em•• ve aner onld have ol”eated a alatf ‘° … , our 1″eaponllbt.lltiee. fbere vaa IOM bat a4111•1•1:ratioa. So• hearlnc• we:n •xoe11iYel7 long. So• oondtlol of official• va• no\ all U •hould baTe been. ht it ahould. alto be Hid that aoae Id. 1tak•• ot loud peraoaul weN rtaoti.oa• to thtt bl Uerneaa ot the OJJM&Uioa cUsplayecl \>7 thote who l’ttfuaed. to cooperate 1n the adld.nta,•Uoa et \be Ao\. lose la,qere were coate11p,uou1 of ».aJ”4 hMringe. eon• , .. . .. of \rial •aad.•n• o\et,o.oUTe. u4 ltde all the 41ttl0\ll\1•• the7 oeul.4. lo•• eaplo7en of oourae vere the … t clo ?• nae•t thi1 •• aa •••• to-, 1e4en.l -,101••• to c1o 11Jtm••• lilt 1 t la aa aplau\1oa of 1oae of ov 41ffl0\llt1••· Ootaa back ,o \1- actalm.atntiYe proo.a,, 1, vat 0011pl&1Ae4 that th.9 taaeUoa• of proeeoaUoa u4 .fdcin& ven coablaed, tat hard percorm•l l&ftttipled., pnaetN th9 •nclenoe before tu Board, and \hea \be Joan\ 4.eold.9″ the ca••· Ible w.a oon1UtuUoaal. !be •tier w.1 tberouabl.7 co•• oTer am 4ecu . .a la the original oa••• 1a tu h},HM Oourl, report.a la 301 tT. s. pp. l et Hq •• ud aca111 1a Mrta “‘• ltl)l•h•m §h1p}11U,d.S:M · Qp. , – 112 • 303 Vt s.· 41. !he prooMue 1n thh rHpeol follond the pattern long ••tablS..• becl 1• abiailtnUve aceaci••• taoludia, the 1ed•ral fra4e Ooaiaatoa. ht \he altaok caiaecl aoaeatua aeYel”tbele11 \eoau•• of the cnvth of ,lld-1•tratlY• l&v. 1\1 1apao1 oa a larger IIWl’ber of people, and the .-en•1ea ot r?10J”J’ 1-CitlaUoll. !be t’1H\’all ba• been tha\. OoacreH a, a u,Uei- of polt.o, •• changed the prooe4unl sln.c\UJ’et ot 80H 1\atul••• with aore 1epat•\lon of fv.D.oUone. fh1a wa, done vi th rctt1peot to the Labor Act when tlw ‘lif.,.la1’tle7 Ao\ •• pa11tMl la 1947 aa4 the c••nl oou.1el • • ott1oe waa 1e,arate4 u4 -4• aor• ln4epencleztt ot the Joa.r4. • • tbe .ttorta to uen4 the lot oeaUam.ei tor year,. 1z,eaet.•• uarln,• ven helcl before Ille Labor Coaait\ee of the Kou••• flrtt Wlder ’11• ola11″11U• hlp of 11•• Mary aonoa of •• 1••••1• -.m. before tha Senate OonUt•• •• Muoa\ioa and iabor under the •cr-117 able chaina.aahtp of Senator m.1tert ‘l’boaa• ot Utah. fbe 8eMte Marine• were follove4 rather ole1el7 bJ’ ,.tor lolteri tat,. a auiber of tu ‘-•’• OoailtM. •• ehovtd aa b.l•Ul,–at la­ lerea\ la the Ao\ allllngh I ‘bel1n• be vat tbea ju1\ beciDAiq to lake hold. of l\• pn\le•. We ••• ooaau.nti, beton ti. 11&1Ml1ac ooat tteet of Oo11&I’••• and the apeotal 11111″11. OoaalHH. !he latter •• u lnYedt«aUa« oollld.lt•• and proTecl a aoat lr,ia, experl•nc• for u,. ,-. DUerout oOllrll t\N uariaga oau,’4 a tremeaAe111 aaouat of won to.­ tu 191&1 1tatt: tuee hearinc• betore 0011111\tN• of••• were lUMler •1 al the … Uae, in a44ltloa \o 01u• ad.Jd.nta,nllYe am\ l1HgaUea nepoalt.l>l.11- tl•• all o’Yer \ha enat17. ht the Board bad aa a\le eta:tt, ant Ohalnaa Madden wa• a r••rkalle man of great ablllt:, aacl ct.notion to hl• work, of • • – 113 – •ta-.fu,h integri t7 ant eteadtne11. fte etatt &110 wa.e unitol’ltly 4eTOte4 to it• ,e-,,oa11bll1\1e•• tel\ the ‘•*• Yffe wr’1wb1le and \hat tae 10&1’4 wae ••o•..itaa. •• labor uleu bepa \o pow 1» aise the Ac\ ,ain.e4 ln aoo-,-…•l the ‘rich\ of colleoUYe bal’C&lainc a1 noh beOUte non•coatNvenlal i 1btl work of the >oud. •• cratU’Jinc approftl in \he coul’hJ ad. so there .. abotit 111 the end a ehanc• of climate ae to the bacio principle• laftlve4 e.114 ae to the Joal’4. 1,a.if. !boee who • ……, la the wol’k were prowl of tt. aad th1• ftlta.lMd tlWa, ne\vUhttandlac 41–«Ne&… l e t•hr••· I. Joar4 PollUo• au .AppotatJAen\1 . So•• Uae in. 1939 1 •• dn•e4 tat Atton..7 0.1111ral Jaolceoa wt.•-4 me to become .uaistan\ Solicitor Oenenl., to fill the ftoane7 cau•ecl b7 kl” • Golde Jell leanac for wrk 1a the Pbllip-plae•. 1 •• then la the llitat of the 8111 tb. lATeetipUon, vbich ad not proare1114 n.tf1otentl.7 wwud a OO!lClualoa tor • \o f’Hl free \o lean. .lxoept tor ,Me I va• rnepU.ve to ti. chaDC•• DOI Ua\ l ooa1U.tre4 \laJt office •re i?oflall\ tla&a tlaat of Geaez>al Oou••l of \be Board. b\t’t I•• ..,ha fov ,,.. vl\a \h.e Joal’ll. Aleo, I ad. a great aclllS.raUoa fol” laoklon. lackeon left \he ofttoe T&oan\ for sou \iae – 1 be1Uate to eq eao\17 llev lo-. froa ncolleoUoa – uUl I tel t \bat• al lllouch the lld.lh lD’NltipUon. ‘4lt aot oenclwtecl, 1 t •• 10 near u en4 l 001114 ia eoo4 cno• -.ke ,t.e clumce. la Ooto’ber 1940, &ft•r five J’e&l’t a1 Geenl Oou11l of \he Joar«., I i-e,tpacl oa appolawn\ b7 the Pretl4eat •• Aa111tant SolloS.tos, Geae:ral. 0hal nan. Matden Jm.4 then en4.t blt ten of t1 •• 7e&N. u4 there vat • que•Uon ot h1• reappoint•nt. I U.l”Ced the Pre114ent b1’ l1tt11″ to re&ppoln.t • • – 114 – Ma.44M and. hoped u-., he wuld do eo. Madden had done extraorclinanl7 ou\- 1tenc1tac work •• eha1:raa. ht he wa• not reappolnte4. So•• •••r• of the ?tatf 1-1, the loan. aa • •or\ of proted. l tid riot ?ft tbl• ‘be- :_,-_; oauee l 414 raol f••l Illa\ the Pretlden.l aeeeaaar1l7 •ho”14 :r-,,otat llal.4••· I 414 feel lat he thoultl not be repudiahd b7 the Pt>esideat, and he vat not •.. l:14t va• given an appointment for vb.tcb he was eaineri’17 (lllalified. — 1me.,d, he wat qa.al1f1ed tor eTen -,re emlaent Judicial poet Uon – 011 the UA1tea S,t&\ee Co11.rt of Olaill•. l tel t \lat no\vUh1\andiA& hi• 01a;t1taDLlt:q writ at eha.i?a ‘1lel’e vere other ooa•ldera’1oae vh1ch llichl prop•rl,- 11o- U Tate the Pns14••’ la w1 abi.n, a new ohalnan. the Prea14ot at.pt trea the “” of ac,U••• ? en reiuonal»l• cl’OlUlltl• feel Ju,1Ut1e4 in ,uh a onaace. • • • • ‘?he tollowtric 1• a reterence lo eoae of the loq-oonH.mut4 Oo»cre11- tenal h•ringa, la -vh1ch Ma4den and I ‘bore th9 principal burden a• 9Pokeaen oa behalf of \he Joan\1 Btarin11 before ,1M Oomi\tee on lctuoaUoa u4 J.abor • t1al lecl l’-t•t Senate, 76th OoJtC. • l •’ leH. • in IOae 20-.44 pana or • .,…,. TOlwae•. I lhiu q til’a, •• ,.., 11 1ti Part 2 tn April 1939; ap1a 1a Par\• 11, 1a aJMl aa. ia reply or n\v.Hal after o\h•I’ wt. ta.11••. W ‘•••1t1ecl. IMdMI before ,tie Co•lUH on Labor, &,u,e of lepr.Ha,.\ 1Yea, oa 1u•opo1ecl &MDd.aenl \o the •uow J.a’bor ielatlon• Ao\, la 8 part• or volu.e, pl’lntec\ a 1939. I believe Mad.du’• aJld ‘S¥ tiral 9’ateaenh ar• ta Yolue a. !her• vat aleo a ra\ber brief bearl.nc “•ton \be Senate lwUola17 Ooul\\•• oa lhe qa.eatlon vhe,her \he Ootutl\tee uo\114 Mk• a -s,•clal 1ana’1p\1oa, which it 4eo14ecl aot to do • • • • – 115 – In the h.-rinc• betors the special S.1 th OolUli Uee 1 Ulldertook to det’ud},; the Joaid aad 1ta pereoanel. !he OoulttM ooneiated of eo,…e,••a . · ·-? latl)l ot ,1:r11A1a •• Obairmaa, Ooa,n•••a Oharle• Bal.leek of Jad.lua. Ooagre•tmaa •u.t?a ot Ohio• Ooncre11aa Ave Murdock ot Utah, u.4 Ooncn••MA lrtbu.r Healey of Mataachu. .. tt•. !he maJorU7 filed a n,pon ort Ucali ot tb.e Board and r♦eoaend.ed certain aundJNnt•. !he Jd.non ,,- oon.■lstbc of Mu:dock au !eale1 filed a aod oompr•hend•e repcn•t 1A d.eten•• of tlut .. · worlc of ta• )oard. a.a a vbole. flle7 NCo … nh4 •nl.alW’•••t of the lu.nt. \o ti•• aembere, en.d. ,re.at of the ncht to emplo,.r• to peUti.011. fot’ 91.•ot.loa•. Ooncn•••• lo•r4 Sat Ill ta • till ln OoaCHtt la l9K; Ooacr••– ltri\bon hat 4194; and OoagnaHIU Jlallffk ta now MIJori.17 Leader of the 1o…… Ooa«r•••aan lealey •• appotatel Dititriot lwlge of the V.1 t.a. St.tee J>i.triot Oour, 111 Maeeacl:ntsette ud 41-4 while in that office. Mr. Mltrdook ‘becaae a Senator and later a •ember of the Joan. 1,self.. ‘l’he minority Mpor\ l”ef HTed \o h fo\UMl in Bouse Report lfo. 1902. Par\ 2, ?$th Oon,., 3d. S.••• l do J:M>t ha•• a\ ,u aoaent a. retenaee to tlw •Jorlt7 i-eper\ ‘but will a\tempt to npply ,a1a. lou of \he aMal .. ata NCOIUiea4e4 lt7 \ht a,Joi’i? •• a4opt.i u a ooa••ctll•u• of W• 1aTeetlpt1oa. hea thl, ra,bel’ ‘brief aocou, of \lu1 work of th. loan \IOUld \e ?• 1aoeapl•’• wl\bout ••• cenenl Nfen•ce to the OTH•-all etfeot of \hi• le-nlopmu\ in our naUoilal life and Y1 thout also u a44Ulonal refereao• \o 10• of the loari. penonael. Among the penonael Ma4den 1\anAa ou\. M7 aHootaUoa wUa hill Ui.•t am. later when we wortce4 am 11•• together ln lerU.a ta 1941-41. Ila• al• 1• •••a aooompuie4 b7 appreoiation of hia •• a an of \be llcheet • ?• • – 116 – charut•,. as weU at of like ab1llt7. le also baa a fine tutly wboa we ha•• •nJ07ed. ae trlendt. I oauot ml refer to •111’ &Hociat•• at the•••”‘• but wish to …. tton Alna lodrvell, a.t f1rat a ts-t&l. erutner, who \eu.M Oeaen.l Oounael. Be wa• al•o ae.ociabd with ae du’.l’lng Q’ d&71 a.a Sol1o1tcr Geui-al and la lerll• ln 194.5-f.6, where .be la\er mcceected Mad.den as tecal M:rlter at\er M&ttlea bad. noceaded. sa. lockwell atUl later becau a partner 1.n ihe tia• Phl-cer law ttm ln San franoiaoo, where bAt it now. .a. met M:r. Phleger la Bet”ltn.. ‘i• ooaU11t1• to see ooh other oTer the 7ear1 1 aad. -. eball •••• Ma ap1a·111. •-•• paa••· XaterettinclY, teo, Mr. Phl••r lt nov tbe L-«&l, J4Tl••• of $Jae State Depanment, a pet1Uoa l ocau,1e4 fo’l’ alteut t1tteea Mn.lb alter retun.tq trom Oena.,-. ,. cood friend .Da.’1’14 .a.. Mor••• U!O• ou,-.r poaiUoa,, became Geural Oou,el of the loan, tmder Secreta17 of Labor, and ta now Director General of the Interna.Uoul Lebot· Otfloe. He ha.A beaa wllh Illa pre-Wagaer “°’ boan and. beoame Aatlataal 0.Jleral Coutel. :t,i ,?dtaJ”C• of \he lffiev l>irieloa. Atlez- I wat o’Nr te lueUoe in 1940 lmerlO• ahoJ>U,- oaaae •1th •• \here for a. few JIIOA\h• lnll lhea let, to go vUh \!Mt Prlo• Mld.altlrallcu1. Jiater be Joined \he fanlt1 of the Yale Law Sohool, an4: 1 • there now. I baTe pr•noatl7 mentio.. Jobel”‘I .B. Watt•, wbo suec•edecl. me ae Oeaeral Oouael. Phil LeV7 41d e:xtrao1’d1nar111’ fin• work oa tlle lecal etaft, of which lie vaa &l.:read.7 a :aea’bar vho I beoaae Geaenl Ootlll•el.. la lat•:r years he ud l l•oaao at•oota,414 la prt.ftle practi,Ht 1.ll. Wa1h1ag\oA vhea ve lef\ the Govenmea, in 1947. !he ateocla\1011 was head.eel b7 tora•r S.Mtor John A. Danaher. am inc,11.1494 Ba.fQ.1 G. Poole vhoa I ha4 first kn.own in the earl7 da7e at Interior. In the paau.g@ of Ume Senator • • • – 117 – Dana.her &M l ha.ve ‘become ••••r• of the aame Oour,. where ve nov 11\ u4 worit{“ptber a.pin. —••’ A. Oro••• ,q iame41ate 1uoe190r ao•• 7ea”‘ l•••? •?’11-C•l AAviHI’ of lh• hate ».oar,…,, u4 at,e1′ ,,, an lapost,a•• rep?it’et1ta\h·e of the Vat\td Stal•• to the Vni\ed aa,to••• va• al.to oa ••t lepl •Wt a\ the Joa1’4 and 414 excellent work. And. ‘°• too. 414 Lt.l\N.aoe A. happ. lenrt I. Iaaraba.11. wo la\er Joined 11¥ 1tatt when. I wae Solicl,OJt!’ General, Al Somer•• Aloan4er Hawes, Mal.col• Ha1U.d.a7, and Mareel. Mal.lei- . ·- Priro1 I, to menU.oa a few. l ••t Matton alto a, enellent Heft\a’7 1fl,t . – – ·-::,, J’lo•·- VJ’a.lU)., n.oo”4e4 b7 Mitt M1141’ecl ………. ICltt 1ane’bv.tl • .., .. < YS.lh •• uUl l weat to 0el’IIU1″ la lv.11, 1945. J’o.r her d.e..-ot-4 an4 ooap•, .. , Nlp 1 aa aott paleN . …… 11,, ,,.. oa Ille le,al tt&ft vb.en 1 W’U\ wi\h UM Boarcl., ad later ‘beoaae 1 t• Seoreta17”. la af\er 7ear• he bat co• under a olou b7 iAYoldac the ft.fth A••D4u11t l>efore Ooal\tM• of Coacr••• in. coaneottoa vl\l’l te1Uaon,’ recud.1.nc po11l\l• Conwu,uo aetootaUon•, eto. A.1 a lav- 7er -., \he »oard. be 414 coocl vork am ••eaed to • to want th• Ao, \o be ve.U &4alatetend. t0 •• •• n.ooee4 ia 1,. p,u,poHa. lrldeu• in later r•n ea•• to• ladloaU.oa tu., ther• •ich\ laYe betn • Oo….,, 1oel1 1 of -.. •o.t uonc •- pel”flOU.1, 1aolwtlaa a tw 1aw,er1. It •• u •• eanf’1117 ld.cl.ct.-. w1,, •• \b.e •n “1.gorou per­ eona11,1 ung tho•• who w•r• l•’•r aenUoae4 ta \hle oonaeoUoa. lie •• 1)’11J)a\he’10, •• vat quite 1Ul4erelan4able, lo the OIO la i •• proao’1oa et the UAattria.1 t11>• of ol’&aal1&’1on aad. ta 1 \e ettan• to orp.m.1e \he •orcaatseA. I aa RI’• he ••YH’ •ncac• in 07 aoUoa of a n.b•eratn obarao\el’ • ,.. , – 118 – who, :h:1-•• n•lnel vi tll the Joan •• tti. r•r• J:le.w paHed • gatala, ·ta 1ta(j’te ul 11.tetul. pultlto work, tor ,–,1• Mr. Go, Jane?, who t•111p),/-..·> .,,, …. ,,, . l•tt”tlte jlaft, later ret11J’11ed ae Ohalnaa, eat Mr. hrisat\\ Tu AioJrel., ibo b••• ha•ral Countel. the Wagner AO\ and 1 \a a4Mial.abation waa an outata:mU111 4eTelopaeat ot ao4•n ti••• Joard. 1•”1••• a• a whole tai tht11llr and dtllgea\17 pertonael 1h6lr . .U.tftcul t •••• pla,tnc a aklllM •• wl'”ll!T part la the •1100•• ot ,w ••’•’•• ‘1bit •-••l••• the •h••• ••• teele about a tew vbo later ••• a·,auv •• the Boal’4 \7 •••alq, I oauot ‘be oeriata. to•”• Nea Tlo-H.•• ot C..1••• a, l••’ fol’ a u… lo •oh vat belnc a.u v.nder 1he .&o\ 1>7· opea &114 ooaa\1 tv.tiow pn”•”• lo better th.4t a ta.tu, of lbe wl’kiq J1aA that lt i• uto1>nu.te that U7 -.peed ta it• acllllnittraUoa 1bo\lld ha•• tel\ the uecl ot OoJIIIIUd. a or Man:t ,. l Ud.u 1 t .aul.d be d.ltticult to •incl• ov.\ aq part ot tu great lectelaltn pnga-aa ot that ,.1o4 JIOJ’9 ill llae v1 th tlMt l(tOial aaqolioal.a ot the .Pop••· 1, ….. tD •• aot enl1 oea,t.1,ea? w1,ia \tlea lnd la tu-t’ci-:t of ,11e p:rtaolpl•• l.&14 a.ow.a. 1 n •ho•• lft&\ 4•—••· !be obUd.ren bqu lo enter 1ahool at 11•••• Saora•n.l. flNI O..rl•• . . . . ?c-J.?k\.L.. ?””‘? ?. and Aaae ‘lol•’-•• 8anh the tollowtnc ,ea? fbe li ,,1. -‘•• at 3’00 •·••., amp\on “””‘••a pleaual •••• ,.,.fii-el v• ovae4 la •••hlactoa. tu ae1ghborhoocl •• alto plu.ean, tor us all. lt vas fol”tU!llelJ 11,ua,eA, no\ 0Dl7 t,eaua the eoilool •• ooaftatea\17 … r but alao beoav.•• of oo■• panion• olo.•• 1>1 of lilr:e ace• of \he chlldna. Our e14.e pn. b••• ? eor\ • ot pla.rrJ’OWMl. And Acne• lilr:ed belna wl lbia ea11 w.lld.:n,: di etuce of the • – 119 – Omirob. ‘lbere v•r• pleaunt ge.tb.eriac• IIO\f and , .. of Joe’• ed. Leo•• tallilt••• am ot t:rl-4•• olil ud new. the tallillar faa117 toaa, •• . …. • , · , – ‘ ,tma’il at ahn•t••• a, one or tba o\heio ••• Jo1M4 wi \h o•h•r• at .. ‘ “lir’• or vWN••r \her lllght \e. Aabi’oae and hie fullt were vi.th•• at , … a.ad. other ‘1•••• One Ohrietu, our good. trtem• the lell1• tn• Saata 7e were at 3’100. aJM’l the7 or a..th larker (Alexander) were with •• oU.aer ti••· hke and Albert atoppecl on their lev York \ripe, u4 now and then there wae a YitU wllll lu.ie, Sarah, or Aca•• s .• her•• ta 1ro .. or in lev tork. Q4 ot oour•• uatU hie au,11 ve w’lll.4 … Aca••’ ta\her, Mr. Lau, aM. Ml’ •lthn Mt.rcaret ani o.,,nte. u.d her ,.l’Ottier foa. Dr. o•»ou.11, \lMt n.tkd of Oertn4.•, teok pod oare of tho oht14rea. ant at. u … ot •• I •• 1’ttl7 toa4 of llr. l.aa•, o•• ot \he flae•t cbaraoter• I b&w laaon, a • \nlt ,ood aa. Mr•. t..A•• Agne•• •Uwr, bad. pn4eceated hi• la 1937, a lo•el.T pereon, “”‘- uemplar of the nae Inah tudli•• to MJll’· of wboa bacl lf.Ted 111 St. Al•7•1•• fan th. A\ •he U•• ot lier clMih tlltt tutl7 iou fol’ 10■• ‘1•• -4 \eu oa lalol’d& !o..t. • l aeauoa too· tlle oloH \oDA which , • ..,., htv..,? •• aM • autac •••• ¥•••• 11• 1tro•lierl7 OPpUioubtp Maat a ,nat ie’.’-l \o • .. M, NOOll.otloa 1• ,_, I -· fin\ approaoW ‘b7 •• CoNOt’&A … , … balf of Jackeoa al>ou, beoeaac A.Hla\aat loltoUor Oeaeral. Jb’. 71’001• ll14cil• •• Soliol \or Geller-al • • • • – 120 – .}l’he ·otfio. vae created iv1ac •he Attomer O.aeralsblp of lloaer ? .. a1ACJ:t UnUl tun tu So11oltor General bad bad. a great 4eal. ot re-,o,.s, … bllt\,: .• f’♦:r drafUnc u4 rmewt.ac oplaioa• ‘• lt• .,..red by Uie Atton-, -.,:·, Geaenl. .. · ? op1aloaa wen clelayed beca11•e \he Solle! tor Gea.,ral P•• -p’l”..- oeAeaoe lo hie 1peola1 nepoaelblll\7 for the OOIMblot of the goTe1″JIIUll”• 11 ,1,..uoa in \he &up:r … Oou,. In order to tree bla more full7 tor \lda aJMl at tu uae u .. to espe41te \he or,laiona of the AttorJut7 O•nei-al. the effl.? of 4•-11\aa\ lo11•1 tor General •• er•\ed to taltt O’Hl’ ,u o-pUl?ll wen.· Whea ,he Soltol\or Oeaaral •• away 01″ 1.t ,ur• wa• a ftoaA01t the Aatt-1aat Sol1c1-.1′ Geaeral lt•••• aoUag lollottor General. Aa14• trn thla’.))I.• wric wa• ru.117 tlMlt ef u. 4aalatut A,toraq General. In a441t1oa to dratting oplalea• for the i.t’4,niq General. aa4 ••-rlm-, tor ·.bia t.boee vhiob. ol’i&luted elaewure ia the Departaen-t. \he oftlc. pataecl upon exeou.ti Ye oNlen prepared. tor the Pre•14eat. It al90 NTlevecl eeHl•••• of c1Yil lU1pUoa teq1d.d.nc \he appnftl ‘b7 \he .l\torae1 a.en.1. the oplalo.u of \lie A\tone7 hael’al fer \lie Pnai4eat u4 bed• ot hpal’,.,. ws-e •:deuiYe 4′”‘1ac lhh p•rlocl bMaUe of 11\ff••• aoU.’rit, ot ?rlou• 4epar••’• of co•en.aent. MaJQ’ were fonaal aJl4 la wrl tu,. ‘­ .A.ltone7 Goehl wu14 4eo14e vbioh tbo1ll4 ‘b• 3>1t)ll•hel. unall.7 oa l”Moa? aen4aU.oa of tlle Atelatut hlioitor General. Much latol’Ml letal aclrice wa• alao ctnn b7 tile AU,oraq Oeaeral. mt 1alnfl11••tl1 lhrouch •• ott1ce of \l’te .beietaa’\ Solloltor Oeaeral. Ille pultllahetl .,1n1oa1 d1t1’ia« If’ \ea,ur,e •• •••1etaat Solt.ct.tott haeral l beU…-e are ta Yel. 40 of the Oplaioa• of the A\torne1 General • • • – 121 – · . . · . . !he. :t”j..nc ataff -.llbel’ •• thea •• A. t’owaaelld. • aa e2:perieaced a:a ot coff1J..,.ut1 a ctepeata’ble am •l•bl• publ.lo earn.at. !here•• 11r.• h.ri•r• u exper’\ 1n ctratUu Prelldea,1a1 orclen. Al.aost lnari&\lJ, wheti ant depa.rtaeat – or \he White Bouee •- wished aa ereoutiTe orier ‘°· be t.pp1’0Te4 1)7 the A\tonq GeAeral, U would IO through Mr. hrtaer• • nam, at nae 1ta,e, an4 tben through ‘the Aaelatant So11oitor General ” th• ·Attorn• Gueral. the 4i”afl wvl.4 be aoooapaal.« wt.th a ,,.. .. el”· lett•r:, “9 be alpe4 \7 ti!• A-.onq Oueral, a44n••e4 •• the Prui4•••• and eaplainlnc Use order, wt th tbe NCOUeDdatloa of tile A,1orae7 hural. ‘!heh •• 111ual.l7 conftl tattea wt th the parUnlar Depamat cono•rnet. vitll ta• Whit• lov.••• or tu hn&u of ,ae ••••• Mr. fowler. who •• ainae 41ed, wa• alao a ftlued … -oer of the otflce. Like MY. ?urtner. h• w• a caner aan, at 1••• J 10 ooaelderfld. bia. And. there vat Mr. lJGD7• tpec1a11se4 in rev1evin« ••Ul … a\a of cenaia IJ’P•• of oinl litlcatloa. fber• •r• otheJ”e ta •• o•I ot Ille office tie• ,1 .. to Uu, lMt tu a­ o1 … of Ille office ••• the lone pull – 4vta,: ar aocut.’!taao. wt\? 1, – le •• t •1’8 4eecr1be4 11. I wev.14 llaTe to look baek: oftr IO■e of ,a.. .,u\ll•l’&N. opildoa• to clM beUe1” :lll••t:raUoa• of Ille raa&e of work, ‘b•oau••• Ull••• recaptured. \7 ao■e refretald.J31 of noolleaUoa, 11 1 • h&rd for .. to re .. ber the cletatla. •• W re(O.eth fro• ,. Va• J>epar••• tor a4’t’ioa, ta viev ot Ille coafllol la Im-ope, a• to vbal alerlal could be leuecl ‘• fnen41T u.Uoa• . witbou.l TlolaUnc aols of Coacr•••• Onoe, betoN reepoa41ng I had. a talk • vi th Goanl Mu•ball aboul a ,arlleular tactual eUtaatton. fhle •• the • • • – 122 – tlrat time l oaae into pertc>nal contact vi \h lda. S.·ven rear• laiwr ,he · took se 1.n hi• plue lo lfew Tork when •• Secretary of Stat• be licnec\ tM Uni t’ed lalioa• lleaclqu.rten A«reement on. behalf ot tlw Unl ted Sta tee• J.a> •-• 11ecot1a\1o? ot vhioh I ba4 repre,eated the tfaUecl Stat••· :.i)ltie office had nque•’• tro• 4epartun\a a• to ‘h• a\atu• ot men coalnc into U1e CoTeJ’nllent from pd.Tat• oonpaUona, wh&t •nanc••nh were 0011- •ialen.’t with the “confliot of 1a\eNat• ttatutea. tt.re were al•o questioaa artitq Uil4er the Bat oh Act• Cl’l••Uoa• reprding \11. acU’ri \let ot the Po-J lUleal Ac>Uoa OoutU•• of the 010, whloh ‘beoaae qaite coatroyent.al •t w U••• ?Uoa• ‘beheea tl1e Depart.eat of Agricultve aa4 the Dtipart•at of the Iate:rlor oTer Jvia4ioUoa. !be•• were latena.tional que•Uoa•, ou t.a”f’0 1T1JIC trea.Ues preaorlblnc the load. line■ ot ship•. ftlea there veN replatio•• 1184•:r the SeleoH•• leniee an4 fralnla« .lot, u4 4e\a1le4 and ooa­ plioatecl reculaUon• gl’Owlag out ot the latioul.1 t7 Act of 1940. · So• question, u·o•e a• to ’11• ta1dn& ove:r of thtps of oouatrie• llk• X>.n•rk ?oh :tiad. been oTeff\U’£ b7 the •11•. I 4on•t r-…l>er the details. ••u l de •• •1″17 111 llind. now tb.e 4••11•• ‘bat Jackso• alto reqae1te4 q opiaioA oa tu n.’bJeet et vlre ta,,tnc. We wrote a ••’11’ elaborate l”fflev ot tt».l w ihoucb,t could or cnl4 not be done 1aat4e •• <loTH’Dunt. W, ,1–.’_ , reooU..atl•• h that he acr-el vltll tbe aeaorand.u’• coaolu1lona. and. uae4 1\ a• the. ba.■11 oa 1th.lob he baa4lecl \be -problem wtth other 4epan11et•. l 7ear1 ago. l>tlt. a• I recall. lt peraiUed vire tappinc in a .,,.,,,. lillihlll area. Qeaerall7 • ude:r the law a• 1 t w.1 at that tlae, we coul.4 not clff ii legal &pphTal. ht there •• to• poeeible u•e ot li a• I recall. We made a careful etud7 of the el tuaU011 • • • • – 123 – i’,.$ge?l?. prap1u•aUoa• were -4• in the l>epariaent of Jv.•Uoe la u\101 …. .:.:• .·,:,,·. ‘ ·.’· • .· , ·-. pati?•Af U. po••1la1lU7 ,he \la1’ed State• wul.4 beoeu a belll,:•n••? A.· War if.\!1-?t• •·• OJ’Q\e4 eYea\-117, uder \he 411-eotor•ld.:P …. al tl1cnap1,Jli1: –?•:ijf,\l,417 aa A .. 1., .. , .,,.ne, General – of •• L. M. o. c … ).·.(. \???.:. :_·,:·_-‘,:’·?-:::::\:>:- . :: .. · ‘• 1111., … of Phtla4elplda. A■a1et1ag lda ••• a poU.07 oOUU, .. oree.ted ‘bJ tbe .AUotneT General aa a eor\ ot cl.Mring bouse vhtta. the diT1a1on aeMe4 b,ollA•r oouul.taUoa or oooperaUon. ta •• depart•nt. Ir. Janet, ll. Sa-.;, , . , ,. · _ .. . . •••??••’ ,Allorne7 0…-al la ollllrp of \u Olal• Dt.neloa. Mr. WeDllel,1 ••-•• .i. .. aa AH11taat -‘”one7 O.aeral, Mi-. 141’1U’4 ., on• of Jifr .• ..t. –• &oNr’ • r1c11, UJt4 … aJl4 1a,er • 1e4eral »1,, no, Jlldp hen, u.4 111-. ,Jl\farA J. llula, who at f1.-et w.a Mr. S.tth•• att1aMAI, n4 .,-•el.ta• Ot.at,-a co-.,n,ecl tu ocuillt.tt••• One of ov ••tJJ>011el’bllltte1 va• tia. f•– 1a,ton of plue for ,he con,nl of eaft,J all•• 111 tbe dnt •t war. Ne lm-ol•e4 • ola••lf1oat1oa \7 JU?l’aoa•, 1lD4•r Mr. hltll’• npeffieioa u4 our ceul’&l 41 reoUoa, ta ••n• of ,:u 11telihon or ao, ot their beinc 4ucenra.•, ud ther.foN 111bJeot to 4•1•Uea aAa \he Alla 1a..,. Aot. ttda aal.18′ tor •: rntw of …., I. •· l. fll••• · ·–••• ae to,l’b, •-•••—•and otrtalal7 tbt D.,art••• of lv.a\1fht w•r• …… •• be rM47 la ••• ot ••• eatJ”I’ la\o IN vu. ‘l’hl• — I ep-.Jc pal’lt..iarl.7 uw ot \!w al.in ,.. pi’e?•• – laelpei 011.r later l)NQ&• ••o” 4 wi ,11 a ldaiaa.a ot 111JV7 lo the iBDOo.a,. Ma.oh nfferlag -· &YOld ….. l ••ol•• tu … naouaUoa of penou of Jape.a••• aaoe1\17 on tbe •••I Ooaat, vat.ob w, ao, pl••- ‘before tbe var nt •• abo•t a, a renlt of the a\tadt at Pearl •*”• J.I lead. • pre-wl’ pl.au for av.ch •• 8ft0Da• tioa ?” a4e vithia the J>epa:rtuat of JuUoe • • • • – 124 – ..!he Ottloe of AHlatant Solicitor Gneral ha4 a alcaitloaat ?l’ or l•Pl .-a,1oa1 “1 ta reepeot to r-ecu,l.aUo•• of fNlnr,, e9peoiall7 ”°” : vht?? r??- the approftl of tllle h••14en\ or •f eltaer 4epartaut• llJ. ? .. ‘ : . ·- .·-· .. . , . . aM.?).}?i ? ‘fr•n.17. •• wen la•ol •act \o • 4ecne 111 ,11e pro’bl•• ot · eoo?o warfare, aal \lie lectalalloa vldoh •• oaote4 on -prlee coatl’Ol vu. •l••••ed wUb u. Naq 4eparlJMnl• one to •• abo,il a par\tcnal.ar llilalter the7 wer• bandllnc, or pnpanac \o handle, for aA’rioe as to wb&\ oeu.14 ‘fal.1:41,7 l>• 4o••• if nMil be, ooaaielenU7 wt ,h 4u prou1• of law or ot.r P•Mt, .,,,.. 1a,, • .. to \he relaUouhlp of the hec’1UTe bnaoh of the CO’NJ’JUNllt villa Ooqre•• tvln« thia perio4, there •• real 1.enldp la the tomer. · fho:qld aa4 laglnatloa v.,.. ••• ,o ••’ the p:robl … of the tiaea. ht· I · ne••r tor a aoaeat ooadderecl the Nl.ailonabip one of tltou.Uoa b7 •• Pr•.t• lent. ‘Ille OongreH •• aa lnt-1.lipn.t Ooacr•••• with able mea. Wbea a unh:rlou• •Itel” vaa preeated to U1e Ooncre•• it •• aoi nJeotect beaau•• the lnCftlliYe W takn the b1’1aUTe. !here •• ooo,en.Uoa ant 1-••eblp ••• \M par, of MtJI. fte.l ot · \he Jxen.\l’N •• ta • •••• u •••• of power. Valer Pnll4MI 1Do,.-1, \he lxeftUn ti4 .. la1Ua’1ft’ 1• p?raU•u tor eoatllot au la nac-•Unc l•llllattoa, l>•t leci•laUea ooul? ao\ lte lapoa-4 – thel-e •• al.,i,q• •• 1at-11t«nt 4eo1•loa abftt tt. Coa1H•n.,1e i.llpro•–••• •’ till•• were •d• ‘b7 tJae 0ollC1’••• oa pnpo-1• · of \be •••1••· Tbl ..,,1.,. llichl be •14 to ban tak•• lea4ereat.p t.a -. ••’•” ‘beoau•• pn•rll.7. thoqh not eattr.i,-. tbe pN\ln• wen la? teru.11oaal.la obanoter, la vhiob e’Nal the lzenUn ha4 epeolal r••••l• \11?,I’• tl,.11 J)eriocl. titfenl fna ,he earlier 1’•1’• ef tile iooaenll atlll., -,·:_: ,, • • – 126 – re?\ecl 1A noh. of ·Uu, lew Deal procru, unall7, bo-we•er, wt th the hearty app?n.1 ot the Jxeeu\f.:n; •• exupl••• the Va.cur Ac,, ,tie Social a..tt, .&ct, , .. lattoJl&l ‘*•’17 leoo..-.17 .&.ot, •11l.l \he tirat !oualac A.et. ?J’ro’bl•• wre ‘beoolllac to eaonie111, 10 far•reaold.nc, that the 0.1-lu\ 971.♦.• lt••lf ‘broke low. eoaewht.\, u4 loet & coo4 deal of its 4eli\erat1Ye ohaQcter. My own expen.eaoe wl\h the Cabinet aa w.ch caae latet’ wbea I •• Solicitor G.aenl ad attend.eel U■ aeettqa when Atton.ey Oeattl’al lt1441e •• •• able to d.o 90 – eltllier ‘b.-u•• oul of tow or ill. · Ttae, P.♦tlcleat looteYelt -, opialon 1• tha\ the Oa’blaet vae a 11e&Jle tor ra\Mr ceaei’al il1av.11lou &JMl •z•huc• et Wol”llatloa, rather than a plao. ot 4•ot• toa, \ho,agh ••Un■ ot oov1e d.oi•l••• vere -.cle; for ….,1., tt the Pre1iie11\ ld.•••lf ltro’lleb• \Ip a n.bJeot aal w.at-4 ,he Tl•• ot bit Oa\iul, a-4 \he cc.-al ••Uaeat aocolilei wl th vhe.t h• •• willing to 4eoltl.e, \be 4.citloa, ,ao11 la a torMl lnl\ 1n a. praotical ••••• would thea ‘be ••• the •uers ot the Cabue11 theatel •••• hovenr. al thou,;h the7 laid a goocl aa.Jl1′.• .,,ere on. tu table, oflen ,oo1r thell’ aon “rlou 1>1’0bl .. • ‘° tu Pnttcln\ cilreo,17, oi- veat lo hl• with oth• …. ,.. 1aw1″4 ta a .., .. w p19l>l•. ft.le Oa.l>lael •••u.ce 414 atfoJd the Pnet4•n• ea oppol’tuil? · ‘° \l’iac the heat• of Uae hpa1’taea.h amt 0U1er• 11p to ate on .,. ••J••’•• azul lt ca•• •oh•• opportuU7 ‘° 1atona the otllen a, a CftllP, •• well •• U1e Pre1U.•••• ot \.bell’ ovn \hiuta, aa4 4epara4az1u.l won:. ht •• • plaoe of 4eo1t1oa ea hporlu.t laauet the Oaltiaet •• not otlea ••fl4, la .,. n,erience. Mo•• all••• ot coune are 1roa.a ov.t ‘beheea DepartNaia vi \lint NMbtn& tl:.• Prellteat. often ‘be?v Oa\1aet lffttl. !’he Mn who ak♦ thee• • a4J11,tlM1’1t• ar• lll\1&117 capable and 4«ote4 pulle aenut•• little non to tbe public. • • • – 126 – One problem we bad with the War Departaoot iMOlved the so … caJ.led 11excludon 1 ord.era 1stued. by the 111l1tar, against alien indtvid.uals in ana• wii.bln ,u tb>.lte4 Sta\es deeicne.,ed b7 • Var Depai-traeni •• eenaU1v•. •• bad. d1eagree4 oYer the hand.line ot \b.oee orclere. We 414 no\ settle the •tter saUafaetoril7 unUl U reacn.d Secretary SU•oa hiu•lf. but U nner went, to \he Preddent. lhunerout d1teuH1ona had been carried on at a lo1trer l•Tel. eo that the iaeue wa• narrowed down — onl.7 the eaaenoe. th• ultt.-,-e difference. needed tc ‘be d11co.aaecl with. the S.crete.ry. 2. London lego,tation• tor British Ba••• Seoretar., Kull .brild. ezobaaced not•• vi th Lord LothlaJl on behalf ot the United liJl&llo•. September 3, 1940 • whereby ve exohance4 fl tt1 oTena«• 4eatro7era tor the right to aoqv.lre ,allltal’J’ and air ba••• in British colo.niea and poaM1aion1 in the wetern A\lanUc. fhe excba11«e -wa1 authorhed b7 the Pre11den.t on the baala of an opinion of Attorney General Jackson ,;1Ten 1bor’17 before 1 vent iA\.o \h• Depart•nt. ln tl.ue coune — and rather n:pidl7, a• I r•eall — the de1tn,yer• were actuall7 \raasternd. to the poae•••lon of Bmclan.c1. ‘Phe exoha»c• of no,e, •• to be followed by- the n► gotiation of d.etatle4 arnu:1ge .. a:h u4er whhh ve eoul4 leaae area• tor these ‘ba••• tor n1aet7-nine 7ur,. Until ‘\hese detail• were e,cree4 -apoa and ,i,-, could. take peHeHlon and bed,n. eonetruction, the United States. oae m1pt sa71 0Dl7 hl4 a paper right. France bad fallen. Acl’oH the AtluUo England win the». alone in the var on the Allied aide. And hcl,&Dd va• suffering the blUs. !he Presta.en\ bad bope4 ln,gland would send a m1••1oa to thia oount17 to complete the agree1tent•. But due to tbe d.ltficul Uea in which the Un.1 te4 XS.n«aoa found • ·• • 12? .. her,?f \be a..-•••J’7 pe1’touel oould not v•ll ‘be 1pai’ed. Vhea 1 leara.i la,.-, \)MJ 111u(bel” aad oharaol.eJ’ of \lle. par\ioll)Uh la ti. aepUaUoA• 1 ·:.<‘ ‘.· . co”1:??1?n,tucl tldt •i-• eaatl7. the 1h11″4 lta&do• •.u•tell the -1• ltal’4t[ “‘·..a a 111191.oa to lioadon. Th. P:r••14eat •• RINllel.7 axuct..u• · that· tllft a-naac•en,, ‘be ooaollll1,e4. l’aclaa4 had ov t•••n1•r•• we 414 aol aetlllll17 !aft the l>••••• aa4 \1•• •• 1wud.ag. lo 1a J’anu17 1941. \he Stal• l>tpan., ••k• \he A\torae1 OQ.eral throqh the ‘-•••••ant Solleltot Oe1u?n,J.•• office to 4eeipale , … oae who •llld be a’t’lllla’bl• to eo to,?••• with NJpnoo.kti’f’e• ot •• A-, aal 1a.,,.. !he 4Uo1’U1 Oeaeral looted. •• • lo 4eoi4- who tbo,al& co. lt •••• t.bat 1 l abo”14 be •Uber !ovue-1 ot 1. l t.i, l ahov.14 go all4 Ml•* Nr. fowaaaa4 to 4o to. · Yu .. ,-,uatloat were •• \e oam.a. oa WMler th• npen1e1oa ef ti.. State Depa.naeut. Ooualldet Jfanl4 Jie11ael•r, a laq•r hi alao a llu lfaTal ottlo.r. w.• 4eat.pat6’ ‘b7 l&’YJ’. aail Colonel. – later 0.neral – Ian, NalolQ’ b:, An,. l .414 aot J)arU-1.al”lJ llk• Ille Uea of IOlac lo Loa&\oa at tlat U• u4 ·•11.q- • wite an4 ,O’UC ollU4na – IM• nall.J’ lo•hNA u. fbl •’-l’l•• of ·”- rnt• frM L111t♦a lo »aciamt. u4 ot tu ‘bM)11lC ot Lo-… were .. , pleaeu.t. I •• aot •• la ‘1111 a1n,.. AIM• wen, with .. te l•w fork for the ‘-ke-off. hlte and. Banu!I wn a1,o iwe, •• well a• ..,. •1•tttl” .Ip.eta who 11T•• iA lev Tork. fbit lewfo1md.lal’.ld 4eleptioa .. , u at La0uri.1a – •• led•r?••• iheS.l” .u-…..,. Oea•al, ad …. .fMHOA, flnaaolal l’eJ>hHlltative of ,_ 11a1,.a. nnartoa 1n Jewtoa4laa4. ••- teok the 014 Pu aert..ou. Ollpper. l•TU& J&JIJUJ7 l? an4 •’°PPlaa ftn, at Jerauu viler• we wre •?”P a • fev 4a,-a ea aooout of bad. w•ther. Wle th•re ve laeaf4 ••1’1′ l111pen’eotly • • • 128 .. a pal’\ ot :Pre1id.e1At ltoo••••l i’ • iM’QgUl’Bl a4d.n•• on JtultlJA’Q’ 30, 1941 • ….. .. • , the. nu ….. tor luch:eoa that 4.,- am later MV , … pe.rue w1 th;tlae WA••• fro• tu On.rt ot Olal•• n1141n.«. <V• Wff qppe•e4 \e laa4 nut a\ the Al6N9 lna., U1e wathu 414 net nbt1Ae enough to enaltl• the fly’inl’, boat aafel7 to coatt down oa the vatel” thent ao the Clipper tmloa4e4 • tunU t7 of -.n • took on more fuel. a.DI nev •traigb\ o•ei•alght fro• ‘l•rarula to Ltabon, vhe:re w put clovn on the nn.-. U •• • ., • .,,, ro”Cll trip throup a etora vld.eh the Ollpp•• … 11114:i uaaU• to riae a’l>o••& nt 1 aoqu1red a crea.\ re$peet for 1 ts eo111pet•ao• &114 ••rl1••·· \bat aipt. Aaedoaa alr taa-,.r•tloa ocnal.4 aoi thea ,:o 1a,o lnclaad. hoa 1.1•- ‘bon, aft•r a 11\il• vhU• a\ La S•ooru. we tlev to :trldol. !he pl.au •• an oenoaa \wi».-•a«l•• Doucla• wh.loh bad. belonged to e. Dutoh lln.•. lt · had ‘beea fl.ow o·rer \o lnclu4 •• Iii Uer •• o”f’eJ11″\Ullltag Bolland. After aa ubaJ>,J’ dart Nl”lJ’ oae ova – 1 t wae IIOl’e Uan a •tan, we were ou, o•er \he •••r fer a\ou, three ho’llra oa the v.,- to 3Dll.D4 when ve “1.l”ll.84 \Mk to ·:i.t.M – we wat ett aaat• •rl:, the a.st mol’lllaC Ull r•cbeA Brlt’91, l.uAlac oa • rala toaJr:e4 at.,.ro•• at\er a l\ltu• lltot· the laet tw bcnt.n. Ve ‘••el• b7 ,ma ‘9 hndoa when ,,. wen .. , ..,..,,. 0011.1″tec,uu7 at the ratl,od etatioa b7 IJ”lUu oft1olale. 0aP »•••7 ha4 res•ne4 i-oo•• tor •• at lhe 01.arilce lot•l• anct we wen .. oa eet’1e4 dewa &nil b?,aa work u4•.r the naplc•• et our Ma••7 \ut w1 in a «oo4 cleal er in4epeD4eno• bJ r•ua of the ••u• of nr •••tcnaea,. there •• ao auaeaa4or la J.olioa vhea ve arrh·.t, to, 4Jlltaal&4or ?•aaedJ’ ba4 n•1gaeA u4 Mr. lflnaat ha4 net 7et b1tu &l)J’.)o1ate4. Ile ou• wbtl• ve Wft 1n Loaloa. ta thl aeaa’111e Kr. • Barr7 lopkiaa •• there a• a aort ot repreeen’ta\t.w. of the ‘.President. Kr. • • • – 129 – Herschel Johnsen, the counselor of the •baesy, was the rinlting ottSeer in the »l’ba1117 hierarchy. Mr. Jen Cob.en o,. later ‘111th. Mr. Winant for a while. ‘l’he aegotlaUona w&re uad•r the oba1rw.nah1-p of Sir Alan lhlft!J of the Oolon1al Office. the Bri tl•h wete vldely repreeented, !b.•re wre •n ot the air to?•• &l”Jll.1, na.v1, tb8 lepl a.dvieer ot the Colonial Office, the poet offtee, represe.n.taU•e• of \.he coloniea a.m doim.nton1 who came fro11 levfounclland, .Ber.aa. J&Mtca, ‘1-lnld.ad, aDJ st .. woia. Cana.ta wa• not a part1 but waa tnn\ed to aUe:D.d. All kind.• ot pn,lJlema d•Yeloped bu.t we tlnal.17 worked. thell out, l think ill a reaeoaa’bl7 tatiafaotoq -.rm♦r. Ve had b?en told. the ae,ouatio.a a -wo\114 pro’babl7 con8Wle tvo ., .. ,, a w.l:u,ta.ntial uadereetimate. Some ot the dlffiou.ltle• which eonewaed tiM M1 ‘be m:ent102,1ed: whieh so•e:retgn •ho’tud haTe Juried.ic\ion of cnataal trials 1n mnoua tactual attuations VS.th reepect to ciUsenahtp, locale ot the alleged oftenae, .&!Ml na.tnre of the ott•nae? Xt u Aller106tJl wa• to be tnM by the United Ste.tee. vhere would \be trial take plao•’l Perba’pe the mo1t fund.ameaul 1u•0-‘bl•• — vhloh -.aa being watched very oloael1 •• 1t alght …,t.4enee 1 \eelf ln some autll&l’J’ ntp.«Jt – U”f’OlTed the quatlon of coYerelpty. The lrl.Ueh arid their ooloni•• were 1endUYe about tht.1. ‘l’h1a ua1teded ileelt • for example. tn coueoUon with th• po.a\ otftce. What ata.111p would be uted on a ‘ba,e’t ‘fhe atop of the aoloq or u Aaertoan atop? If the latter, would this 1?17 a aurrdder ot 10Yere1gn,7? What 8hipt could come 1a,o lhe wler• 1\U’l’OunrilA& • baae after we took poHeH1o.al What, it any, right of aooe•• wa<S to ‘be afford• Jritieh or other ah1ppln.g to the waters adjacent to the b&&e? ll1 what term, vere the powers aDd authoritiee we n.eflldetl to ‘build ?Di • • • – 13) – def’end the ba••• to be expreesed. v-11-a-na retention of a0Ye?’etgnt7 by the !ri tlahl la tllle couecUon we were obliged to negotiate one •••Uon. d.1 … a particular ba••• to d.etend the whole ooloDT, on or off the ba••• ln ••• of at,t.ok. fhle vae eaeeaUal fro• a ailital’J’ 1t-and:point. We couldn’t ‘be I<·,:::·: . rettr1ote4 -to a eall part of an 1•1And, tor enmple, tt the enemy were flp’pl’D&Ohi.Qg. One mat he.Ye the whole area aTB1labl.e for MAeuven and taaUo•. !tsa Britleh would agree to tbia it we in tvn w’llld agree that wMu1 the7 vere at w.r tbe7 mtght UH the •••• fhe7 urged tbll.t it we waated what was then the •1 watton. ht we eaid no, aotvi thatand1a« th@ seeaing plnsib111 t7 · of their poeU1oa. t think ve vere qu1 te ri,tht, tor thl• reaaoau theae t,laoe• had nner been 4efellfled. that 1•• no lliltta.17 bau had ••er been. b\111 t there of &DT coneequellee. the place, ve,re ln tM veatern A•lanUo. If attaoked the attack would ‘be on the eecurit7 ot the 11n1ted Staie• arid we ,-ould baTe to ‘beer the bu.nlen. We were to build the b•••• an.cl aboul4 la,-,• reapoaetb1l1 t7 a, par, of the 4etenae of Aaerica. lt w.• uareal11Uo tor ,he Jrltt•h to ••* the ldJ.Ul of recipl”Ooit7 the7 1’Q.Metle4, wbioh 414 aot aoooJid vlth the rN11Uea of the eituaUon. Ve were to llllke large upen,11 turea on theae 01dpoe’■ aad would deflll.4 lb• ud the whole f}Mt a t\er flull7 wat to Mr. Ohurch1ll. We ut w1 th hta. •• Ma­ be rs of hi• oa’b1aet, u4 hie t1rinc1pal atll\a17 aen 1n the Cabin.et roo11. at 10 Downin, Street. lie ltatened to both alcl••• prea1d.1ng •• U’ he were aa 1mparUal Jwtce. Be 41d not t17 to areu,e 11■ down a• Pn•• Min.t1te1” ot llngl&nd. or ,o tupport his ow people because they weN his ow. Re sought • • • – 131 – tend. la Pai-11.n,. Ooeaeio-1171 be wo\11.d get up and ‘lf&1k bebiad hle cha1-f}..,S.,Jl& to b1aeelt be auat 4ef•d. 1n Parliueat vbat •• acl’Hd. ·a. … ·.•· eort ot vo:r.d•N4 out loud a’bout \he n,pothaUcal r,oealbil1Ues of attaok la the wattern Atlantic — wbo could alee the aUac.k — ud then vould. u7. “lf \ha\ ooour1, 11 1 • the United State, -who 11U.et defend. lt would reall.7 ‘be an attack on the United Stat••·’ ‘lba\ was the the1i1 I bad upou.d.ed.. It wa• like ,u lfoaro• Doctrin•.. If \he•• area• were attacked we av.a’\ ‘beai tb.e p#l• n11pondlt111t7 of d.ef•n••• Bl agreed a.ad aete4 h11 ottlclala to:> n.’ba14e. K1’. Oba.nhUl ob•1ou•17 •• auloue \o reach a,neaut 1n eood. taitll, to tao• our need•, amt grant vhla.t we ought to •••• le oo-ent-4 that •• had 4one IO moh. for theta. .la to thit, l tboupt thq wre dein.« eo neh for us, too, la the defenee a&a1.n.1t Hi Uer. Be alao reaal”ked t:bat the q.e,q would. mock hglud. Bat lf U1e7 did 1 t waa ao t tor lone. The n-coUation• renl ted in an uaderl,tn,: acr•••nt appU,ca’ble to all the ••••? w1 ,n •••n\e nlaet7-alu 7M1″ lea••• for eaoh •••• ‘l’he a«l”•e­ aeat vat part ot each l•a•• by :ref ereao•• encl ‘rice ••r•a. !he J>riaoipal the dlfteJ”ea, au,boriUee of the pan1Clllar arg 1nT01Yfl4. lfhe ‘ba•lo acr .. – naent wa• exeou\ed \1 >tr. 0hu.rch1ll ea beht.lf of 11• Ma.Jett,”• OoTer·••’• !he ‘bll ts was on duriD& the necoUatlone. II wa• not a, bad aa 1 t bad bHn. tor •?l• ln the prece41nc fall or perbape 1n Deceuer vhu the area\ fll’e ooourrecl, or aa 1 t vaa la Mar atter ve left. whell fro• all accouatt there wa• a b&d UM. :Bui tbe n.1ght ‘boablq •• :talrl7 oonete.nt whU • we were la LoD4oa • • • • – 133 – lie wo•ed etea4U7. lfh• JrlU•h dnoted themHlftl taUht\\lly to ·ll810lla’ 1,on,. lhd U look aore \lae tbaa v• bad aa\icipated. !heH ..,.,, , 41ff??- 1a ecnetac on enot tens•. I thlu \hla va• uden’4N1a.ll.• van the Jiral•? •1 th• prot,1M 1 • hll;r u4er•1JOoct. We were •••tatect ‘b7 ,-. ).xr-;_ . ‘. ‘ ‘ . •’ . . .. ,. etatt in Loxuio»., par\inlarl;r b7 Mr. Theodore 4ohlll••• He took ••• tmle, bl• wuc u.d •• ia’flllu’ble. .t.ohlll•• ie a eaner •n in the h••• Depu-.at. l think he 1• nov la Pari.1 vtth the l’Uk of llaiater. Altbou,h ,i.·ltate hputaeat fl’O& 4a7-. 4a,- gave u a po& 4Nl et laUtw ve “” cu.tu>. aol to•• tbal con1, … ,. wltlM,,11t oleai-iq with ho.u. We teletJpec1 41notly tato the State ».,an..a\ 111 Vaah1.ng\oa att.r eaolt .,_ tac, upla1M4 ,11e OVl’U.\ •1 ftaUo•• cl ‘floe tu ten of propos-4 par…,.pha c11..-,-,. ,,, dq, aA4 ov …,uou a, to \heir aeoeptaaoe or•’• lt we W • ftxe4 14•••• w .d111pl7 aeked. what 00 .. 11,, the ltepanaa.t •bad to a ls-tt1th ncge1tlon. ‘lb• hparbeat 414 aa excel.lea\ Jo\ ot orpa1s11t1 a poup a\ ihe Vaa.bia«ton u4 – liaaJ\141,ng ‘Wal’ and •• pertJOuel u4 ape.. uu,, l \blak. repreHa\atlYe• of o\her 4epar\•alt, auoh a• the poa\ offl••• . wre ••Ua’bl• \o oope wi\h cp&e1tto•• w were au’bai\tlJl& ut to ct•• •••l•’-ao.. lat aecoU.att.oa• were •r1’1t4 •• ooa1\aa,1, vl\l\ ,?,, .lat•••buc• of 11.ed.lte,,,… oureeln• u4 W.abl.actoa. Mr. lllktr••• .,, ,i… .a-..,. Deparlaeo,, •m4 olotel7 wt th 11• uler \he coeral npenleioa of Mr. lame• Dan. ·la \be •DI.• the hll tea\ N4llllNd oTer…U final approw.l •. u ••• pe1a\ not onl.7 \lie fta\e »-,arlaen, ln1′ ,he Altora., 0..-J’al u4 ,, P?l … 4ea\ wen ,.reonal.17 ooanl t.a. perbapa •, \t.a•• ‘before. ,.,. reooll1ta\l♦:a , 1• tat Attorn.e7 0.Mral J•okeon aotual.17 ve.e “1\b Ille heal.deal oa a – 133 – • for final appl’Oftl. We were then give.a of’t1c1al au\bort-.i1on to •i&a OA behalf of the 11aUe4 Ital••· the agnaet, ••?• ti.pet b1 Mr. Vt11ULt,. Gea–1. ».lolll’. hllllUA•r B1el … 1er and. .,-..it for ,u Vnttad hah•• ?· b7 >tlr. Cbanhill, d Lord Cn.a’bora•• :Lord loJM, an4 Tiiie.•t Ma•”7• t? W. –.r, L. ll. Peareoa. ell of Oau.cla, tor Gnat Brltata. •• t1e,aed. the a,n.,. la the Oabiae, no■, at 10 Dowtrc s,ne,. the tvoty-MTeJlth of • • Ma:r?, 11″1. ‘.Jtr. Vlll&Jll cau ‘9 J.oato• a• u’bae…,.r vhll• ve·vere \ur.. le oaa• ‘”17 1t11pl7, without tutan. u4 veat abou.\ Id• wnc. Be •–• ‘- be well reeel . ..O. b7 the lri.Uah• vbo 11ke4 ht• 11llpltoU7 and of oou-•• hi.t er•’ 4eYOUon to tlae av. .. ot •cl•n4 •• ld• oppoatUoa to the ldllll ot · ,M.. n,1er npn•••••• le took a ,na, lateraat ta ov work. la ••’ vt.\ll \u thNe of us qtdte ♦ttea la the eTen.lq u4 41ae4 wt.th••• Whe.a tbe aegoti&tloa• vel’e oTel’ w parted. with the Jritieh ta tne ool’tt.allt7 aad tridshlp, IIOtvl ,bttu.dlng \he 1\ltt &eoU&llon.1. I W. a tJ’ehllllou nepeot to.- ,11e lntlah. Dl.rinc \)lat pend vhea, ezoepl to? their owa ooaoaveal.lh oou,nee tar •WI’• ‘M1’ alo•• wre ttch.ttnc 11’1••• ,,. wN …. 1,10•’• ‘-lr ot ‘1•• were n,.teottd ’41 oeu,uat 1to•ttta. · o …. f.OlllllJ’ • nea la cla7U•• ov •*• la tu far Ottt••• wlll.4 -. lat.r­ npi.a ‘1 I.he wal”Dl.nc tlr•• 1ni, we would eo ••• .tu ftrt’\ ‘1• \hi• oo­ ovte& $lit Aun hra1 tal4 \hat lhae v.n l>oal:I 1hel \eJ’• &ftllable aid ve onl4 ta11♦nupt lrut aeeonauou utll ’11 c1eaJ’• if ve vtehed.. •• tnqUlre4 a• lo ,a.1r wllhe• u4 \hq eat.d.. v-11, ti..,, u8\lall7 c.anl..t oa, u- 1••• thq &VI a vanlaa troa ,he -part1Ala1’ lndl41nc ‘\heJ’ weJ’e la. •• .U we ‘cl do· tbe …. , aal affel” he4 lo la\el’rapl the aecollation.1. OU. .. ….. 1eeaecl. a blt 1n11able a.ml tlNd. 1 learu4 that ,he aight ‘betor• he ba4 • • • – 134 – bfltA up all at.gb.t 4olng hl• ‘°ur of clut1 ca the roof• of h1 • ‘block. After \he )lg. Al’e 1a leoea’bel’ J.oa4oa va• Te’f7 tlaoft>11&bl)’ orga!d.se4 to prena?Ji re?iNZlc• of ooatlacn.11oa. v.,oi.r, vere poa,.t on the 100f• oil \lMf alert to1′ tire ‘boalt•• wt tb und. ‘bac• u4 other paraphel’Mlta. Ill” Alaa 3ura• •• a •a aloq in 1•n — but he va, 4oia« 111• tour of 411.’7. •• to ltdnc ooa41Un•. our 11t,1e ll”O’ttp •• well oai-ed tor. Qlu … 14’•’• wa• a-a exoep’10Mll7 fine hotel, am w bad adeq;aa\e food. Ytw. h() … tel1 I ,Id.Ilk v«l’e ‘b••••• f\’lPJ>U.e4 ,d, th food. tbu th• re•14ent, paera>.i,. ·•· l 1114 \ut 111’1• onel’ha1’7 to expeneoe \be tooct •lba\lo• ot ti. ••• of the people la ti.D4oa •- nt l now l\ va• ….,, t11’lnpa\. “‘-• •• • i.• ot tntt — \bit •• tne nea at Olai-14«•’•'”;- a.ad of ea•• vhloh •• •• eaUNl.7 tne at Ola1’14c•’ • – a •horlal• al 10 of …,, vllloa •• partl7 n.bd1\ute4 tor by fowl and fith. there •• a good deal ot flth, laclu,U,ag deliole11.1 aaoke4 Mokerel. There w.1 :aot sob be.t, lnlt 00:eaalttaall7c one oo’Qld get 1 ,. tf one vtt11.t \o 81.apaon. ‘•• to7 eaaiple. ant\ wre \bt1’• in the ton parl of lhfl line vhea \he tlteer-door opeae4, oa• atgat ., na•• beet, nt lure wa.1 no, eno’QCla ‘° nppl7 fl’•17’0•• vbo …. · Loud.on wa, q.m. the ltlaotout wa• taor.&1l»l1 ‘black. It •• Tel7 4lttt.i, – t1• \:be •1 aro\Ulfl. Te\ U•r• ••• ao\ • total l»laob••• -+·’ \beri •• ao• 11,,1e 11,:hl vhich •• 4ova throu.p the boltC)ll ot tlie ,,,. •• , 1up ‘1o’bea,. lat\ qu1’e 41a. Getlln& aN-4 a\ aipt •• tor • a pre,’7 d.eaperate bua1ae••• Bo\ •ch of 1, w.1 alttllJ)te4, although lt •• taac1aat1ag hov the oalte coul.4 f1A4 their ttaT uouad. 4ohill•• 1atroctue4 •• to a pod reataura:at •– lUUe 4btaaoe ? fl’Oll tbe hotel, … •• fl’eaiag■ ve took a •lt uA went t.re, ooala, baolr. ln \1- clooa. Otten we wul4 • • • – 135 – dine, perhaps id th Mr. Winant and Mr. Cohen after they arrl.'”4, at the Oonuuch\ lotel not far tro11 the lmbau7. ·• Don an,\Ulll the wharf• the houaln, bad been l>a417 boaed. fheN we? ‘bad tpoh all oTel’ liond.on, but not noh dettructlon ae l •• l.atttr in Berlin and .hremberc — except tor the l”etul h of the fire in the old et \7 in De• ceaber 1940. ftl4t 11\’lbveys -were a •ad. tight at JIJ.ght, uc-1 b7 thousaatle of peopl• aa boab shelter•• but peopl;• took \heir ol”deala ln wonderful spirli. I de .aot reu•ber •DT -parUcular pro’bl• •bout clothing. At a •tter of le.ct, now bi I \himc about lt, 1 nppoae we bad to 11Jdq, ‘b7• aiac• w• bad aet tnt-4.t to ‘be &”’87 eo long. ‘l’h• heaY7 underwear Ao•• bu. ad’t’l•ed. caae 1n bancl7. A• for soap, bot •’•’• am lauadr7 there •• tor u, u htn”4whip. •• wen in one of tbe aoat tawrable ‘Places, a well? ant. well appoint? hotel. I a• .woe ve tared better thaa most. There va• a boa’b ahelter attUabl• in the baaenaent, but during the raids I pretened ,q rooa, vhioh •• eomewhe.t c•11trall7 located 1u the hotel, both long1tud1aall7 and le.UtwllDal.17. The entraace to the hotel va• h$a’ril7 aaraAbaeced, ri ‘h high wll• of 1-c• UtCl,ecl eo lbat no light couJ.d e•i-ge fro• vlUda. 4 creat bole •• ia \ile etree\ ual’l>J tthae a bomb bad aploded; but none aeeaed to fall ••’l”I’ clo•• vhila I •• ‘1:1•r•• U10ugh fl”O• lbe noise of the planes the7 eeeae4 lo be rtgb.t 0’9’er.bea4 a\ ti•••• a.ad the ‘ba\,ert.e1 ill Hyde Park put up a gt”M\ rack•t. t.ne old capUYe balloon• OTff London were s ttran,ce debt, ordinaril7 crer to lhe •1•, but at tiu, turned a beautiful re•• or plnk •• th• raye of a 4eclilliag na colored the• high o..-ei- the cl t7. !be:, kep\ the raide:re at a greeter height tbu olhervbe th.er al&ht baYo con • • • • – 136 – l bad. beea 1n a aighl nid ot the C.J”llans o•er Parit in 1918, at a U-.f,,? .. J.tc Jer\.ha •• also tbellillc Pana; but \he ‘bea\1»c ef Lond.oa d11ri11f, V.? Vu II, ud. of eo., … ,.,. • .lrietol, aacl •••I’ l»cllo citt•••· ‘,_ ?}”‘; ;,:, .. : : •’ -·, :· -·. “., was/:tu- more fSlenli••• Later in \u •r our boal>lac of O.naa c1’1e1 ena ex••;ded. thi• ia cle1tra.ot1Yene••. f1- laber in the Jira, World War loet hla •X1n&4e•• aDA ii Uer 1• \he S..0.1).d·. ••••• to ha•• takea h1• ow life 1a a 1carrad aad ••Nd .0.l’IIQ7 &I the ktaiut vere ooaing ‘t1.o\edoutl7 tato Berlla. &al we bad eo•• a lone w.1 6114 .,. 11ear. be iaol’e41t.l• mtteriac tba, bad. lt•• ‘ffOUCb\: L•• • bop♦ ao oae 1-1,1a••• nea P•••i- 4et\no’1oa ‘117 \ld.akina he caa euo”‘ vi \la Uie Ato.S.o 01- lb’droca \Galt. le wbo take• up the evorcl ahall pel”io b1U.w noN. 1 va• in hrlla 411.rin, \be Pe’llll1&ra Ooatereao• ln the ..,…r of 1945 lo • .. , J’u1t1oe Jaoks0-n for a co».lei-eaee vi.th the hol’e\ar, ot State on th• 1\atu of the wr oriaaa acoUatioAt then 1a pro«n•• la toAdon. la.oktoa •• •• Aurloaa 1’tpNe.ataUn aail the alllea l-4•r la the •teoUa\loa,. Be 1-4 na• · •• requ.•’1JtC \Mt •••eftll leU• d4 1. , … ae&I’ J’rui:tu•t• J•l•’ ht.a tot’ Ille coatenAM la J.alta. the day after ov uri’fal ve wen\ dow lak tu auer b118k•r a-, ,1- ».toll Oharu1tn7. the vbole area wu la ma•.· A tw aoa4eeortp, ha.S.aa to14l•?• wr• oa pa.1’4 ta • n.\ut’ loo•• fa.ehlon. (j,\ Polftdaa it•elt. boveTer, the Sonet pertollMl wn alert aa4 , v-11 .,. …… ) We w.Adencl abb\ aoac \he 1″111ae of the tuffl’ •••• dqe ot •ffliiaa cna•••••• a •–•• et the l:nlp 4eY&etat1oa la lhe Jerlla ana. Golq ‘bade ‘° 1941 u4 Lenloa, •• oue hbu ‘1 alr. V-e left J.ondoa \y traia for Jnalol ta. attel’JIOOa et \he atgnlac, aftel’ a !anr 4a7 “1th 01ar Jr1U,lh fn•A4•. Mr. Churoh1ll bad ana.naed a plee.eo\ eeNB10a7 ud. PY• – 137 – • eaolto:t 111 _a speoial fount.la pea ueed 1n the &1111lag. ‘there were cha.111pegae toat\l .after t:u pbotocnptMtr• u4 11evnen lad left ,b9 Oa’b1ae\ roo•. ?”1t:l)’lstol ve teat a ·ie1e1s,rphic farewell to Sil” Jl&n. our al?· t11?f ,.o ‘t1aboa wa, 11.allar to the ono tbat ‘bl’Ougl\t ua into ?lalMl . .. · month• or •o •rliel’. .A\ lt1ebo». ve ven \e take the 0l1ppe? home. !b.f,re • • were seTenl d.a7a of waiU.ng, bu\ thee. were a.ot unpleaeant in the uvar- 11-e ..sphere of J’or?, a’Wll)’ tron the d.u\h and deatnc’tlon or ft?’, tm,.. ,.,, \7 a blackou.11. pleaUtul wt,n fruila, d-1.ica.al•• Mld· sun1hla.. Incl?? ·–??- beroie of \hou 4at•, wa, also the 4eprtft4. And. 1’1-Qu ,.. ••ff-olowltd u4 le11pol’Ull7 ea-1aYe4. (Oa-, retal’II I spoke to t.b.11 .,. Law Jenev of rq illpl’e••lon1 oa the trip, and aight le&•e w1,11 theft ••••• a cop7 ot \ho H nal’ke, •• well a• Ibo H uA• b7 u 1n Londo& oa ltoalt or the UaUed States at the ti.rat pleuq teed.on, preliied. over· ‘7 Sir hn.». our Olippe-r ar:rlTed. ve fl.•v fro11 Li•bon to Jaloa 1n ‘Port’D«’lte•• •••\ Atnoa, where PAV bad reNatl7 ••tabl1•hed a e’la\loa alone 1 ls nev …… “1ra na\e to \he V:all-1. Sta•••• !? n1g11, 4eva troa J.t1’boa •• onl”ld,t.lt. Ia the •1″11 aoniltac ” ?•• ‘bqon4 Dtakal’ ea route \o l&loa. 0a ta.itac ta.r• ,,. apeat tu ,., a hot oae, ta Ihle eaall, ?lat ooa .. 117, ,,.. .. \be lean populatloa •• rq 11,.,, coataot with the naUTa Atrlean• la tbtl:r ova ,lul. low a few Aurloau were also thel’• M –,e the Air S•Uoa. ••• alp\ appi-oaohecl ve nw &U’Ot• the So•th .ltlaatlo to land ia 011• o1 ,.. –•• of the Allasoa oft \he ahore of lel••• Jn.111. We came down oa \u water before 4ava, alo,ea a driag of light• to guide the pt.lot. •• brealcfaa\94 on a ‘boat oa the riTer. fl-om 11h1oh we could Sff 1n the clletuee • • .. 138 .,. Atte1> a few hova there ve were off tor JenaaAa, where. a, on \be ••oa. ve an-1″4. b•fore 4a• aad oa• down oato the •••r into a 11.ck:laoe o( 11,ch\t wh1oh tna afar bad •••eel \o •••r 80 1.U a 9Pac•. Betor• aao-\her u, .?4 paHecl we beat a ra1adon ia\o lev ton. ludln& on \he va\er• a\ Lahal’dia Airport. A.an•••• ilhel’e and we were eoon. l’fl.n1\ed vi\h our ch11j,o> 4Na 1n Wautngto11. Aca•• bad had a ••• ta.14 for • eaoh 4a7. and 1 bow · ot».,, of ihe faail.7 ,,..a tor … The Pret14ea\ pro11pU7 traaalli \tecl to Ooa«nH \he dooueat• to• .adttJa he had talc• re1pen1i’bUlt7. He d14 ao\ uk for their raUftaUoa ‘bJ \ht haa\e a.1 a tna\7, OI’ b7 \he two Bou••• lna\ pre11ptl7 tent \bea 4ow to keep \he Co.a.ere•• ldotae4. the laet1″WUa\a wei-e tr•te4 •• ••ntl•• -ApeeaeAta, witbln the power of ,he Prealdeat to aka, anA X ‘”* ban DeTer ‘bMA quatiouct. Oa the coatra17, ConueH in au.ere••,,, ga·n it• appro’fal ‘b7 lectelatlnc oa 1’1lriou• n.l>Jeot, related to \he be.•••• fbe Pre11- deat •• baaaaiteioa to Coner••• 11 repl’Od.uoed la Bouee ot Bepreaea,at1’ffl Do01LUn\ Jo. USS, 7?\a Ooacn••• la\ ….. (‘faloa Oalen4ar lo. 98), Ooftn­ …. , PrinUnc Offtoe, 19G. la oae of \be War Offt••• ta l,on4oa lhere •• a ••17 tlae oll pel’t,at. t ot Pre114eat Va1hiactoa. Sir Alaa aouc.a our later••’ an.cl to14 ua \he ateq, vh1ch he later had. \,:pe4 tor u, •• fellowet POIIMII QI UoR .MPilRIB ‘l’ble la a npllce ot a paiaUag b7 O. If. Peale {l ?<f.l.-18.2’1) . 1a the Senat. Challber at Vaahing\oa. 1’ vat brough, to la.Np• la 1780 1>7 Ooloul Hea17 LaUNA■ • wbo ba4 ‘bHa 8PJ’)o111’• vu ,.a Sta.tea Mln.lt\er to the Weth.ei-lulla. the th1p in which Laura• \raTel.led •• NptUN4 off levtoulSlaDA ‘b:, a Jrit11h tnaat• la coamam of O«ptaia leppel. vho cl&laed ,he portra1 t a• hie per­ •onal prise, and. pneeated. 1 t to hi• ucle Aclairal Lord leppel • • • • – 139 – fhe painting ihu• found ita place in the galle17 at ?den.baa . Paik·, the sttat of the lal”l ot Al’buarle. 7or some Ume 11 wa• M. 10 l>owninc Street, and w.1 tn..ntfened hen ill or before 1929. A e1111lar replica •• preaen\ed. to the Court of 1rance amt 1• at lel”Aill••• ·My’ ‘broth•r Will d1e4 1n lal’Cb at oUl” 014 boae in loae while 1 •• 111 London. 1fe waa d.xt7 7ear• of ace, \he old.eet of elffft brotbera and 111- te:rs who .. lsad. lived to •ture ace, and ht, death va1 the first ..,? u• · alnce Paul died a 11 Ule child 1011• fort1 or mol’e 7eare before. Will’• du.th•• a l>eauUftal 011•, with hit 48’l’Ote4 brother• au\ liatera in ••• beatd.e ld.•• u4 wtta tu Oburoh’t Saonaeat aooollp&D1iac hta. •• ua. hl• wife, t1- fol”Mr adl7 Stude ot lloutoa. are buried 1.a the t–117 lot 1n M7rU• 1111 oeu,e17 111 ioae. Will •• • . loftl>le :P•raon, w1 th a nr, ttae lllnd. ana became an aocompllah.a •n t.n hl• tteld of a4YerUa1na. ‘the President u4 Seoreta17 llill aee•ed gratified over the a-cotiatlott• in London. We reeeiTed letter■• etc., appene4. On our l)art ve o’tftit4 a ••rJ great d.eal, a• 1 ha.Te u1d, \o .lohtlle• 1n toadon. and to ilckeraen geanal qem,loa ot Mr. lame• ha, kep\ u ad.Tiae4 alllt oa the rtgh\ tiaclc. tfl14ge tov.atel!IA, ot ay OV!l ottt.oe, u4 Ch•••n lllckwnh. of State,. who w.a oloee to the original exobance of not••• &110 ahl’iall7 •••11\ed I aa ?. I ehoul4 •ntlon alao \he helpful ooa1Ultat1one vlth Bea OoJen la J.oACloa after he arri Ted w1 th Mr. Winant, a• well a, Ben•• coapall10111hip. I acquired. a great respect, too, tor Mr. Kerachel Johnaon wboae ca.reel’ in \he DeparlaeA\ of State ha• been a 411tiJ1&111•hed one. .la the 7ean pa.eaed. be, Oohtul., Acblll•• aa4 Jlickenoa and t were in one ‘W!7 or &not.her a•eo.o1ate4 in tM Sta\• Depanmen, or la. tau, tor the United State• la conaecUon with the United Jla\ione. • • • – 140 – ‘fb.e Oomender, now lea.- Admiral lU.et•eier, retired, no\ lone a,o •••t me a oop7 ot lalt •J’wl7 &qa•, ooatalaiac • ••7′ intereat1ag aoootm\ ot the Loncb>Jl 1\MOUaUona. 0.nel’al Maloa,- aoUTelT pantoipa\ed 1a tbft S.­ con4<1otl4 War vlth dit’1aot1on. and. f.t aov al.ao reUN4 bu\ relaUTel7 10\dC llld.l.n pod h•lth. 11.1’ Alaa Bu.ma ‘beoue •• BriUah repnu••n\a?\4 ·> >· -.. . . . ·. oa \lie Tn•••••hip Couoll of the Vaited lfationt. Sir GJ”a\\an lu1che, who , wa, 1i..1 MT11or tor \he ooloatea and Tert actift in \he aecc,Uationa. •• . ‘ wlli••• la 4n.tUAC, bee&M lo-.enoJ” of one of \he ‘PO•••••ioae 1n the We,,:: en. 4110.,10. Sir WllU.u Malld.a. Lecal .WTitor of \he l’oitelca Ottt••• ltllo: pan1o1pala4 at tiut, one with \M JnU9h \o ,11a Baa J’ruotaoo Coat•.-? eue la 1946 uA •• lo■’ vMB the plue la wh1oh he •• n,t.nc bo• ,o lacl• UaappeaNd.. S. wae a Yel’I’ able ad loft’ble per-.a. J!e ….. oJUt of Alt olub• S.n l,ondon a,atla\l• to Malon,-• Bel..-1•• aDd. •• Ind.etld., the Brttiah wt.re aod oourteou• lo u.• in eTH7′ va:,. aotv1\hdan41- the stN•• . of 11- ttua u4 the tliff’icvl.•1•• of the negoUationt. Mr. Churchill bad . · ua to 4.iuei- on Sw:a4q a, 0-quN. wt,h Mra. Clm.rohlll, a daugh\er, Mr. VlMa,. aa4. •r. tne. .t. ratbtr large otfiot.al luoheon oon.rN4 earlt•••· wUll Sir Ant..,-•• a• hD1t. t.&\el’ we J”e-.nell ,. oovteq v1’ll a 111d.lar •f.fair at 01.arldc•••• (ltr Aatboll7 talk-4 of h1• lfaqld4 for.beal”t.) W, ••tel’ laolwted a• 1a a ftl’I 4.:1.lch\ful ••••• a\ Ol.lYe4u. Ge&enl · aJl4 Mrt •. ..,qhtoa of a.-,.. Lord. Oruehol’h aacl Lord lalq “” none the ..,,.. Mn. Molfauchtoa 11 a Oatbolto and La&7 u\or Uft!lled for be’I” aa4 me to ‘be il’iTen \o Ma” Swl4at a, \h.e .Ui tar, hoepUal not so far ava7 • • – 141 … •olrttii .a or4er af \he Board nqutl’tng an eaplopr to red.ace to Yrlttnc· and tip aa agreement naoha4 b7 oolleo,tve barcalninc. 1’ •• abl7 pre- 11nte4 on. lMtbalt of the Ooq,u7 ‘by Mr. Earl •ec1.. a 1u•oa:ln•nt uaber ot the. PUt.,)ltrth bar who ba4 a:rpe4 \he Ult• t kMIA1a ••• oa ‘bebalt ot •• eo111p:,.11, •.. •• hpNM Oou\ netatn..i thll ol’der of ,he Joal’d. aa a Na••• ‘ ‘ ‘ • able on• ,o etteotuate •• polled•• ot the statute la aoov.raglac \he ••·UJ.i.ilC of lal.uehial. cll1put•• \hNugh oollecUTe ba1ga1a1a,. !ha ••• wa• .011e\h1q of a Jwilclal lall1Mric 1:a the de’ftlopaeat of collectlft \ar-. &aialnc ud Ue incidot1. A\ tlrd blah 1 t aight eeem to ha.Te pi-e1ea\e4 • a 41tticmlt flU••Uon ill that the lloaJd. •• Nqulnnc a vntten.. alp.cl oon.traot; nt ‘”‘ •• al••t aa law1’-ble d.nelop•••• of &004 fat,a colleot- 1ve ‘barp1Ab.g. I tel, tairl.7 oont1dent the Court would ut dle\ur’b the· Jwtpeat ot the Joarct &!Ml take • backward step, laoon111teal vUh the 1>011ot ., of 1htt Aco\ • .&ao\h.er of the tov caa•• argu& a, tbat lf•ra •• Slrltllna u r:11 lbU>.!11. islttmot •• hr L Abil.a•oa Qo,. ,, al-. 11s v. s. sos. -,ioll ,a,tel the ftl.141 t7 of an act of 0oa«N•• au1bor1•1nc the coaabuotloa 1’7 tu 11a1\ed. Sta.tee of a daa au pov•r plant acnH the led 11…-er 1A Oklano•. !he .,. … ., .. po”•r •• rel1e4. tpoa, -parUcnlarlJ the autho1’U1 it gl••• th• te4eflll ,Offl’IIMDI o.,•r tbe •”fitabl• ,tr••• of ta. ‘Oal\e4 hat••· fh4t l• \ent\1. t•hr. abttal thle parlioular exwo1•• ot the pover w.e that Uie 4aa w• in part a l)OWI’ plaat. 1-llnd• ln , be S•t• would l>• 1auada\e4 bl’ • the re1eno1r NttulUng troa the dalt, and 1t •• conhnde4 there •• .not • • • – 142 – tJ”Ul.7 an. exercise of power over narlpble waten but the g•neratlq ot el.•o\ i-to JilO”I’, vhioh •• a •”•” for \h• ata.,e. !he S\JpN•• Oov\, bow’Wtl’, helcf \hat the -priaal7 p’CU’J)o•• mat be eoaa1<1ered. to lte fiood ooatn.,l, vldoh 1a w:1,tMn lb• ooa\rol ot Uflp’bl• ., …… ,. tbe federal COlllhNe ‘PO ….. J”. ftle ml\lple purpose of \ha 4.aa, U wa.1 held, d.14 act deatro7 tbia fed•ral auU:ior1,,. !’ha oaae ca•• \1p to the off’iae ot the Solioi tor Oeneral \hro\lRh ,? 01.alu l>1Tia1oa of the J)ep&rae.a\ of JuaUoe. Ml’. De-,. waa the at\oru, whe wned ‘Id. th • priulpall,r lA the prepan.tloa of \be onl pr&ualaUoai ln \be lupl”Glle Oourl, &114 we of areat aatistaaoe to … When 1 later ‘becaaa Solicitor Geeral 1 ottent hill a 1>0.S.Uoa •• 111’ a’8.tt, ‘but he bll4 bee ottered – or •• about to be oft•re4 — the l)Ot1t1on of A.ld:?t General Oounael or Geaeral Oou.ael of the Jtederal Oo1111W1icaU0111 Couia•ion • He veat w1 \h the Coal ••ioa and beca.me 1 h General Oousel and l• lt”‘J’P’ a !!IM’b er of tbe Coul1,a1o.n 1teelf. 1 ha•• no 9Peotal recollection ot 4.1tflls,l\J on the Cour\ o••r the q1Metion of the p11.rpo•• of Uw1 cl.a•• btl, Cb.let JuUo• Ba.ch•• •• ••11 later••'”‘• ,l!lJll\ •*• qa.eetlo•• tor \ti. -purpoae of olarit1oat1on. ot ,u IONi’mleat•• poaUloa, tbo\’lgh he d14 u\ l!Mlloate aer1oua doul>\a about ‘• ftl. 141 t7 o t 1t • l)Oal Uoa. l 4o remember, aov•rer, 41ft1oul\7 of a peraoml charac,er 1a lboi-ouch- 17 wers\an41ng the •••• Onee uncler,toocl, l •• coatideat. !he Atlonq Oeaenl. of the Stale of Oklabolla -.de a flu a.,cueat on behalf of the Stale. fbea oaa• the ca•• ot b>.tn •· Jla&SoA SIA’t•? 312 u. s. aoa, u whloh Iha optAion bJ Jualica lee4 M1″• — t .now Mff 11 bafore •• — la ,he tlr•t aenlea••• •’!’he appeal brtn.p here the oorreotae•• ot the l’lll.ing ‘b7 the – 143 – • Oou:rt of Claims, which allows 1i1tare1t on. s olalm aga1ntt the appellant. • • tlw Vruled. State•.• 1, vaa an interesting caae. n sounds 1••• ao thaa lt ••• lactuell7 the X1aa1.ed.ppi It Yer and ‘h• ‘boa(.” vh1oh pltttd l t1 an4 th• ot?atanoee that la7 \.idnd the 1ntel”e•\ ao-,.. lade an tatei-eattna stoq. It wa,e a new kind of caae for me, a• •• W Bixer,. So. too. vaa hfta­ dmH.gJ} J>iyage Qocomion, t\ aL “‘· !ht ErwltMI hout1U11 MxitttU iraP.P, ,i Al, … 313 U. s. &79. ‘!’he queatioii wae a nry technioal one fro• ., :,otnt of new. ba’\’lng to do vUh tiu. U•lla••• ot aa appeal lo tbe Oir­ ouit Ooun fro• an ol”del’ of a. baaknap,c7 oovt at tb.e 41.tnct ccntri lffel1 ud. alto \he que1tloa vt.\her thfl 8.J)!’eal •• of rl«h’ ol” .met be allov.t. 1>,­ the ot?aui t court of appeal•• 7he oour, belo’it bu d.eoided a&ain•t the JudeclloUon o! ,? ct”’11t oourt to entertain the appeel1 a defeat tor •h• llecon1tru.cUon 71unoe OorponUon oa whoas b•half the Sol1c1 tor General bad pet1 tioned the 8,:rpr•• Gov, :for rmev. !he Sai>re•• Oou.rt ttenr•td ill an a-pinion by J’uattce Do?•• holding the a:ppeal ebould have bee-a eater­ tatuct. !he d•feet in the ■e,ho4 b7 vbioh the am,NJ. had bffn tak-,,a wa• hell aot \o b&Te ntte4 the 01rnt, Oour, ot J1u1.141oticn. !he e.o vat ‘back for 4.hpodtioa o• \be •rlh. tb.e IMoa8’noU011 7ba.a•oe Oorpol’aUoa. l aow aHUae, hat aa lateNt\ tn. the ••• lt••••• 11 Met a •’-• tn ‘• a••••• of the ooapanJ’ lnYOlTecl.• no dout ‘-lu’oup a loan. We vne ta ooa\aot vl th i h general oouaeel la preparinc \he ca••• “‘ l ’11 not oleai- tha, w couul. ted the Seeurii1•• am hohll.nge ao..tadoa. Later on \hei-e w•• caee1 ln which we 414; tor enaple, the Ql\fltff Qgtpgn,ticn 0&••• ‘but tblt oaae along later vhn I va• lolldtor Oeaenl. Ve were ••’17 bu•J’ during this period.. One had to keep dead.117 at work under the 1n·eew.ree ot the Umea. I \hbk unal.17 there 1• tl•• to 4o • • – 144 – what fall• to oae but the work did involve long hour,. I was Uk•iui out of for,/I vent •W7• but ‘1Mt Solicitor Oeunl hl .. •lf took U o’fer. ·ll ,.;· -.ol•’td an order of the Je4eral ‘Prad.e Oo•1111oa ad. became an bpol’h.Jl\ preoe4ent. I had kaova Mr. Biddle• the Solioi?:r General, al.thou«h X bad ne’HI’ pmiou1l7 •*• vt,h Id.-. la hai beea a Maber -• Ohalr•n – ot \he ltabo1′ Joal’4 whloh preeti4ed. the. Yacaer Ao\ loan. l becue mch b••••:r ao;. quatat.a with ht.a 4vta« \!ala pertot, aa4 alao vUh hie daft. vhlola •• aa eso♦J.l.ent oa•. WaneJ’ Gari.ae1′ I ‘beline •• hit 1..S.oJ’ etaft ..,.. At1l0l.4 Rau •• ta tbe oftio• — he h aov a aellb11′ of the Taz Coll.H of 1-• Uai ,… 8118.tea. l ai,.. ihoqht Anol.4 oae ot the mot\ learaed. aea 1• tll• taz field 1n the ooun\r,. l’ortUD&\elJ, u reaained 1n the office 4arinc -, :period ae Sol1o1 tor General. !oa &am, w.1 the,• ‘Vi th :Biddle u4. I b•- 11••• Qhatle• loPllk1, altboqh l•• not ave vbelhar he lheD. 1’eaaiu4. I Jmov he was there wt.th••• Mama Sad.th Jacl bea oa Uw atatt tor •• 7•f• and. ooaUa’ll.e4 tulac ,q perlod. • •• a •••1a11tt 1a orialnal -?? OfftOJ 07 !D SOlalOlfOI GDJIAL In. Ju.a. of 1941 ftoa.aol•• oocurN4 la \he Supreme Oourt wldoh n•lll \e4 in \he appotn.aea, of JueUoe• :a,rne• aJMl Jacltaoa. lackeon t11H4la’\el1’ vilbdnw f’ro• actin writ ae .H\orae7 Gu•ral• p•ndln, oonflraa\lon. Solt• – 145 – • cUor Oceral Jiddl• becue AcUag AUorae7 General, aad l AeUac Solicitor hllefa].. Kr. :11c14l• •• Doai.natetl a• A”oney &.•Nl in Aqu\ 194.l.• &Ziel lo?Jt1f1o• upoa ooaftraatloa. 1 •• aoarlu.led. •• SolloUor 0-.unl ta • • · ,- ·? Ooi-..r ud. took offloe la SoTeaber, 1941. ? del,q 1a rq ••• •• due to a i,a>bl•• oontronUn,: \he Prea14•nt about o\hert who dedred or wei-e oondd.ered. tor the potU1on. I d.14 not talk pereonall7 with \he Pnaiden\. ‘but had good nato11. to belleTe he va• taff.ra’bl7 ooaat.4..-iac • aJlll pro-’17 w’l.1.4 ap.,olat … Mr. Bi441• f1Utl7 a4″1’M4 .. there were two •• he pNf enect ‘beoaue of oloaer p•rfflllll -.la..-: 11oathlp o? other natoae ot bit owa. 1Je tel4 •• vbo the7 wen. Jut he alao to14. ae tbal lie affel’Uwl••• bacl. d’f’l1ecl the Preuctat the, t •• pl.:tfle4 tor \be otfloe. lt ffeu4 U.kel7 the hee14ent would appolat ae ul••• be turaecl to lb’. ».an. Ao.be90ll. The Preud. .. , ,eat wol’4 \e .. thl’oqt,. Attorney O.nenl J1d4le iad1oatt.nc Uat l could ••• a aboioe of belq Soltoitor Gaeral or A11t•M11t Seci-eta17 ot Sta••• the poalUoa th& hel.4 “b7 Ml”. .lohetoa. u4 tai eftai. J ahoee \)Mt i.t,el’ Ille 1ate:r•ao• •• lie voul4 appolal Mr. AolMIIOa •• 8oUotlol’ 0.eal. l Wl”8t• a Mt• to the PN•14e\, vbloh I &aft \et •• ,,-. …. , GeaenJ., NJinc I \bough\ .,. nperlaoe better (l’IUl11f1ecl • to ‘be SolloUor Geunl ,. J.1t11taat S.ontaq ot State, for wtltob. naaoa I preferred the toraer. but that l voul.4 &ladl1′ aooe4e to hi• withe• am 4″1)17 ,.,,reolate4 ,a. oppor\ma.1 ,,. of npna•ina -,,elf. Alone a’boul \bat U.ae Mr. Acheeoa am I luoW tocether. le k•• the tnm of the Preel– 4.ot •• \hinlda, — or lbal aU:n’bu,.i to tu Pn114ent — am told. • he thought the logloal ,,-, •• for tbtt Pneicleat to appoln\ •• 8ollot.tor Geaen.l. I told hi• 1 new of no one who would Mk• a better Soltoitor • 146 – • Oen.aal than h1atelt, and tb&t I oertalal1 would understand the President’• oboloe of bla. • • · ·- · . fl\e lua\• JwlloS.17 Cor.at.tte• appola\el a allbco-ittee wUb Se»Jjt’/ .la\tll a• ohalnaa alMl a 07 tor a hearl.q on -., noatu.Uon •• ••’• Mr. tfa44i•n• 111’ old. friend, torar ch&1naan. of \he l.abor loard., va., preeeJlt. SUUq aero•• \u rooa •• Mr. John Connolly, of IM1 Moin••• v1’h whoa t nad. roome4 a• a 1•\UW aan 1a V..ah1ncton •A7 yeafla befon. l bad aot aeen h1• in 7Mn. After IIMt HHlon I aelcel bow h• 1-ppened to be \here• u4 tolt »• bow clad l •• lo ••• hill. le eal4 who he eo• off ,,. \rala \1-t ••al.a« ta W..1ld.ag\oa he •• a •Uoe ta \be paper Uiat there •• to ‘be a hearlnc that •ralnc oa -, aoainattoa. le lboupl M would oo• 4owa aad , .. 1f there •• aq\ldq ? could d.o. Jo oae oaae te oppo•• a-1 there •• no opp0l1Uoa on \he noor ot the a. !he la.’11.re ot the Of’ftce !he ottloe, oNa\e4 la the 18?01 •• pew oul of a 4.eeh·• to ••• ,o .. – ou -.peoia.117 napoaaillle tor the l1Ucalloa ot Ille Vnltetl S\a\ea. J7 ••• tea ? ,raat. Uoa ,1ae lol1o1 lor haenl l>•…. r•9Pondble ‘llll4•r ti.. AHer­ u7 6-aeral tor •h1• 11’1pUo• la tlle lllpr•• Covi. le •• other reepouibil1t1••• bu.t \hie bu beu hi• s:peolal tunotioa. Until recea’17 he vaa the ••aoad 11a11. ia \he ».pan■en, aai beO&M AoUnc .l;tioni•y Geaeral 111 •• a\HAO• Ol” cU.aa.bili,7 ot ‘he .lUona7 Gu.eral. v.,u 1933 be … al• ….. epoa•1ble tor NT1ew1ag the propoeed. oplAioa• of t.he Attone7 General, a, I ha•• ,uplalned. ln. 41■•Hinc the wrk of the ?••1•\an\ SolloUoi- Oeaeral • • • • 14? – Slnoe he wae potent1all7 J.eUng Attome7 Gen?ral th• Sol1c1 tor GeAeral va• coi:t.wlted a eoo4 deal b7 the AUorae7 General in con.neotion Yith DepartMllial prol>leae bu:t ordl1uu-tl7 he ba4 no genenl adainlatratl•e 4uH.••· Du.rings, tenure the White lo\lsti raqu.eded. me, in the absenoe of tbe Attor:ne1 Geaeral1 to attend aeeU.ngs of the Cabinet. ‘!’he office 11 not quite the -.me l\OY at before, havln« been reduced from aeoo.nd to thlJ’d -poe1 Uon in the l>epartment. :But the relationald:p ot the office $o eases 1n the Supreme Oourt baa not ohu1,&ed, al\d tbh obtetly gifts \be offloe 1 te cba.racter. 1 felt hlgbl7 boaoret, l)91’eonall.7 as we-ll •• from the etalld:point of Ill’ taail,-, and •• grateful to the Preddent tor ••leoUa, •· fae Pre•ldeat •• klJ.1417 4hposed. SoNU.M• I , h1nk ‘P•rbap• he e,o,eoted. •• to be greater help to him t-han. I vat. I do aot know. I knov I wanted to help hia and •• deTOted to bi■ • ‘rhe 1\aft of the office ts oall — e.rouncl seYen, el«h\, or nine – but it .-et put in final fol’ll the brief•• petition• and ••onnda filed. w1 th ,he Suprerae Oout 011 ‘belalt of the goTernment. t’heee lnalud• petiUona to.,.. ceniomn and oppo•1 tlon• or aM10randa. la regard to 1>•U Uona filed h7 other•. Ii 1• poHlble \o •• out w1 th a eaall etatt beoau•• ot the amla\iU.t1 of help of other ekft• la the Departaent aad in other J>e… par\aent• and acenotee of Co’f’ernMn,. l’.t, tor &r.dl)le, an anUtRet caee reacbe• the Supr•e Oourt it will baTe been handled d:udng moat of 1 h hl•• tory ‘b7 the antitnat diYhion ln the Department. Drafts ot l>rief1 tor tu Supreme Oour\ will be prepared b7 the api,ellate seotloa of that 41’f’it1on. So. too, with the lndependea\ agenclee. lt a Seouriil•• and lbcbange Ooa• mieaioll o? a J.abor »osrd ca•e 11 in. the Supreme Oeu.rt 1\ 11 q11Ue ;,re-.ble • the origiul draft of brief vill baYe been prepared la ‘?” ageaol••• So. • • – 148 – too •. wtth reepecl to other Dep&rtmenta, auoh •• the Labo-r Dspanaent, in a aa14farl•iaa under •• wace• anct nou.re 11.v. ‘!’be office of th• Sol1o1\c>?” Gen,?, ?••.,..•• aer.ol••• ul\llla\e au\horU7 owr the -pn1.utat1a, U.·\t trut ;:..Nil• Court. th• 1taff n.•t be good alld. ,ru1 t1oaaall7 it i •• lta atu1bera ••t no\ onl.7 be l•-3-17 competent but ria141J’ honest. !he office bae ?iaed a 11a, NJ)’li\.allon with the Oour\ tor the 1n\9Cl”itt of 1ta von. thtd it, the accuracy wUh vhioh 1, pNMnt• ·- tao\• ud the l’eliab1l1\1 of 1h lepl •caolar1blp. he lelioi to1′ Geaeral should Ml be oYer-aealou.a. le ehould ‘be oo…, 70, 101″• ‘•’ he i-epreuat, the l111l\e4 Sta,ee •• a •tioa ln the final Jwlloul. t:,U1uaal. ‘fhia MaJla that he ••’ not pre•• a 1>o•Uloa ‘beFond U• be•i latel”et’b a: c,f \he couat17 •• a whole. When 11 Uca’-tn« the Uaitei State1 t• dill Ule trn1\e4 Sta\ee an4 not 1011ething l•••• What ie good for tbe oou-­ tr, is not alW-7• ‘the aere “1utnc of a caee. ‘l’hla raises probleas which are tal>re aofl•• than 1a -pJ1.’ft\e praoUoe, or perbapt eTea 1a the thuted Stat•• ••toner•• otfto••• the Solloltor 0.-ral eoae\S.ua 1• oallel\l \’fpOa ,o etd••• effoJ’: thai 1•, to tu• the poa1t1oa in Uw hpreu Oo•.t \ha\ t!Mt,.,.,.ra.e•••• no4••• la a lower oourt le tlu lo a ld.atab, an4 1J,cnllt :- ‘, : .. -.. . _.,,_··:: ; not \♦ .. 1:t41t1e4 1.ato a 4.0ltlo• of thAt Oovt of laat ntor,. fbe ?•h ‘ . . . . . . . . . ‘ . ‘ ‘ . . to \Ale nepoasibU11J ••’ lie 01NU.lpeot. A •eoate•tlon of e,ror• p•t• \he lol1o1 \GJ’ Oeaeral • ..,,., 1.n \he poei’1oa not of o acbocale, \ut of a Ju4p1 q4 he la not a Jlldc• — i.•• tUll u a4ftoate — &net the? …. , leolAe. Yet. “7 naeoa of ht• repNeeatatloa ot tt1• whole peo»J.•• ll• · 40♦1 “‘1’• properly I \bhk take the posUien. l haft lacUoat.S. vhea ceaYinoecl. .., Su.pr… Oo•’rl 1 • ao, boud to aoupt h1• new. When 1 •• • Sol1o1 \or General \he practice ot the Coun •• to ab up 1 t. ova llillA aotwi thstanding a •oonteasion. ot error.” • • • – 149 – fh& nature of hi• pos-iUon also affects aoaet1me1 the manner ot ,,……. aentatioa. Where he feel• that the pftrueat mat pre1ent a ca•• for th♦, ‘ oou:d’• iec1e1on nt aeT•nhel••• be 11 not cl•r aa to the coneo-..,e et: the govern.ma.t’• prmou• poliUoa, he •1’ uapt hi• ••thod of 1>reeeau.Uoa to the ai\atioa. ‘to Ulue\nte trem -, ezperieaoe: ‘lhe lon-\g and .IJdA. ca1e1 were argued one after the other. Both cnv out of the e.ac•Uoa fro• the West Ooad of per•o•• of Ja:panete aaoesh:,. lortaln ta-n, 1-..a th• ori«t,11al ••• rraouUoa 1\telf. l foqht Tel’J hard to -..wa ‘\hia at constUuUonal, ‘bate& oa ti- •111 tar1 Ju4glaen.t at the U• \)Ma aott.oa •• ‘-k-.. Tide vaa -, 4\tt7 a1 I aaw u. In the Jal.A. ca•• whl•h t•e41ate17 followel, the problea •• differeat. JU•• W.o wa1 a l’oa.nc .uerlaaa oltl 1•11 of lapa•••• 4••-• who. aftel’ the nana.Uca, bad b”• •••• to ou of \he relooa\loa o••’-r• and there bad. beea cleared iadiTi<h1- &lly t:roa a lo,al ,,. ttanclpolnl. l,a.t •h• …. aUll held WMle:r IOlle restralat of hei- fned.om. Before and 4vinc \he ••• eTacuaUoaa there bad no\ bHA u •• tor l\lOh 1n41T1dul OlMraao••· bt:a.l HM ba4. &Oil• bl’ n4 •h• W , ••• elea.”4. I tlloueht tile ••n•t.•• b1″Uoh of Ille co••ruent ahoul.4 a’bollth Uae i-eplaUoaa lawl•eA la her •• vbloh ooa’1au4 to bolt hitr 1Ull•1′ •• np•nt1toa. Oontra17 to ffl nooa!N1M1aUoa• aDll atcm•, 1 t •• felt tat p11.ltllo &00epiaace of al»ollttea of \be regaJ.a,toaa we1114 NtcpllN a..,., … Oou\ 4eo1tloa. Beoa11.ae of ttMt a,un all4 laaportaaoe ot tbe ca••• hov”‘9r, 1, •….t to •• that I aho’lll.4 pr••••’ the pealUoa o·t \he Vatted Stat••• Jut vbo .lllla. caM oa tue41ate17 after IAttW\D l told the Oovt l oov.14 not arpe U vi th the sue ooanolloa •• the other. I aplaine4 that ti. oaae grew out of the ••• eftoa&’10A1 pl”Ogna u4 l vi1he4 to pNaeat the at\el’ aa tairl1 aD4 t\1117 at 1 ooul.4 fro• lhe ttudpoia\ of \he goTeJ”uea\ • • • – 150 – All of whieh 1-4• me to another co•eat. While I have aid nat tu Solloitoi- General baa a eoaewba\ different N-,Onelblli ,7 tbaa a Jl’iftl• · aHom•f I would. ao, vteh 1, tboucht ,., ,he Vatted s,ate• eno1114 u\ pr••• 1h oa••• Tl«o1’0Ual7 antl toraetol.17, ul••• there ls so• n17 •’l’OJtC na•on to \he 0011.tra17, •• la JIIIA. Indeed, I thlu l\ will ba foutl that \1- OTt.-maeat•• ca••• are 1uerall7 argued. a• a\roa«lJ’ •• &IJ1′. and ciulte ))l’op • .-1,: 90. · S. ‘fhe 0tt1ee 11’1 WarU•• Dvl11g the pert.eel 1…a1a,el7 pnced.la, am after Pearl •fflr th• Sol1e1 ior General •• clTen more \baa tbe tnal alatni■tnU•• reapoaal1tll1- U••? tlatil the l)epar-.at oo\llct be reorpaised to dtor’b lt• aev -work tn a -?• •epl.ar •u•r M:r .. lU.441• •*ed. 11e to head up wha\ lt•••• lmoVA a• \lle .-.r IJt:tidoa. Lat•r a aew aal11tan\ attol’ne7 puralthip •• created for lld.a l>tTisioA. the .,_l’MJ’ haen.l VIII ou, ot \he 01,,. \he 8a.D4•1′ afttn’IIOOll of P•”l llar’bo:r. !mold … -· in bl• ott’ioe am aatwNCl , •• telephone rilldnc ta • offloe uar\7. M.atral Stas •• oa ti. ‘pbou oallln« Ille ..,. ….. … , of l,i■Uoe \o d:n.ae tlat ,11e Vllt\ed. State■ lla4 ‘beea attacked )7 1-,.,.: at Peial”l •rbor. lau -1194 ae at boa•• aD4 I oaa♦ 4ova, after oalllng ,.ola It. Shea, M1H raae’bu■I, 111 ••cretuJ’, &114 ananctnc for other■, la;.> olulq to.n,..a, Sal tb u4 lnate, a, l Neall, lo ptlle1′ 1111H41atel7 at the Depart•nt. Oil• of ov f lrst retp0a•1b111 ti•• w.1 to lay lteton \he Pree14ent the :preolaaatioa ln-t.acia« the ••111 ooatnl aot ln\o op•ratloa. A draft procla•t1oa •• reaq •• part of nr pre-war l)l”eJ)araUoaa. •• • made aoae final rnltlona an4 Mr. Shea od 1 took 1, to the Pnat4eal b.111- – 151 – • eelf.. Tb1e •• in the late a:fteraooa er earl1 eTeDing. We aaw the :PnddeA\ 1• Me rooa oa \he eecond floor. Kh. JoeaeTel t aad their eoa i1.,…,C\ aa4 ltft’ble •ad able 1J>a • Walton wen there. the hea1den.t •• et \tlM ‘.flP· la \ed with a :ra\ber larp pad. am peacll ,rorklac on a oo-.,oa1’1oa of lala owa.i which l a111W1e •• hi• •••181• to Oon.rr••• aaklng for tbe 4ecla:ra’1oa of • a\at• ot war. I had talke4 vi th the Pr•114•t oa the telepbone •l’ll•l’ in \ht, afte:raoon. The ‘lth1 le lo1He hacl called. mt hou vhll• I va• on tb• • • •1′ .to• the hpaJ”bea\ u4 ale bad oalle4 the ».,an••n’ ‘before t· am…. · Wbea 1 reaolled. \he oftloe •• talk• wt.th \he heeld.eat he w,,eke of the l11- Mdia11• 1teps llUl4’io. UDul.4 take. The 1rea14u\ told •• ceaffall7 vhai. the 11 tuatloa vaa a\ Peai-1 ia!’ltor. Re va• aelt-,,•••• .. ed aad. alert. · a. · l’lla4 l’d. .. elt well ta bal4 aotv1 \lla\aaUac the tnaea401H pro’bl•• he ta-4 • .fhe Preeid.en, read u4 alped. the proola•Uoa. A• 1n4loat1Te of hl• attea\1yeaeea aa well •• hl• cleta.1194 kllowlectc• of o•enaeat lae •14, ‘Ve •••’ no\ forget to haYe \u S.or•\a17 of Sta,e put the gr•• ••1 on 1h11, • whioh 1». t.a,et I »tght ••• fol’Cottea. Jle thea atkeA •• to co.e \o the Cab1-e’ 11eeunc •• etcbt o1 olook. ht vhea I &71’1Te4 a, the Wt• 1ou .. to clo 10 Kr. llid.41• bu. ret’l:lJ”IIH aa4 •• altle to a\lell4 Jd•elf. ti W.I neo.lNJ7 to lake la\o n.atoq, u4el’ tlle alhori t7 ot ,n ,, ….. claa\ion, tho•• wbo a1,at b• da&pl”ftl. Oar Pol1o1′ Coul\tee M.t. aot ooa­ pleted. lte cla••lticatloa• hMJ”lng on th11 pro’bl.. Mr. BooTeJ” aae4 • •• Actiq AUorne1 Gaaeral to ad:vlee whether he ahoul4 1Medlate17 Uk• late ou\o4¥ only tboae wbo ba4 ‘beu ola111flt4 la the oatqo17 vhiell oalle4 to)t 4et_u’1oA or whil\bel’ be •houlcl go bqoll4 a.rad 4etal• toll• vho had not lt••• olaaelt1.a. I tlloug)l\ \ba\ 111 •i•w of the .s.-.,1on •• a whole t.be 1.B.I.• holllA u1e it• own J114.l/,lllent aJUl a.utbori1ed. \he f .J. I. to take into oa1tod7 • • • – 152 – U7 whoa \hey thou.ghi were 1uffio!enU7 dangerou,, whether or not ov.r prooeeaing bad reach-4 the paurUcular oase. B7 acU.ag proai:,tlJ’ over the aext few ?&1’• t,,oH1ble lq-a,eria .: preTea\ed and •D7 baeie for “f’icll.ante aot1v1.11 vat re1110Te4. .t. feeling wa.1 created. \bat the s1tuatlon va• well u haJ¥t.;.· ·1o 11gnit1out fear aroae to l•d to u\owa?d concel’a on the par\ of the people. ‘l’he MH ••ouaUon from the \feat Coast, hove·Hr, vaa a speoial pro’blea which ehould be newed eeparatel1’ fro• the nation-wide en•”7 aliea prograa under the Deparlllen.t of Judice. Ot cou.r•• ao•• altea eaeld.•• were taken tato 0111tod7 ll1etakeal7. h\ pnoedur•• were 1aat1tu\e4 to afford all 4etal•••• an opportult7 to 4eaonttrate enor, aa4 thee• pnoeduret wN pu, uto •tfect pn111ptl7; u.- ptograa be?• well or,uin4 and I think tuetloned. wll. Wlthln the aext uy or tw I iniua,ed. the forution of renew board• throughout the eoutr, • I cal.led the aenior o1rco.1t Judce• ot arteral c1rcu.U ooute of appeals — I •• not able to reach all of thea — to reoouend persona qualified tor the•• board.a. That we \be begimung. fhe penon, so recouend.ed tol’lle4 ‘\l:wl auoleu• froa vb.loll boari• var• •••\lltW. Utroughou\ U1e eoutl’J’. fhe 1r0rir: of tba &e’Hnattal la th• hpnae Oovt beau• tor U1e U• betq leH 1aportaat la OOIIIIJMl’ri•o• wt \la the n.ffi’flll of the aaUoa. I wa■ ra,lMtr glad, at lea,t teaporar1l7, ,., l eoul4 help more dtnotl7 ln ooaneotloa with the war. 1 w.1 very oon1ciou1 at \he eame ti•• of the place of tq Jud.101&17, and U.t •• oould not .aec].eot the usul prooeHet ot the law, except as tu war neoe11l ta\ed ao .. obanc• or ftr1at1oa. nch •• tbeee boud.1 to bamle ,be aliea ene117 -prolal•. :h’er,one dulng that -period -•• during other peno4• of … raenq – wa• villln, to take oa more \ban the ord1naq reepond.b1ll U••• and l do aot think lh•re was &1’17 negleot, to • • • – 153 – a»7 \•llfllfloaat «•r”• ln th• vork ot \he Solicitor Geaeral. tn rel&Hoa to ‘” tiip·n• Oou.n. the caH• vhf.oh ‘Wftld. crow 011\ ot the war l ttelt wet• ••tll’ ••• 4l•taaoe awa, • n that the work “b♦foN the Ooart ooadsled. . :··. . . • . lara•lJ ot peaoe-ll• •••• uUl la\er ••• l11por1aa, •var ••••• lulo..a at the toor of lh• Ooul”t. 4. !he ftatf \flltu l ts.n, look ottlo. Waner Gal’her — u a’bl• laqer — va• the n.uuc aa oa th• 1taft of the lollcl to1′ hn.eral. le 414 et r.ta loag, ftl’J’ tooa ‘Noolllq lollottor of lh• DlpaJ’taeAt of Labor. aJ14 la,er lollottor of tlle lteputaea\ ot the latfJl”tor. flle uzt 1’Ulk1nc aaa •• M-B014 Bau, aow a Juclg• ot Ille fu Court of the 11alte4 State• and aa e.11\bc,ri t7 •• tax law, thoqh bi• taleate WN b7 u aeaaa 1111:l te4 to the o.ne field.. Sou• wbat later• Paul h«m.d, who he.d , … vi th Sol1c1 tor Ge.aeral lff4 but who w• lhen teachlnc at •nard., l”e\’uned to t.he atatt fo-r tbe 4vat1on. Mr. J’nu.nd, like Oald.ur Ul4 lau, it aa ezoepUoaall7 able laq•r, aa4 I va• tortua\e lo l:lt.Te hi■ llelp, •• waa the· Govt. Pblllp Jlaan. aaae \o lhe 1tat:t fro• ol.•J1r1.bip1 vlth Jwlp Oalftl’I laoa4•r and Mr. l11ttloe haakhr­ l•r. ·1- •• r-1•• lo ‘beooae aa \\l’LU’Ull7 pod ad’l’ooat•. tfal te, 0..1111• of Obl-.O alto Jot.ae4 \he etaft. • coaoentn.te4 a o,oct cteal oa tile •••• ucler the Ia,eretate ao … ree Co•1Hl•n Ao,. la which we wodte4 cl-o•el.J with the ceneral cou1el of the Ooaiaaioa. Sta.nlq SilYe’l’b•rc aad Dick Selan\ were other ••’ber1, a, •• Chester la-., wbo ba4 ‘beea ceneral coo• ? tor the hcu1’1•• ud. hobance Co9111aatoa. Manin Sldtll Nllillaecl 4ur- 1n, , te11ve wt •• 1iace cl led. •• baa Staal.eT Sil Yerberc,. vho attel’ .,- • • • – 154 – Ume. went vi th \be Judge loaenman firm in. Rev Torie, a• pre..-1ou•l7 bad Diok hlu\. •t•?• Bockwell vas in the ?• Dh1.e1oa of the 1).-parta•• of Jue’1e♦ .· when. I ‘beoaae Sol1c1 tor O.neral, ha:rl:ac 0011• onr fn11 the Wa\lonal Labor lelations !o&rd. At 111 re({Wt&t he Joined the Solioltor General•• alaf:t • tms )e«s,u.1nc anolher of the pleasant aeeocd.ations l baTft had Y1 th bl•. lfhil.• on the etatf he waa offered the ceneral oo·wu,elibip of the Labor Boai’4 and re\vud to the Board ln that eapaoi t7. Jlo’b.,1 s, …. al•o Joined the IUff. • W ‘been bi th• Anti INel DlYt•ton. l ha4 ‘beoo•• aoquaia’-4 wlth bi• -vtwan he !1t”et. eeae into th• go•erueat la the Interior Depar\aeat when I wa? \here. He ha• re•iaecl la the atttce- of ,he SoUoUor Gen.et’al evei- tlnce. and tor coaatdera\le pedodt baa been Acting Sollcttor General. Re lt leaTia« v1.th1Jl • •\ter ot w••• a.tter so11e tvent7-011e ,ear• of tine -pu.’bl.io sel”‘tioe. and. more than ten T•r• on the elaff’ of tu Solicitor Genel’al. t u to ep411f!lk at a. tarevell luncheon tor hi.a,. Ralph Jucu. who laleJ’ Jotu4 U1• f&Clll.t7 of the ln41ana Vn1••r•1t7 Law School. n• al•o a ••rt Ta111abl• a441Uoa \c the staff tlunag .,. tenure, a.ad ., pcad. td•a4 a. l. IagrUIUI ca•• u, for • vhil• the baa.tu of hie tine \e.lente, at d.ld. Leoiaard M.ek•r, later to come vi th me in the State Department, wber• he baa remained. An4 I 11ut not fail to !8eaUon the excftl)tio-1 17 flae work of ll1obard I. Delmth until he. llke tacraham a.nil Me-.r, lef’ tor lhe var. Mt ftluable •ecre•r:, COl\UAuecl to )e Mtae Mild.Nd. J’tuutlnl•t. who bas helped • 110re tbaa I oan aa7 • • • – 1155 – Occado.ull7 the Sol1o1 tor General•• offioa would bnef a ca•• from tbe grom:M.\ up• but qui le generally• a• prenou.•11′ explained., U bad \h• benefit of a 4att ‘brief preparecl bJ eUber • 41•1•1en of Uu. hpar-..•f ot J’uat4o• or ta• lep.l atatf of the lnclepead.at acency or o\her depal’tN11t \hl’ouch vb1oh the ca•• aro••• WotwUhtt&ndlng thi1 •••lataace we were relpOUt’i le tor the final tornmlat1on of the eo•ernaea\1 1 t>OtiUon in the Su.,.. pl’••• Ccnir,. and ••• the laet, aD4 eomeUmes quUe enea•i••• reTiew and pna•talioit of that po•1 Uon. !be Soltoitor hoeral 1e l’eat,on.el’ble tor tile onl arguente to tbe $ct.pre•• Oou\ on ‘behalf ot tu OoTerDINJ’lt. lie preMah oertata •••• penon­ all7 ud ••tip.a ot•••· Be nd.gh\ at•l&n aa oU bu.at C&H, fo’f’ example, to t-. attia\aat a\torne,- ,-..1 ta obarce of tbat 41-rlaloa, or to 101None oa 1te at,aft Hleoted la oonnltatlon. vUh the •••11taa\ attorne,- general • Ia o\tMtr •••• he desicnate1 aeal>er• ot his own staff. C.••• aridng ,:m-ouctt o\her d.epar•enta or acencl•• of goTel”DIHnt ao\ infl”equentl7 al’• aHiped. for arcaaen, to the 901101\or or ?•eral ooua.sel of ,he deparheai or ageAq, or \o a … lter of 1 t, 8’att. OooadoMl.11′ tti. At\orae, ha.eral Yill 4••1n \o preaea, a ••• p•raonall.T. A\ton.q Oa•ral J..H.dle argul “14, ., ….. o. c..,.. 4u.ri11g .., , …… fM lollcitor Geaeral alto 4eo14•• Yhea the Vat,..i ftai•• sho’Ul.d app.al, \o • clnal t C01ll’t of &17Peal• after loeing in the 41 ,,no\ en.rt. I\ te tJ.!.loqbt that at this ata&e bA tbould «1•• cUreoUoa to llti«at1on wbioh aip\ or •bould rea.ob the Supreme Ooun. fhe 41T1dora ot the departaen\ or the aceao7′ re1tp0aeible eul>al\s \he aUer \o the office of the Solicitor Gene.nu on a MJIOraMU which uwa.ll.7 1nclud.•• a recoaaen.dat1oa. the ftl• • 1.o the ca••• with thie ae110ramu. 1• distributed on some rat1oul \ad• • – 156 – uoag ‘f&ld.Dlll umbers of \he Sollo1\or General’• eta.ft, wbo ln t\U”A .it• a reco-.SMtat1on to Uw Solt.cl tor Gen•nu, vbo takes t1nal action. 1;, ‘·•··•··,. . . . . ‘t ?• .,,. the -•• tllfflnlt proltl•• 1• to 4eo14• vun J)eiUtoa• foj o•,,l.•?•• to the Sapreae Ocna:I’, ,bould be tiled ·’bJ’ •• &OflftUlleat vhea {J ·. ha• l>6ea unauoceHf\11 in the low•r oourt. fhe Soll cl 11or Geaenu giYee a goof; 4eal. of personal atteaUon ,o this. A requet that a petition be . til-4 oome• la mod inatancea from \.he d.epartaental cU.Tlaioa or the qenc1 vblca bile\ handled \h9 oaae ‘below, uwall7 with a NCOIIMndaUon. fhe 111• 1• •••t.o-cJ. fh•tt to a •*•” et the •latf. lhtt 41Yia1on of work witMa the 1taff •• ll&Ae oa the be.al• •• faJ’ •• p6tt1bl• of epeotal ?lttoaUoas, Y1 th recar4 alao, boVfl’•u•, to a tetti-e to traia • …, -l>•r• ta oenaia 41,eotiont. It tu oaae were a -.z … l\ • wul.41 f.’9 orclinadl)’ \o lla’Ul, aad al.o to Oardaer 1f 1 t w•r• • goTentaeatal. llllnlll1t7 \ax case. It 11 were 1a the ceneral area et no. tacludiq the Public tlUll ,,. loldlq Oo11pa,q Ao,, or •••:n •ou •”•1’• ia•ol na,c \he Powel” 0o•1Htoa, U wo\lli pro’babl7 co f1rat to Obeeter l.aJ1e when he •• oa tlle •Wt. It U were • oflld.Ml … of • •re or l••• ol”411•l7 naa, viii. •·’:i epeoial. or •,eour1,7• p,0111 .. , 1, would p:ro’baltl.1 go fint \o Mania· ?II .. :. If 11 wre a c1Til ltl?erUe■ ••• priarU7, the aH1paent woul4 •17• llau. •• the 1•n wnt oa, vo\llcl .no ctoubt pt a look at it. It .a Powr Ooai11ioa case Dlak l’>eatn Y011l4 oal’TJ the ll•”7 lead, au ta otar :re’P•••• t.oo. Xt U wre aa Iater-•tate co••:rc• •••• th.ea it pro’ba’bl.7 would go to Waller C..tace. ‘here an a lot ot •••• IIOl ••’1one4 •–n tha\ caaao·, ‘be claae1fle4. lookwell would mo1t lllcelr a-t a loot at a t.a\oi- Boanl •••• u.al••· he -· 1nYOl”f’ed. ln •o•lh111& el••· but hi• taleat■ WH • no\ 10 cotlflnecl. • – 157 – <(ln an, e•et l>etol’e the brief, oi- other doC’Wlflllt. came te 11e l\ Y01&14 ofl .. <ol.•r throqh Waraer G&rdael’, or••• or la\er Paul heud. Xt, tt wer-♦ i pe\1 tlon. tor oerUorari ‘b7 the •••l’•ea\ 1 would ha•• ‘bNa 1-.. oa it ·,,··. ‘ – . . ,! ., .a.:earl7 .-.. · lo doubt Solloi-..r O.neral.1 vary ta the uioat of :pertonal NYlev \liq gt•• 4oouent• to ‘be t11e4 v:ltb the Su.pr••• Court. Alaoa.t lDftria,11 I. etwlled. ff.Oh. •• t’ru.eon 0.••• a. ,,… … 1&1111 n., •• • 319 u. s. ffl (1942) . la 318 U. 8. ’81, lhere h a 1bori •’11 of •rtl e. 194’, elloriN dfti-1. ot cerltora’fl ta t).ie -·· of •••• …. N\m 81\11. a ?,.. …. • ca••• hephaD. •• a reei4eDI ot D•trelt of Gel’Mn •J’IIP•lh1••· A Geraa &Ytator who had. ‘beu oapn.red. ad ••’ to OaMda tor detenUoa e■Cllpe4 aia4 reaohed :0.tron. Be fo’IUld hie va.’f’ eo•lal)v ,o Stepha.a, so far •• l no1r wt.thcna.t -pte-anuc••’· ftepban. ovel” a penod. ot a dq or tt0 ll,el•ed. hla in 9fferal wa,a, laolwll-, \be oblaialJtC of tn.&tlpOn&tloa \qom l>etftlt. the· .. ..,.a hnaa a’l’iater nacbe4 Men••• •• wn at val”, Step-.•• a ol\1••• u4 he lad ll•• al4 od. ooatort la tt.d.1 MDer to tb4t …,., a aeaber of \be 0.ftllla Al’lled forces. • Stepbaa •• ln41ote4, tried. a.ad 0011:no\ed ot tl’ .. aoa, 4Uld. •• .. a,eJMMd. to 4e11’11 ‘b7 banclac. tne Olrcutt Oou.rl of .ippeal.• e.ttiraed.. 133 1. 2118? .. a. tt•U tioaed ,u hp1’•• Oovt tor a wri \ ot oeriiel’&l’t, an4 ttm.. the ••• •• io tbe otflu of the loliel tor Geural tbnqh the or1•1nal 41ne1oa • – 158 – the petition tor certiorari. take a nfttral polition1 oi- oppose oertte>ra.Pi. We deoided on \he lat,er course • . ·Arnold. Baa prepared. a very oanf’al anal7•1• ot the ca••• to duoa- 1tn.te \9 the Supreme Oourt tha.i, aUhoucb the oate waa tmportut, Stephan had been :l’airl7 convicted, an4 no anon of law vere 1nvolTed. On thie batl•• we represel’lted to \he Su:preme Court that there w• no oocaaion tor 1 t to reTiew the aaH. !he Supreme Court denied certiorari. 1h11 le!t: the oonvlot:lon &n.d aentenoe o! death in effect. lf’ certiorari had ‘bettn gl”IUlted, it 1roul.4 bllYe been ,he fint treaeon oaee in \he b11tory of the United. Stat.es to reaob \he Supreme Oourt for decllion on the merit:•. I thought the death Hntence •• no\ appropriate. Denial of o.rtioi”art ‘b7 the Supreme Court, vbich I IO’QCht, in DO n7 indicated. that I or the • Court thought tb.t aen.tence 1 helf ,.. correct. fhe trea11on statut:•• first enacted b7 tbe first Oongre•• after adoi,iton of the OonstUuttoa. pe:rlld. 111 great latitude to the trial Jude• in 1apodJJ8 sentence, raagiu« t?o• a fev year• to d•th. !hie d.e110nstrat:ed that the Oongress considered that th• cr1ae alcht art•• 1a ftrled otroua•’-ncee of aeriou•n•••• tha\ not all tN&90Zl ahould O&ffT the NY8Nt\ punla.bun,. • ‘th Depar’11en.t of J’u.,tt.oe did. .ao, f•el .to,at:1t1ed ia reco11119ndiq to the Pretl4ent co•u.tation of aea\enoe. I aaked and obtalaet pera1H1on ftom \be Attorney General to preaont 1111 rleva directlf to the Prealdent, -which I did in thtt fora of a tingle-11p&oecl memora.ndwa about a pace and a half in length. Hr. Wend.ell llel’&e, •••ia\an.t Attorney O.ural 1a charge of the Or111lnal Dh1.alon, and other• I tl:iall not now meaUon. acned v1 th -, •1ews • • – 159 – fb• ,..,n.Ddum was •••· oTer to the White Hou•• the da7 before S\ephaa wat ·?· be bua• at 8’\Utd.own ta h$ro1t, •• I recall \u ohl’onoloa. M7 r•?i•••?c,11. 97 be • ..,,., iaaca011rate. lfhe Pnal4ea,, on the aorat111,of. tu .pto,o,?.• exaoaUon. called ae oa ,be \elephoae, Mid l1e had l’M4 ii. ••taad•• •• impreseed b7 \he latitude which lhe etatute p:.-.e the Hll• teacln.g Jwice, 11ld1oating Ooacr••• had oonddered treatoa to be of dlff•r-., degi-fft, ancl that he sgl”eed \bit treason was no’\ a plot e.gainst the CQTeraunt, or othen,iae the kind. of tnaeoa vhioh tho’Gl.d oar17 the ••’ ••••n tea♦4l••• Be ee.ld he bad 4eo14.t ‘8 •-‘• the ••••nee lo llfe t.aprltto•? aeat ••• I 11a4 reaoaaeade4. 8e Mid he w1ahed to·,.••• a ••• ..• ••• ezplala:.. tac bl• aolioa, l>eaau•• 1, alght lte ain.Atlerwtood. a. eata he would Alo- ‘-‘• a 11a, … a, to Ml•• hll.7. bis aeore,al’J’, aAd attk he1′ to read U to •• mighl be a lUUe better ? ,. qual1Uea rather than d..,-.. ,. Altboucll · tllid• 1• 3.aUtwte in tbe Ma\ea•• for treason \Ml”e le JlO 4ltteJ’eace ta ••ll’M•• la the eau •••• at 1a boa1ol4e oa•••· flu, -…auon •• pe1’bap1 · utapol’IM\, but \he Ptte14•at aeo•le4 it an.cl 1an.e4 \be etaleuat wt.th \hit ?at of the comlaUoa. When he told. •e what he bad Aecided to do, he had aak.-d. ae, •Jiow. wlle.t 4o I do to make this •ttectlTet• I told him l woul.4 ba•e the proper pap•H eeat to bl.a. Ml”. Can.el •• of pee, belp •’ lb.la pot.ati. Who the J)lqjer1 nre clul.7 •lpe4 b7 the Pnatclat, I think it •• Mr. C.Re1 on behalf of the •i,1u•1.1.e1 General vho called the appropriate official• the Mu•ehal la • charge o? the p:r?an Uon• in Detro1,. and ad.Tl ted. hi• the Pret1d.eat bad. • • 160 – co-.ted Stephan•• Nate.ace to life iJl\’rt.aonaea,. •• I J’t1111811ber th• •tor,. \he lariual a• a pr.caution aued hi• coauioaat to ba.nc up, aad -14 1- • ‘ ‘ ‘ . wel. ?l Mr. Oarutl at \Jae D9paruent of lu•Uc• for ••rtticatlea, ·-1•1’ ••.. ·ton. •• ·fh4t reaction to the COJUR1V\1on was taYOra’ble. !he metropol1 tan pre111 in the 1-■t, lncludlq the Iw York ‘1’1111 antl the Washington J>ap•r•• ‘OOllmell4e4 the Preaiden,•• aotioa. b. Qm•r •· PAUl4 1t1t11- 231 u. s. 1 (1944) Whil• oa the quatioa of tna■oa., I lllgb.t ••• on to the fDIU •••· Craaer •• a o1Uaea, llnnc 1a lev York, vho bad. Jmown one ot·\bft 0e1’JDU. •botnre. ‘the aabot•r bad returned. to 0.l’le.D1 al.Id aftel” the llllll’ ‘began returned to the United States on a n.bar1ne, landing on the Maine • coaat. ‘fhe 1.B. I. pt on hie hail. ltetore hi• arrest the -.hotev got iA touch with Ora.mer. Oruer ba4 some &ttoolation “1th bi• onr a dq or ho, 1aolud1ng taking -•• to keep tor h1• util he alght need 1 t. Oraur wa• …… ,. ‘”° ,.1. I …. ealln, aa4 OOllft:Ptb.g wtlb ,_ a’boteur la a r•ttauraat. al.though the coa•ereatloa •• aot OTerhear4. • · . n.e, 1 t va• tbo’IICh\ \he Uae bad. eoae <b-aaer •• aneete4 • ud •• ta• cUo.t.., t:r1e4 ucl ooa•1cte4 ot \reaeon. Ii• een.\enoe. ae I recall, •• fort1 or dxt7 year•• l’• not new n.re. On appoia\se.l b7 tne cour\ Harold. Me41u., a Jew Torie la,qer, nov a 1181lber of the l1n1te4 States Olrou.U Court ot Appeal.a for ,he S.oond Oircu.1 •• repn,ealecl Cramer. JU• conY1oUoa •• atf1,ae4 b,- lhe UDi ,.a State• Oourl of Appeal• for the Second Oircai\. 0a Jfe-,eal,e .. 8, 1943, the Sttpreae Court granted 01’11N1’•• pe\lUon for cerlt.on.ri • • • – 161 – !he case cami, on for e.r,a.ment on the 22nd of’ Mat. 19441 b7 Ml-. Me41• oa ‘behalf of Crame1’, am b7 ■7selt oa ‘bebalf ot the United. State•. ifheN ••r• a muaber of que1Jtion• ln. the •••• ‘but the ,urunc po1a, wa• 1rhe\he’Ji or not cenaln of the oT•rt aot1 ••• forth ln ,be Ul41ot .. a,. and ot 11hich Ommer w.1 comcted, vere a4equatel7 eatabli•h-4 b7 ,u t••tw117 ot i’tfO vttnesaes w1 thin the meaning of the eo:a.ati w.t1ona1 p?Odtion in that rl’?. Some aspect• ot t.he Aaron llurt’ trlal had 1’eached. tM S\ipreae Covt b\lt the ur-1’9 of the trea.ao11 oaee it.elf la4 aet. lo ot?r bad. eTer co.\td. lo. the Supreme 001U’t 111 an,r ton, esoept the dealal of cerUorarl la ,ii. Heaa cate. fhe Court therefore we.1 faced ‘With the prol>l• of 4eolding tor the fin\ tl•• \he mea1dng of the two viheH rule ln 1’8 NlaUoaehtp to an overt act of treason. !be Court rose at the end ot the \era w1 thout be.Tin« tl$oided the ease aJM!. aet 1 \ over tor reargmaent a, the October 1944 te?ll. In Ua order doing so it requ.-,eted other brief• and arguaent on i1tate4 aepeota of the caee. Sinoe ,he .-er •• to intenn• ‘baton l”earpaent. I deotde4, la nev ot the natttre of the further ‘br1efln, 4etlred. the tact tha\ tu ••• •• the f’!n\ oae of its kind in the Srapr•• Court. ud ot the 1111por\aaoe of the podUon the United States should tl!llte, that lt would ‘be “‘ell to Blake an o’bJective and thorough study of the h1eto17 of treeaon •• of the tvo v1 tneu nl•• anteclatln,; e·nn our ova ConstUution, ud. to 11•• the Supreme Court the b•nelit of auch • attu!y, 111th & ‘brief aetUag forth 0\11″ Tiewe 1u lo Utt appl1ca.t1on of the pl’Oper prlnolplea to the ca1e a\ bar. :ror th1• purpote ve wen tortUAah in o’btatat.n.c the help of Mr. Willard • Huret, who lt now I belle•• the Dean of the UniTerdt7 of Vhcon1ln Law- • • – 162 – School, •? vbo c1:ur1nc the war wae a laV7eJ’ la go-rem,utnt eemce at tu ·:; ‘• ? . ….. fent-«on. He we loaned to us am! d.eYOted month, to tM task. Aa a rewl.t ve l;l,le4 :jJ.•h ,. hpN1e Court whal l>•–• Jmovn •• •AppeDCl.icet to •ri.,te for the t1JlJ..\e4 Sta tea on Itearcuat, • a donaent of 1ou four hud.t’.a. pac••• J thlak pet”b&p• \be mod oomprehena1Te stud:, of the au\Ject enr aad.e. !hie ,,,. of oourae wa• ade aTallable to Mr. Medin.a. Ke llde a 1″147 of his Q”W: a.ad 4.evo•ed himaelf Ter7 1ntell1geatl7 to the taak. . . •• Uaa tiled our brief on rea.:rgwaen.\, ende&’fOrtnc to coannc♦ the ?\ •••· w1 thin \he aeantq ot \he treatoll olauH the •••n aote had b•ea, J)J’OTM by ,.. ‘W1 tu, ……. that the OOATiOUoa aho’2ld ‘be n.atataeil. ‘!’he ca•• w.• narlfWMll 011 •••b•r e. 1944, \J’ Hr. ••u.na au .,.,.1t, uct the S’Upren Oovt rnerte4 the 4eci t1oa1 la an op1a1on ‘b7 Mr. Ju.1Uce J’ackaoa of April 23, 19451 vi ,h a cliHeat bJ Mr. Jueti.oe Douglas, Joined b7 Chief lu.etioe Stone, Mr • .Judie• )lack, and Mr. lutt.oe !eed • nppot’tlng tu pod. .. t loA of ta. goYet”lUlell I. about aa atpeot of tu cate whlob. wa.\ \o tbe fairnee• of Ill• eoa4uot of the t1″1al• •• 41aUAO\ froa th• ooadi t.Uttnal quedion.e. !he Val le4 State, Attorae7, Mr. Oori-•• vho bad proaeRte4 lhe caee I \boqht •xtrea.i,. well, lftlf!Odu.cecl la trridetu• a ••• of J)&t’al)henalia which ba4 beea reoo•u-ed fn,a the ta’boteva, vld,ch indicated their pr?raUoo.1. !he tr1al court, o••r o’bJecUon• that th11 va.1 prejucUctal and laflammato17, ‘P•raUW the e’riteac• to be reoelm. Ju1Uo• Jtober•• vat concerned. about Ulle. le qu•Uoae4 ae as to bov 1 Ju1Ufled lhe COTel”IUlent• • p11ttlac all this aterta.l la ••ic1.ece. t replied Iba\ the paraphe.raalta. 111 the normal cour•• • ot prepar.a.Uon for \he trial, had coa• into the po1ee1t1on of the United • • • – 163 – S\a\?• Atto:ru:, and 1 a111UNC1 he ottered 1 t 11’1 ••14enoe because be tel t he em,1114; ?t: lu:e the reapon8lblU,t7 for ao\ placi.q l\ before the coun. the••”'”‘° ot Mr. Jualioe IDhnt •• IJ’plul ot h1• •••”‘1 al•n••• •,_, . ,:• ,-‘.- ·.”•;:::,;,_., ”• ‘. ‘ ‘ . . . ·-, a’bejt’ the f&il’il••· of irtai,. parUnlai-17 Ybel”e , ….. -· ao•• ta«U.caUoa· the to••,….., 1,aelt lligh’ ‘b• resor\lm« to untat r tao\loe. ?? the t1r,t arpaent t knew the Oo•rt •• trou’bl-4 b7 whether the oni,\ aott were l)l’OT& within the aeamq of the \vo vt tneH nle. t •• aot b7 ant aeaaa oe1’tain a)ov.t the outeo•, but 1 414 thin the ,oTenuaeat aigh\ pl” …. 1. !he fl.Ml cU.Tl11oa •• a clo•• aa4 a T•1″7 lat•nettn, on. l 1tU1 tbiu ‘he Terilol of ,i. Ju17 •• ta,1’1t1e4 ft tar a• the ho wt taeH•• nle •• ooaoen-4; la other wol’d.•• I acl’N wt lll the 41 tten.U.ag oplitoa. •• in the lol1o1 to,-. O.aenl • • off tee ¥bo baa41e4 the la\er Jllgl ••• woulcl perhap• arpe Iba\ the Sap:rae 0..1’\ Maewhat Noede4 troa the Qmur doctrine. But 1 Udnk perblllp• ltJall w.1 eu1•r tof’ the Oourt oa the appl1oaUoa of the \we vUne .. nil• to th• over\ ac,s. While 1 can under,–. the •Jo71\1′ oplnioa la SlnMl 1\ •• UTer 0019let.i,- 001WtM.a … fun l• • lr•eo• tor Udmdag. We ou haft• art.u. na11,-. tor tld.md..t tbe aonMl ••’ ‘*• toM aotton.. le ••’ Cift all u4 oo•fol’t to , …. ., wi\Jl trMIOM’ble 1., •• ,. What tut 4o•• ¥1th tbal late.at ….. , be vttaeHei ‘b7′ ho people. It l>eoo .. • a ••17 tubtle and oompl1oate4 qu••• tioa la a ••• llk• Crusel’•t. fer aaaple, the ooaTereaUoa ln the “••’-•• r&llt o’b1ene4 1-1′ ho vt.tae•••• — •• the coaTereaUoa aa nerl aoH ••• 1\ g1T1aa of a14 and coaforl lo ’11• e…,-t It 1, ••• it •• viu.e••d ‘b,­ tvo w.t. ,.,., … who •••tiflect to 1 ,. ht alaoe thq 414 aot heal’ the oo … ..- • • – 164 .. •’?• .,•r• •• the \roubl.eeo• quett1on wb.e,her U •• u o•en •ct -.:, a14,?ta4 ?aton vt t.1:1. \reat0u.’bl• lateat. ”;’:t . . ·.?•.r we •”• walklag ffft tile 1\Nel w1 th \be la’bo\.v • the e—,1:1 . ,?· aft•t.••·…i.· 1• \he rea\avaal Jua\ “oefor• he va• plobcl up, and there wn ho ·-1:1a’t•H• lo ,bat W.1.1£. fh• aou1 whloh Oruer vat keeptnc toJt the saboteur •• reco•ered• •? the,, ven no, two “11nt•••• \o bla haYlng No•1•ect U fro• \ae ••’botev. or • .,.. .. hit.Yi-, retUJ’h4 ur to hla. Jlov•••r• en..? 414 not ct.en, that • – . – ,_’ . W.4-• ••• Va• tae ‘• wt.•••• nl• aea•••rT la aub a •••f l «to •• a\te11p1 to Jw1.&• Cruel’ a, an 1a41Yl.4•1. l d.oa•t know wlMt- ‘ ,.,., la 1’1• ……. , he •• &111117,. 1 would aot MT \l,a\ M ••• \flat I …. vb.ea I -, I tbiu tu ••t4lot •• Jutttted. 1• Iba\ l \Mak on \he reoord., aa 11 va• Md•• he •• oonS.ote4 wl\.hla the co11eUta’10Dal 11811Aing of \na- Th• Coa,u tutioa, a• our .found.ea-• l11ten4e4, aak•• 1 t 41ft1 oul t to coa­ Tlo\ • pet”•• of treaaoa, ‘beoaue la •&l•nd• at eenaia period.•• aoou.•Uoaa of ,neeo1i wen ••• •• pell Uoal. wea,on,. lCea wre aomo\.t all4 ••••e& ‘b•oa••• \lae7 oau lato ‘ba4 taYOr with ••• 4oad..,., o••naea’•• 11th aoova\e uct aoholarl:, bowle4c• of the h1•’•1’7 of tnaeon la ZacJ.u.4 our leu.a4en ‘by the OoaeUhUon Ueelt Ae11,eratel7 narn,”4 tM cl•fhitioa of ‘the on•• am al.to •• u ••••••1’7 lo i. .. ‘”° vii•••”• to the …. oven••’· !be Coa■Ut:o.Uoa MT• \bat •tl’ff.aoa aptaet the UJlite4 S’-,\ea ahll1l coaet.al Am lJl l•T7lq •r a&aiael 1.-., or acUael’lng to theil’ ••••• gtnac the• a14 aat ooaton.” f1- ra .. n dealred. to a•• &”87 from tu attl’ibutlon of treaeoa to «> .. • vbo •• tbibklnc apinat. the kine, on• who had a treatonable attitude 1ml • • – 165 – !hey soqht al 10 to curd a.gatn1t the u1e of »erJltr’J’ in ? . . . ood.??!lta• of \naaoa. 1t ou rea.4• \be aneD41oee whlch we f11e4 ‘Wl ll. ·• ·• ,he ;.rt, oae 1rill ••• that long •• 1n tile Malor., of hcland, ‘”• …. : – ,,_,., ho wl?••• rule crew 11p, a• w•ll aa the ••a.tel t7 tor the o•erl aot. ;?; 4ee4, · the tw-witn.e•• l’UJ.e coe• back to the Bi\le. e. !’Jiuad v. l)l)l&.rJI. 317 v. s. 111 (1942) .· 1″•rt Y. IUJmD •• a taaoinatiq •••· · 1 aa •’ nre .l aaagt.-.. aa ••nmti• ,1cture of l t fro• noolleot ion. · 1 bact the ekllltul aul•’-iloi et ••· a»all ad. Mr. Wll.oa of \he aaturu.,, 4t’rieto-. u4 of -.. lol•tt s,,n ot ,q own s\aff. MJ-. Tott u4 Mr. hater of the Deparbent of Acrie11l lur• also balpe4 •• grea’Uy. the oaee aro•• ‘Ud.el” the AgriCllltu.ral M• JuatMn\ Ao\ of 1938, the auooeeeol’ to the Agrloultunl AdJu•taeat Act vhieh had beea deolaN4 uooa•U nUoMl 111. the failatl• AA.A. ca••• the 4’l•tUoa wa1 whether 11:l the effort to contnl the prtce ot v!Mat it w.1 Yltbla \». . power of Ooqna• u4er the Ooueroe 01.aue ? ooa?rol the oOllflUIPUoa of wheat oA a tan. he J>&l’tlnltu• ooatnl vb.to Mr. ftllnml tnehl ·,• ba•• •aJolaed •• Oftl” •• ooa91111PUoa ot vhM’ •• tootl to-r e\eok 01′ 01-loll• eu, . ..a· \he llke, oa Id.• pl’ell1ff•• ‘lh.e. repl.atlo•• v••• enea4e4 ,..,, t•r ta \he \el1ef Ua\ \Ide •• aeoet8&J’7 1a order to replate t!MJ flow of *•’ ta\o the •rice,. l 4o not lmov ,,u.r Jtr. J’Ulnln. we a ua of uaAt; 1 would.a• t ‘be aupri•el k lean tl’al M •• a1sl1W •• the w:, to tlae hpr … Oovt “7 o\nn llaUarlT •”-‘-‘• who wl•W to b&Ye tlle eoqtUuttonal qaee\ioa teate4. I u rnt.nd.ecl ot oa• ot the eulJ 1.aJuotioa att1 file4 apl••’ • the •uo.ul Labor Bela.Uoa.• loard 1n the Di.trio\ of Oolua’bta. It •• • • • – 166 – , · • ” ‘ repr••eated. ·)J’ OM of the ‘blcgest and ttaett lav ttrm• in the oollillq!?\1′ 1,, J;>:rincipal: offlce ta :W.W Torie. · 4!be gonnmeat lo•• \he fil)rua ••• belov uct tt cam• \o tiw. ,,,..,.. ?-: . : Oo\\’1 ….. , the pro-r1t1oas of \he Aol of llCU•’ 24, 193’1, vhtoh P•• a ncbt ot direct appeal lo ,ne Court when a \hree-Jud.• ditlriot cov\ W ••• ae14e. an act of OolllN•• •• uaconati h,Uonal.. · <.fhe ca,e wat arpad. tlNt in tta. late Sprue of 1942 u4• llk• Qreu:e? \he Court roM at tlMI Gd ot the ten wt tho•t 4eo141nc 1 t. It •• ?, our ‘ / …. fol’ rea.Tgueat 1• ti. fall. !hen the Cnrt, la an ol)1nioa b7 11,. l11tH.? J’aokBn, 1u1utne& ? CoTeruen.t’ • JH>•l lloa la •• ••traonUnarllr ?t•• oplalon. ‘lh.e beauty of the oplaloa,. wt not 1lmpl7 ta 1 t• an&17811 of the parU-1ar ••• but in 1’8 reappra1!t8.l. ud redaffll.et of the power ot Ganer••• \Ulder the ao…-oe Ola•••• lt va• lettn.e4, 111014 a.a peraatin. lt l,’:ettat•• the reaaou vtt, a d..oltion 1l!Mler \he ooaMro• power oan.aot n:na oa wmalhftr the puUcular b.cidence of recul,attoa 1• local when •e,an.tel7 oontld.ered, n\ oa vMthe1′ the local t.11pu\ •• nt1101ea, etteol, •t’1wtr eoon.oaic ol’ pbJ’eloal. -apoa tate:rdate eo••rM. n 1, lb. NAtoaiq vialoh w \•ea u.t bJ’ Ob.let Juatt oe a.,i., ta the lm:naud alllll l&IDIMM Ill• C.••• and. la\•r Tel’f ol•rl7 npou4e4 \7 hl• in the t..&\or Joa1’4 ••••· the th•• of-, e.rpaeat w.a ,,, \he n’bJee, ao”1all7 ftC’llated wae a ,r.-,t lnter,ta.,e flow of wuat, aot a local lnlt a u.Uoaal affair. If la tac\ Oongre11, wtth a4equ.te balit, f011114 tl:aa\ it •• n.ec••eaJ’7• 1A \be re,alation of ,bl, ,na, tntel!’state aacl naUonal acUnty, to tabt Jaolt also of thi& local •as:>eo, of U thea to do eo •• vt.Ud.a tbe na’1oaal. povn • • – 16? – · I thi.nk Mr. Bl’bura had an arguable ca•e, beoauee of the ••17 local character of bl• imeU.aie conduct. !be deoiaioe •• an ex\e•lon. of \he com♦J’O.• p0wer, aD4 the OouJ’\ apparen.’17 had 1ome trouble with it because lt ve.• not decided until argued. twioe, •’ ln. the ea4 the holaloa wat ? • JJnitlfl s11,,, •31. 51 t1,1. 111w1 ste,1 2sn:1arat111 ,, aJ. •• s. 289 (1941} oral arpaent of tbla oeee, but a.ot the :refereaoe a4• to the case b7 Mr. John P. Jranlc 1n hi• biograpbJ’ of the Ju1l1ce. Bl• Cl’l••Uoninc was IION vigorous \baa in a117 caae I expenece4 ln the hpnme Cour, d.urlac ll7 appeanmoea, whloh u,ellded over a period of about ten 7ean. Justice Black • la Te17 .aerate and diecerninc in laterrupUng argument. but in Ud.1 oaee he vaa exoeatlYe 1:a hia effori to t•r town the ,overnaent• • poel Uon. I for taie Ooncn•• to 101••• 1’he oa•• bat\ a ••r-T lone bl.tor.,, too 0011pl1oated. for ae to recall 111 acourate detail. 1′ grew ou, ef \lMt taot tat the eo••,….••• through tu Mar1Ua Coamiealoa — or the ol,4 Shlpplq loam. a• 1, wae k110w, enleN4 into an arn.111eaent w1 th tile :Bethleh•• lhi-pbuilding Corporation am aaeootated oosnpud.ee for build1ag ahip• clee-4 uceHal’J’ ln the proaecutioa of the ft.rat World Var. fhe en4 renl\, eo tar •• the begtut.na of 11Up\ton w.• concern.a, wa1 \hat, vhea the ah1p1 were built an4 the bill• paid, the reepoiiaible ofttctala in the goTei·aaent decided the coat •• no\ olll.1 exceaain but so ezor’blbat that \he United States bad oauae ‘° recoup a part, • vhioh 1 t undertook to do. ‘l’here began long, drawn out prooeed1nga wt. th • • • • 168 – , . . . •• -?•t … ,,er. • •..,. , llll44t a nport ‘beoaue he hftl” na111-t .. , -?. • ca•• •·.An,,pl oa ta \•ralnabi.7. aa4 G4.a. wt th a 4eolt1oa of the CU. •1tl4\ · oo•i•. .,. …. k lb• ,o•enaeal. ta. 41 atriol oo,a,r\ • • 4eolt1oa •• • .., ) talucl by the \h11’4 olrcuil. haaolt llidd.l•• wbea 8ollo1tor 0.lleral, peU• Uoaed. ….. hpr•• Onrl tor vril ot cerUoran, wh1cb •• crute4, aat \l♦ ou• .-. oa tor aJgm1ea\ la the Blq,r•• Oour\ after X ba4 become Sollcltol” . ‘ . •–?. l tuen ,et ,,, a• u. wre, u4 •1’P• t., tor . the go-nnua, 1 -..j 1″4..-S,ok ‘”4, ot ,u Ora•IJl tlna, npreaeal-4 ,. ••tlllua croup. 1 W lla4 ho taten1t1-a –••leaoea vi. lh •• Voe&. la La.1-1′ Joa,t S…… .tuo,loa –•• — \tu\ he •• aot la \he Wacael’ .lot •••’ •••• which Naohell tu llapNM O..n. Ve oppote4 •• aaotuit ta . tlle 014 ..,,….. Onrt ot tlse »lttnot of Oolubla, u4 tho la \he 0o111’\ of Appeal• of ti• Dlabto\ o’f · Oolulla. – ht l1Slllebll •• U1e tlnt U• la whioll w app•NCl oa · oppoet t.· •1′-• in the Sllpr•• Oo’tlri. • •• u mnael7 a’bl• aclftoal• an4 l ao.qvJ.I’ … aa uldratloa aJlll nt’Pffl to? at.a. Jul., .Ille oo..-.. of lu .,……,,, oae of tbe lull OM — I tlda11- iua.­ H•• ·.n.o – •*• ae a … ,, •• of tao,. l 414 •• ••• tu .. …,.. ,..,,. u4 • ,.lug. M:r. Voo4 Jmn ti. auw? .aa4 -•’1.F ,…,. 11 to• .,.. vbioll •• a .. 17 oovt•u• IIWII – la•t•• of -.Jo,t.na -, ..rra, …. ,. lt •••””‘large reoort. kt l 4o •’ ••••• •• lla’Yl• ‘\ha • ..,,..,. It •• ••• of \lie &J’C’IIM»-•• I -4• la lu Sapnu Ooa.n wbleh 1 aenr t.i, 11app,-. .. ,. Ml”. Voo4 arguct ••r’J a-.1, • Tlgo1’011•17 aa4 v1 th a ••roac Yot o•. le •• oanf111 la ht.a prepaatloa ad an ld.1 ••••· • • • 169 – I u\ .bt.a 1a the lob\7 ot ,u Mqtlover &,tel after ve had al’l’UMl 6Mtt or twloe aca1aet •• other in Labor load. ••••• and af\er he ha4 •• •• ?taUoa, ia aatl•lev lleal 11 UcaUoa. tJu ..r .t.o\ bad Iha b … …..,.. u.ta.t )7 lae 9’1pN11• Onr,. I M.14 l Ja4 lt•ea 4taappotnte4 is. •• •• ta tho.•• ••••• Be •11-4 u4 1&14 he ba4 ‘beea la \he hhtsltE ••• u4 ba4 wa l7 a ..-o\e ot et.ch• to •••; \Ila\ he had \hen bee aoU•• tn ,u AU ca•.•• a1,i.111h l 4o :ao\ Wat he ..ae \he arguea\ la that O&H – I attribute tha\ .. Geoqe Wll&r\oa Peppel’, a, 1 ••’I pd.aetpall7 — which -4 hu wa ‘7 • ‘”‘· of ,s.a ‘° tuus ,_, be !ad \ha .,.. … ,_ Chttte:, Coal Ao\ …. an4 W woa b7 a YOH of fl•• to tou. • aoaol114e4 ‘b7 e&1111& ‘4\h a ‘-ch \bat la the laa’l,er leaf’ll 08.N u thoupt -,,.. ? .,..,. wlllcl •n•• oftl’ ,a. 11.-.;: … pl’O’blea 1A tlla 111111-MM ••• wa lbat. Mtvl thalaaitnc tiw . .,..,.._ Uo• •t Saord.ina\e i,rotl\1, the •”nun’ MA gone 1a\o tJle •lkl” 14th. t.t• qH ojea anA had u oo••-••l richt lo nooupaeat of ., .. n,, or•••’• pat4. ftl4l lo•n ta paeral, I U:da, Jut· ••••• to thlak 11 -… •, tor . t••to proteo, ti. IO’ffftlleat tna •z.oe••lff pftflt• pa14 wltbov.t Yl•la• Uoa of U7 •ta•••••• ua.. al the Oo•l’I H•e4 t• tMJlk, wt tho•t ‘fl•1-tlea et . .., … ol•r ooatruhal oltlt.•tloa. Ot oov••• ‘8 eo••na•• aqucl ‘-:? U.. ••••l”T• tat Ila.re •• • ooatnohal •1olattea. aa4 a1 .. , 1a4.,… .. t,.. 11. lbl\ tu uout• taken •• ptofll• wr• to uooa•eiou.l>le t>at Qe -••l’JallU’ •bolll4 olllala Nll•f, • .,.o1a11, la ,_ llcht of l ,. mceaot•• iv.nae the •r &114 Mar belplettaeet ta •’-I’S.DC ta\o arranc … at.1 wl th pri — 1a4•1t17 ,. tal.f1U l ,. vai- A…… .. O&H -· argued., -?•–17 eno11,Ch, the 1eooJ¥l 4q after the attaak at Pearl llt.rhr, a• w nn utenq • the hooDd World War. ru1ng wbioh tbe leaeeoliation Aota ud o\her lect, ,- • • • – l?’O – latl?n no cloubt applied the le&11laUOi11 aeecle4 lo an14 \he enla ,he co••,…, lbewght l.aheN4 1n the J•thlebea hu.•atloaa. 8. lulelilDIP •• !lP,1,IA bait•, 320 tJ. s. 118 (1942) ”A\ th• Oo\ober 1941 fen, Wllllaa Sohatttdene.a p•tlUonecl \be iapftlle Court. tor ws-l, of oenlonri to l’fflev a d.aolatoa of the OtNUl, Oourt ot -‘.PJ>-1• for the Bath CtraoJ. ‘• v)d.@ W nttainecl a d.eoleton of \!Mt 411- trtot covt 4eunnllstng ld.a. U9 ‘I. a4 soo. Ae Ao\izia Sollol\o? Gu.eral 1 ba.4· .,,… cnat ot th• mt. !lie oa .. •• ucuA tvt.M, ,u • ..,.., ,s.u –? 11, 1948 .. ScJ:aae14enaa •• a Oo1111W111,, a4ld. ttt41J’ 10 at all ‘1••• •••rtal to the -··· ftae t1a1 ,. a, .. ,.. 1A■U _,_ prooee41aga to …….. hl • ct U•-thlp, oa •• groud. that whee lie•• at–1lse4 he won falael7 that i. voul.4 ‘bear tn.e faith u4 allqtaue to the thdte4 Stat•• ud ‘-‘ fof’ the re•i•ile pvlocl he bad beo aUaoW lo \he pnaoi-ple■ of •• Oonat1tllUoa. the poalHoa ot Ille ao••J’DMat •• that Solae14enan ha4 nov.4 hl• 0111- •••blp 11:i..,.117, aacl ‘118.t ,ae anu .• ,1. •’•”‘-‘• ntlwll’l•• Nnattoa. I tu• Ille uaa…….il.a’1oa &tpfft of the ••• •• ta ,. •natal 4.h-t .• , ••• , , .. D-,.n .. , of , •• ,1 ••• , •• the O&H -· a •1Yll …. he,t,e the IIOMllO]at,in of \lie ctoat.aaat oban.oler ot ltt wol’k. U&e 4tnt:loa •• CS.••• N■poaal’b1li \7 la aoae Nlate4 field.•. lbl• ••• •• ban4led ‘bJ’ \he UAlW na,e• ••tonq•• otfto• 1• Saa hanolsoo, la oiaara• tho of M,,. -•••T• la -., •• offloe Mr. O•ater 1-ne Anoted oeanf.•ra?l• U• to the •••• •• I 414 alM. l 1″141 … lt •nh.117 ta pnparaUoa of the brief and atten,arda of -, ol’lll arpaata. I i–4 t.btl e%hl\t •• u4 ltffa• pnt\7 ,hor01lghl7 acquaiate4 w111h CollllUlat teaolda« •• thue m4••NC1 – 11he • • • – 171 – ,’ :. · ··•:: uJ••\ir • ….. la ‘bebc labeled a Ooanaaiat o? ‘b7 ha’ft.91 aUrlltuteA -.–•· · h1a!JtU-4e• whioh were ao, ta taet bi• ova. . : . . . . ,· ?<•t•tno\ oovt, •• the bad• of u elakate nool’t a■ to , …….. …s!’?t Pan, •• t., •• thu nova – 1,, \el.let,, 4ootrtn••• u4 •Utoclt1 · u4 SomaaSA•naa•, ova aett•1’7 la Ill• ,an:, – tow tllat he ba4 ol>uu.8′ hit “1U••••ld.p lllepl.17. Aa the oan d•••lo-pe4 la the appellate preoee4? 1..-i•• •l’lttoal patat •• tbll lo!me14•aaa •• not attaoW. to ti.. p,ta:­ olj1u ot UM Coa■tltllttoa u4 \henfon ha4 obtalae4 hle o1U1ea1hip llle-4; p117 whta • –?· • -· • …….. . ftAJ oate oaa• \o IM lapNII• Oo’art at a ‘ba4 ,….. if t 1197 aa, IO. V• wer• 1a Ille wr – •• a •tier of taol \he tlr■\ arpaeat •• tlaoll •s.. ti. aid.et• of the kine ot ltal111Cft4. tti.re w.1 ,……,,,., goo4 wlll tbea la tu aoul:1’7 tor- 1111111a, and. a cnat a411irat1oa of 111 ftaht acal••• •• oo.a … .,. lad. Genrua,. l 1fl.nle4 the ca•• J>U\ •••r. I •• a ltlt ueaq a\o11.I ._ 114Yl..,.lllt7 of tu CoT•ftllia’• at that puttal.ai’ •aeat, -,,.. ta tv »,., tnnaa1 au. ,11e thl.11.r• ••• ••e&el to h wt alo•t S.Tl•t – luua, u4 ?• 1 414 .. , v.aat to }’1111 a.a, puoJae1 ta pnaeatlDI •• o …. I •• Ml a\le lo o\’-111 a 4elq. Mr. Wu4ell lftlld•, eM of lolmet4•11111Jl’ • oou.Ml, W01114 not a«J’ff, aa4 the Old.et J’uetioe •• aet wllltag \e po•lpoae the .,…., al••• lo\Ja alt•• ooaaeaW. Jeton tald.111 the •tier 11’9 wt tll the 01’4•f ha\loe I had tpden. •o •• Well••• Vader leoreta17 of hate, ahut ti. d\uaUoa. • lhoqlat aoae ulaJ’ •• 4e11a,1e. ?•ton tlle •l”l’l­ aeat I alb a4’t’1ee4 the Pnat4eat a’bo’o.t th• ca••• 11-.,17 lo let ht• nov of 1\1 elllaaotu u4 poetue. • •• aot 4l1t?a4 \7 l\ and ‘1xroeh.t Its. – 172 – • cattt,thoul4 be elroacly preeea,e4 u4 ‘lei lhtt old.pa tall,• though ,. upntaJJi •• aol bl• owa • • • •••• Wllki•’• flnt ….. , I thcnac}l\ -· AOI • ., •• 1a11,- ceo4 -.1 Ao aot . … l t ,,.. \aa. II •• a ■laure aipaeal lnlt I 414 aol tldak l t ?-• panlftla1’17 etfeo’1Ye or well rou4e4 ou,. Bl• •coa4 &l”fC’WMat. heWffH’• I tbo111a1 •• aoell••’• Ia the ,1 .. ‘belvHa Uae ho &J’IUente • Md a, … YOle& hiaaelf to ao:re canful prepaiaUon. IIJ’. ••• r4tla11oaa wltll •• Wtlit• wr• pl•NDt. • ld.11417 ••’ “tJI,} to . tllro’2Cll Mr. 1. B. liaw•o•, ot the ltx ton ft.Mt• tJat it l v.ltcW .’ Jte ?a. ‘be gW ‘° rNO•eD4 •• -. \be Pnal4•1 · fo:r \htt then est••tac .? …. , •• ·- ., ….. Gov\. l ‘-••11’ appNOlated Ihle of OO’Cll’le ., ‘ •,.:,·.- -·’, . ‘ ‘ . ,·, ‘ ::,· . • <1 4o ao, r..,e:r panlnhi-17 aq ooaaut la ,:a. Solicitor •••aJ.•l·;, . . ‘ ‘ ) -,·,··- . . otfti? •)out Jlr. W11lkl•’• enlletaet la alt of \he 4•f•••• 1 •••?aJ,\ 111? h1ll tor taklac the •••• in the ••••• that a cnat ■ento• 1• pe? •_,.;, fol’IINl4:.:)J 11M of tlan•Uac, pna\1ge, alMi a’blll\7, la ‘-klAC llP upop11J.? ….. ·.wbea ••’fluel -• lawN 11\en, ., .. lD4lflcblal l• la ……. · .. J’7 ciul,itloaUoa ,. ,_, 1 ., … ,. … vlth ht.a &boll.I tldt ….. 1 -,. a ? …. flT ova Illa&. lf -· •;r M plan.•• 1,. a\nt M• ….. to ,..:.. · •• ••Tlaoe4 he. •• rl&ht abo•• t.hS.t ca••• hi 1, 1• hal’cll.7 for • lo pn•• \bat poelll••• whe he ha4 the S.,nae Co11.n vtth hi.a ln the••• lfr 41-,ne•nt 1• aon ‘With lhe Court .. Wbea \he••••• ftr1t arpe4 tbffe •• a •oaaq oa tu On.n vblell ,,.. t1Ue4 ‘b7 \he appolauaeat ot Mr. luHo• llll’11111c•• I ‘beltne 4tl’lq the noe .. ud ‘before na..-eat. •• Jut.to• laokaoa ,1,.-u.n.a, ‘kca••• et eo•• connection “1\h the preoee41DC9 llhen he ba4 ltffa At\on.,- Gen.em • • • • – 173 – . · 1 bbpeil a aev YO’• IIS.ch\ be ulpt.l to ••• l had 4etiat. \e hep•• of pm.Sllnc. a1,? fl’Olt Uie reoepUe• ., 11,-a, argwaea\ no.el’N4 tn• IO•• of tu .ru,18″ I Nal1se4 \hen•• a 1erioa.al1 4l-n.4e4 an.n • .. UM>qh tu qaeeUoQ albll vere of ,he eon ••• wloo•••· J,iatlee »laok •*• abe1ll \be l’l&ht of NTOl11Uo11, wt th. • refeNUe to ou ova bi•tol”J’ •. 1 ntene4 \o vbat 14.aeola laal al4, allll the aotton of ov toretatber• – vbln 10Tenaen, •• falle4 of lit tuo\lon then 1• nob a :rt.chi, bu\ it 1• ao, a ttg!l\ et tu otllsa which le neoplaet b:, lbe law tf tll9 p.-enaenl atteotect. It l• a ‘ba•l• nch, ot ,u ,.. \elnc to reTOll aptest ‘J:l’allaT u4•r oertala olHIUlltuo••• lt,a\ aot a l’lcllt wldoh a co••1U1ea\ ta edt\eoe Hcoaai••• la ,11e olll••a. Sohne14enaa on14 ao, ola111 \llat tba Vlalte4 ata••• ••’ reoocal•• a 1-,al ncht 011 Id• pan to. l’ff01 I ecat.aa, ‘h• Vat.tea. -., ••• then bad. bMa tou ?•• ta \he plead.lac■, whloh 1 will •• a\ … lellJ)I \e ua.11’••• vbloh 41•ltle4 •• a cood. ual S.11. lhe hpNae Ccn1r\ tn• argung oil \he ‘ba1i1 of lack of \ru tallh aD4 allectaao•; \hat le, f&l•• awal’lnc 1a tllat retpeo\. !be. alNaiPh of••” oa•• •• td.e laGlt ♦t attaoh­ MA\ ‘° tu p’llaolp1•• et Ille Coaett. h:Hoa. ftle Oou.rt • • optaloa •• I aov noal.1 .. ,. a.b•taa•• up ,vo Was•• ,_, lhe mcteaoe 41’. .. , ••laltlltla 001Wlaolagl7 eaoqh (l) ‘•’ lohultenu pertonal.17 bell….a la lh• Oft:r­ ,tarov of 11» &0Naaeat lt7 fen• er ?l•••• au \11.eNto:n. oa Uat pha•• of Ille •••• 1, 001114 ut be u14 II• •• ••• a\’6ehe4 to tlle prlaolpl•• of lhe Co.D.1Ut’Cltlo•c (2) Iba\ a’b••Jd tone … ‘f’ioleae• OH ba4 ,_ flcllt lo aeek p•c•fal Olluee, ou lra4U1oa• ua law enoo’ll.rap4 fNMMloa of ,.,..ht u4 peaoeN olluc• ooulcl be a4TOoate4 • • • • – 174 – l 4o aot think this .. , ihe CO’f’el”llll&nt• • -·· b•ca.u,. UMN …. oena1D. bae1c pri.aeiJl•• – *bough reoop.11lac of oo•?•• tbal • •1 Oht.ltce the OueUtiilloa – vhloh are prlulpl•• of \u Coaat1 tGUon. the •’-“”‘• 1• drained. of … a\nc 1’7 -,S.ac, •tn an aot requ.trecl to be atuohet to..,.,… ,bl-. 1-ffa••• ie• are penl\W to a4-.ooate ohanp of ••J7tld.ng.” A1 Ch1•t Ju■Uot Stone pointed 0111 tn hi I d.lsHat, \her• are ••• prlnotplea ot th• Coa1tituUon ,o vld.oh one ••t give aUaoJ:uaeat la oriel’ ftliU, to b.0011• a ut1l.l’llll1e4 o1Una. I .lmev \he leaper of •• u … •• acataet the ,-,·renaea\ when the ••• reaohed. the lapnn Govt to’I’ arpaeat, anA l new aft•r ti» ,&’l’aal of etJt- Uon.rl \bat \ure •• clout of galal»a a •Jo1’il71Nt? tbo’CICht la the eal the Govt would a,rN tat 1a appl7fJlc lav to the faca\a the eo•el”UIQ\ ahnl.4 pnftil la \hta •••• !he 41Hea’1ac opWoa vaa wl’i 1to ‘b7 Ohief J’G.1Uee Stoa., vi th Ju1Uoe1 lo\erta aa4 lrauturte1′ eoaftffiac. the aJor1tJ’ oplaloa •• vrttten b7 Ir. Jua’1o• Mu.ip!IJ, Jolaed lJ7 lueUc•• llaOk, Doug1&,. Beet. all.cl Balled.&•• •· lu,t.u Jaoktoa. •• l ••• aa14• 414 aot pan1c1J>&t•, clnq !alt r••a•. !Mn•• aa qu,ttoa ta ti» ltlaaliA•nea oaH of ptlt ‘b7 ••netattea or ltp1tta*loa; 1\ •• a •••tioa of pnof \-,oal all •lcattlaaa\ ctoot of aotu.1 -lenhip, a.ad aotul, corriaoecl • wt.ll1ag1 ant novtnc pantc1pa’1•• la the OoJiumAI•’ d.ootriu all4 Pa,,,. A• the opialoa of Oht.ef lu\lce Stone polale out, Sobne14enu •• aan ot and a14ecl la l)l’OIIOtiDC clootrlne• which daoastratel lack of attaohau, to ‘1:le J)rlaolpl•• of tu CoaeumUoa. h ta 4.tfftnlt to a.aver the 4{11,eaUo.n vhe\her l though\ tbia •• a oiT11. l1ben1•• ca••• contiderinc hov 1, vaa decided. In a aea•• it ••• • • • • 1?5 – because it 1nvo1Yed bow far a -pereon •1 ,o. without restnint, ln ‘beUef ‘ ,:. , teelc; ?,-‘-nll••loa upoa ••t••• pJ’OOf. l\ ba4 bHa uaed la prior can·•• loq lt•fon \be CollllUle\ ltne aro••• ae a Te!licle tor 4aa.tural1•Uoa, AD4 bad ‘been n.•ta1ne4 l,7 \be Saprae Cou:rt. Conceding a, I will1ngl7 do \.bat the ff14.-c• ••t be ttroa,; aad coaTlaolng to J,11’1’1 t1ud.1ng1 a4e1pll\e to• 4eaaturallsaUoa 1lll4e!” Uw ten• of the statute, l u of \he optJdoa \he eTl4e:aoe 1n •hl• ••• •• ntt1o1eaU7 atrong and con”fiac1ng • I – 176 – • Our preparation• bad not contemplated a maH eneuation of pereoaa of Japaneae uo♦1t17 redding on. the Weal Ooaat. !hie progl’&ll orlg111ated. in the War Depariaent after Pearl Barbor. General De Yi tt, 1n tnecllat• 11111- tarr o.ba.rge on the lfeat Ooaat, NCOllhllded the eftcuaUon. He wanted tree- 4om of aotlon v1 tbout ha’ring •to look OYH’ h1 • ehouldeJ’• to aee it the ••CUJ’i t7 ot hi• torcea ud of the area •• end.anceNd bJ pe:rton• 1711Pathet10 to Japan. In ol’derlng the eftcuatlon he aoted under the attthorl t7 of the 001ab1Aed. power• of the President, aa Ooa•nder-in-Chiet, and the w.r pow.ii•• of Coagre••• On :tebrwu7 19, 1942, tbe Preaidut promlgated aa execuU•• order which nc1 tecl tbat the tttoceaaful protecuUon of the war rectUlred •••17 po111ble protecUon agaiast eaptonage and •boqge to naUonal cle- • tea•• Mterial, preld.•••• uUli Uea, et cetera. Congreaa had granted to • the Prea14ent, the power to authorhe and direot the Secreta17 of’ War and the mill UJ7 oonanllers de11ignah4 b7 hia, when be or thq 4″• 1 t neo•••l7 or d.eeirable, to preeorlbe ld.U.tar., area• 1a n.oh place• an4 ot nob e.xten, •• he or the appropriate aUi ta17 command.er-,, 4.etersille, fro• which an, am all perwon• ay be exclwled. and with reirpeot to which the right ot a1r1 penon to enter, rualn la, or leaTe, 1• eubJeot 110 vhatenr re1trl0Uoa• the Seoreta17 of War or the appropr1at• adli ta17 ooamander 111aJ iapoee at hl• cl1ecretloa. ‘fh1• w.1 folloved b7 act of CongreH of M&roh 21., 19?, maklng one who nolated an order guilty of a ldlNl•eanol”, if it appear• that he knew, or ahould ha:.-e known, of lhe existence and extent of the reetncUon.a ot’ order. end if hi• a.ot Wll in Ti?latlo11 thereof• •hall be pil tJ’ of a 111.adeJDUDOr. On March 2?, 1942, the General preaoribe4 certain militat7 area.a az»l 10ne11 within vh1oh1 a• a matter of 11111tar., neceuity, there were required. – 177 – • to be est&bl11hed certain reculati0Ju1 pertaining to all ene117 alien, atld all person• of Japaneae anoe•IJ7, and tv.-r,her, aner March a?, 1943, •all aliea Japaaese, all alien GentUe, all al1Ga ‘ltalian•• aDll all p.r·son1 of Japanete ance•tr., raa1d1q or ‘being wt.,hln t.he geognphioal lia1h ot the deaipated a111ta17 area abal.l be ln ,heir plaoe of retid.no• at a certain hour.• Tb1a wae the curfew, vtth t:be gen•ral eftC\U\tloa order to f’?llov. • • there vat no pllblio heannc, except before 0ongree•1oml collll1tteea. on these que8’1on:t. My- noolleoUoa 1a tlat \be 11111ta17 a11thon Ues, includiDC the oirll1aa• in the alll \ar,- eak’bllahunt, a.tecl Oongree1 for the•• poven. 1 oam:iot ea, Co–••• •• 1Ulllvare of what •• l1kel.7 •o l>e done, but there vere no hearlric• or a4111als\rath·e tincllnge ltl the execuUYe bn,o.ah of \he ,C,YenllMHlt. Oeaet’&l. De Vitt•• recoameactaUon of the eTacuation •• cu:pporte4 b1 the Secret&l”)’ ot War, Mr. SU.llSoA, a.Ad the President· did not Teto 1t. Though the llepanment ot lu.aUce waa ool’lnlted I bad. mthlng to do with the aa,ter u\ll at its 1a,e:r stage I •• &eked ,q 1ntol’llal op11lioa aa to the constituU0Ml.U7 of \h• proJeo\. !he .A:\torae7 General, with la•• Bowe ae hi• pnnclpal a4vi••r, had ‘been haad.lln1 tbs matter so far•• Justice waa coaoen:uMl. M7 noolleo\1oa la low w.a quite oppoaed. ·’° the eftauaUon. l do not beline the DepaJ’\ae, oo•ld ba•e l)NTent-4 it •••n if the Attorney Geaeral adrlted that U would be unconat1W.’t1onal. :But. \hat aside, vhen aaltecl l expreeaed the Y1ew that while hi1to17 vould probabl.7 demonstrate that the program waa unaeoe1aa17 1, •w.4 be ooaati w.Uonal S.f tu allitaq de•ed it a •tter of Jllliw.ry neceH1t7 at the Uae. I bell••• Mr. J. Id.gar BooTer thoueht he could baadle the aecnui t1 problea on -178- • the West O&a•t without the eft<mation; so the dee1t1on \o cal’l’7 1t forward was \bat ot tbt ai1Ua17, wl\11 authorising le,:islaUoa. • • tu.-.• ca••• reaohe4 the Sllpreae Court t•sttng th& consti 1u,1.,n&11 ‘7 of \be pro,-.. limbnllli •• PIUd S,tatet. 300 TJ. s. 81 (1943) • decided Jue 31, 1943• upheld the curfew. !be opinion wa• written b7 Oht..ef Ju1tic’!t Stone, ‘With JlO cU.aaen\, but vtUa eepan.te con011rring opbdon• by Mr. JuaUoe ])o’Q&las, Mr. Justioe Mvph7, and Mr. Ju,uc? Rutledge. The ..,., or1Ucal G&ff -· IArtR’al T. V,nitc na,,,. 323 V. s. al.4 (1944), whlch l’IIUW \he Qoun tor arauaea, VS.th II bat wa. 323 u. s. 283 (19-M). lttMeSD iaTOlTed. the ftl.141,,. ot the cenem naouatioa 1,•• lf, alld JDAA. the ftlid.1 t7 of ntftlaiag 90llle re&D1ato17 a•t.bori tT oTer Ill•• lado 1a ? relocation center or it she thould be penal tted to leaTe it, al\hoqh nb1equnt \o her nacuUoa and relocaUoa the had ‘bMn p•r­ aoull.7 cl•red UD.des- the ap-pU,oable ngulationt11 as lo,-al to the United State•. Mr. Milton lieeilhower I bel1eT@ had become the Di.ret,,or of the War­ ielooa\loa at:bo:d \7 when thl• oaa• reached the Court. ·the llspr•• Co;an oa larraa17 18. 1944, ntta1ne4 the oonetl httonal.1t1 of •he ff&ouatloa ln lottMID- fu oplainn., b7 Mr. Juatloe Blaok, ws hand.A clon lu.u:q 11. 1944, wlt)l M,-. Juatlc’lt ihuphi, and Mr. lueUoe Jack.c a 41•••Uac, 1epan.tel7. la .l!la4A.. ar,a.114 with loteWIP, •he Oouri ,truck dowa a• 1m.oonatUuUonel the Ntg\\lation, eoqht \o be coatinued as to ou 1A her •1 tua tioa. l arcuecl the thne ca•••• t bl.Ye ao 4etinUe 1″ecoll•ot1oa of aJ17 cleaTage in ST ow eta.ff a• to the cu-few •••• 11,n)aresbl • l>ut \bere w • a stronc tenU■ent ln tome quarter• ta u?e l>epartaent that the eownment waa Y1’0BC la kree,n. My – 179 – • own ‘feeltne na th.F?t ho””‘?r undesirable I might think the aaaa naouation had been, Bad. bovtter u.m,.ecetMt’J’ 1 mah\ haYe ,ho-ugh• 1 t to be fro• a • • aili tary eta.ndpolat, the authori t7 enrci•K thrc\’iO Ooncr•••• \he .Pre11- dent1 ·&he Secret&ey of War. al.ld the ?•apo1181’ble allit&J7 couu4er• vaa a conaU tutionfll s.uthorl t7 at the tillle 1 t was exei-cta64. I oonaideNCI. 1 t to . ‘be Jl7 .. ‘1hqu,1-vooal obl1&9-tion to aeelt to suatain \heir acUon vUh all the abillti I could meter. ,i.r• wat 001H’al.ta\ioa. wlU.l \be War Depar’–i a’bo•i l!M, ‘brS.eft. ‘l’lle. Depal”ta•D.t vat pea.U7 interested 1n the caHa, p&.rUcol.arl7 lor.,a\g. &Iii helpe4 u1. Jut Juat ho” tbia waa workecl ou.t l do no\ nov r•–•r. We retain.el control oYer the oases bu\ War •• b7 ao M&lll ezclwlecl froa oo.nnltaUoa am cooperation. &Qa:uata vas olm.o•al7 aa b1pc,r’-nt oa••• bltt I 4o aol NM•b•r ,bat ,1- Court h&rmased oouneel paJ’UC\llarl.7 at 1is pneeataUoa, though a goocl MBY appropriate qu•ct1oa, veN allt4Mi. ln JDaA, llowffer•, Ohlef .Tuatloe Stone iaecliatel:, 1nd.1oat? g:re.Te uaoertaiAtT, to put it aildl71 about the goTin·mumt keeplag any netn.inte on Mia• Jlado, a oU1•en vbo ha4 ‘beea cleANd ft-oa a loyal t7 ita.ndpo1nt. lie thoved a Tel7 ol)M.r and q,\\iok f’eel- 1zag acal.n•t the CoTemaen,•, pollitioa and, of’ coune, vat after•• a\oat i ,. 1 thoucht to a7eelt, “Well, t vi sh you could pt attel” ••• of the•• wbo11 l’Te \eea tmn« to get to ol•r thia atter l1p vlt:taout fl’ea bothertac 7011 a.bout 1,.” B6tu:ralng_ to ·&c>rtMIB6 I reaember the Old.et Ju1Uce’ • gr?at lntttrflat 1n cl.&:r1.1’71ri« the posdble ate.tutor, ba•1• tor the action. 1 emphasised the uae et the com’biaed. wr powre ot the eovenmeat ln the Jllili \ary situation 11hich existed vheri. the !tOUoa w.t taken, potnUnc out that the viotor., at M14wa7 had aot ooourred. I described ‘\he ti t’Oation as – 180 – • nn?,? •• I coul.4, laolwUac the oloH oall al IU4V&7 u4 th tbla berolo U,u:,?·-tuM4 1:taolt IM .. ,,, witl:lou, whloh ve alp, baTe ha4 lo 4•t•• · .. ‘. : • ? ·S ,. ·-. . . _. . . . .. : : • • au1i}{?; ·•–• pe’l”bapt eYea la Oalltonla. 0.. atp, aak whT. wua aoUoa of th1• aort •• tat.a ‘b7 aoaeoae , •• 1,-w 1>7 \be Pn■14•t •• a ldl.ltar, •tte-r, u4 the Pnn4eat .a a •’-‘-h17 ltalit fo’ft aoltoa, tlle oouta look Jul’114lo’1oa. It 11 a pal’\ ot our ooa1\ih.Uoul qatea Iha\ the 11111 taq o,dnd.• the ana of aotu.1• -? … , ….. ftltJMI to ….. 1 Dlbol’l’7, laolt&Cllnc , •• JMl•lal nthorlt7. Wltld.JL .-. 11 … n•• ot tu ooa’1uatal Valle& Ital•••–•• WI”•• ao, aetull.7. •.s.ac ooaa.ole4 la tu tl.U, am when •nlal lav w. .,, , … 4eo1Qat- altlle-,ll tllal ltH1f atcJlt aot ban•• a 4ltter•n •· tlMJ, __ olU;iM or the all• r••t.4eal wa1 •tl’1t4 ‘° Jwltolal pnl•o’1oa of Ill• ooa••1–tloul l’lchta • · lb’. Juli .. Jack1oa vaa trov.,1.a oa ooa111-.uo11&1 cnuA• ‘b1 the O..n • • taa0Uoalaa ot 11111 ta17 cleolalona. le aeeaed. ‘° Ud.ak Ual where ‘- … ,1 •• 1la4 to 4e wl ,Ji ,.. •ft’IUI … , of tu WI’ .,.,,…. ,_ GOv\lj, .· -· . . ;.. · . . · . .__ ‘ : . . .’ –?– luA• oft •tlNlJ’ uA let Iba allt.ta,r &e wlledcel. l Ao-.,? ? –.ia tbe onn l!PMlA Ille ••uttnttoaJ.i’F ot ,11. •U.Oril1′ > UNOi:w.uA tlwnfen ,.,.. to ohNk tlMI alUtaJT. ? utulnc “”‘1·141•tloa , .. Govt ……. a•,bol’l 17 al• lo OMok ,_ at.U .• .,. l f 1,. oolltlut •bo-14 •• aooaall h.Uoaal. la• tb,n ..,. hiloallea ·•t no.la oa lhe pan of the people of Galttoiala! — What l ..,. •• lo t»• l• vllh uoenaiat7. 8oH part of the preahi’e oa Geaenl De ft ti 1 t)d.a11: •• ollutr tu.a alll ta17, 4u to the alt•ttoa la Callton.la, panl0111arlJ’ la touthana Qal.lfoaia. J’or r•••• .. 181 – • •1’91•\’4 to \he oomtuot of vu ••• people were auio•• ,., the •r ,owtr • ·\e … ._ IDlft v11a, the7 oou14eN4 a ,-.l’llll711Dleala’ble t1’1aalloa •. . ?’.,.(<•.: .,·· . . · – . . .· hi ::•••:’•’ to aeMCle ,o ,i. 1Nt14•1 u4 to ae like •• ftiatoa • ..-,t.-.. \::??;,:.:::,:;:? . : Uoli·,.:, ·tllere •• atletaa’- adllt&,,- baat1. AIM\ Ille p-,le of Calttorat11· a• a.•l• ouaot ‘b7 vr, Mae ‘be aooa.1e4. of ‘lllt•rt.ol’ aoU•••• lfhen pro• -’11 •? esoept1oa1. Am \Ml’• •• alao a ‘belief in eoa• tal’\er• ,-., · IH•l• wlll.4 ariu ta Cfallfonla ‘be\veea the raoe1. h\ Uat wlll.A ., · .. , • .,.,,tt1e4 ’11• ..,. .. ,1 •• •,1 u ….. .., tile Jiu. &ad. ltrann::a •••• wttb ,aa. 1Nd4eat ,.,…. …, be . … l –.,et bla to bow lllv I felt a’bo•\ Ille GaH• u4 ,rJat alp\ •—• , • Jal aa laWltceat aa1p of the d ‘1aatloa, ‘but IIIM1• • -..ni .. •• lo \WI’ pn-tatloa. Be apok• ot pl.au tor \lie ……… net be mpe4 Wlllcl won: nl fo? ,u 1…-.l 11o4 of all. • watel the –•••• \o flllll oonc.S.al ••• la 4lffennt p&J’ta of ,-. cout17 aal ellow.t a tho11gbthl. aa4 eppal1’eUo tatenat la the p,obl-. !he whole •••1prt1e •• u •fol’lllllli.le –•….-oeot ,:a. w.l’. ,,. •• a pnp et •••• vM.01′ ..,..,. na.W. \lie a.,na. eo.n t• …. v!lloll ,, -,…-…, of , .. u .. •• at oU• wllll tlle Val’ ».,anaea,? •• la.1• t•U:n.4:aal ae11t.1loa on•N vlwn. 11114er … ,,,.. olhn Iha· •• lldhl’• a.a outaia …. , – ‘h\11 la ,u ••• ut.: la ,,.. •••’ – wen p…t­ W to erler aa lD41n’11al ltal.S.aa. tor aupl•• to 1••• ht• bn• u4 ..,.. late \be ta\erlor. lf Jae dfu.t tlle Depar1aa, of 111.eUoe •• N4(119atecl ‘4t pro••••• ld.a, the 1ta”1\e IIUl.q a -rlolaUoa ot • edel’ a ol’lld.N.l off•”• • ·!be .A.IMIMJ” haenl NfuK to pnaMate nlat-.U, U1′ et \Mle 1 .. cttnt-1•.• le took ,1ae ,o,t ,t.oa th• orcl•?• “” of noll tollb\N -1t4ltr . ,., .. ·., · ‘ • . · · · . . – . . . M.4, la eoae ••••• to laoltlq la mf.eaUal -,,on •• to aeoeH1 ,, fer – 182 – • exol••1•n• Illa\ ?• onalnal lav wul.4 not ‘be 1nYOke4 ‘b7 th4t A\\ome7 I••?• .·the· hpart••• of lu•\ioe. bowe••I’• 414 tm4•1’\ake to the beet qf 1 ta ::.,,uiit k detea4 the oJ’.t•r• thould the 1A41T14al attecW tile • • . :-·’·’· -· ,. . olY.1.1. aotS.oa to? an 1aJuo’1oa. ‘1’111 pot1\1on of ltt. 111441•• la •hioh l Ml.7 tvpporff4 M•• oau-. • po4 deal of 4isn.aa1oa ‘ie\veea the AUome7 General.• 111’••1 t, u4 the lfa.l’ Depal”\aa\, inoludlDC tW.er S.Onta17 Pa\tereon, anc1. tbual.17 Seoretar, &lluo•• l W pleaaaat penonal itelaUoae wt th luge Pa,tenon. hrhac ti. 41.ou•lf•• Oftl” Ill• uoluloa oJl\teF• he eal4 lo •• -Wbu 7ou weft haea>. Co’81uutl’of the Labor l•rd. aacl the Labor Joan. llll4e a 4″ta1oa on aa –•- 1a\ratln nool’d, 10• 1aet.a\e4 \bat the covt, leaYe al•A• what th• .load..· itt. low ti. Var l>epanaeat aa1c•• a 4eo1s1oa all4 7ou vlll aot ‘-• 1\ ialo Wu11 he •• VA4.e:, hore\a17 ot War be toMWbat foqot to be a la?r ol’ Jwlce u4 aeeaed le•• lo t111Ak bl• d.a? alao1\ la•riabl.7 •• ‘• auppon •• atll’••• 1 414. Mt Jlaft tu ….. l11tn•d•• a’tHnlt Ill-. 8’111M11. a. 414 •• …. u, .- tl’O’l.)le wb.ea,,. tl.aaU.7 ,,.., to llla. • ta14, •ve11, ,ova l• a nuoaable ,.11uoa, ea4 I •11 t)d.M a’bat 1 ,, • u4 w ?• wr•o•t pr.-tcl ,..,. •”• !be .ltto1MT Oeaeal look U.. ,o•1’1oa tuAaaea’-11 7 \ht.I Ael lhtr tbe S.oreta17 ot War II01′ \1- Uadel’ leo1’9’617 of fu. w.• ·•hl•t law officer of tbt U.1114 State•& Iba\ lhe AUorae,- G4taeJal w.a; 1 l waa tor ld.a ‘9 deolu wblca oaee• uou14 ‘be lat ‘1ate4 b \he …, •• ti. AUoru7 Geaenl. u4 l .. , oTel’ the vale 11\’aattoa wilh Mr. ltt.aeoa. ffl•r ,_, \he JtffllU’e OD Iha At\one7 hunl NlanA. aad. w oetll’1au4 ‘° 4efen4 aa bee\ we oov.ld the ?17 nil• ‘bu, an-H’ 1al’1a\e4 a – 183 – 10. lrJ.41•• “‘· nna, • 11. •· 135 <au> flte l\rn ldAot •••• 111 oae of 11• taportaa, • ., .. ,,, O&U \o ? otfioe ot the ?lioltor Geaen.l at the oo,ob•r 1944 tera. Bridget peU … Uon..-4 the 9-prue Court to reYlev, on vrlt of cel’Uon.n, a d.eolaioa of \.be .01NJQ1\ Co1lrl of Aweal• to? the lflath 011’0\ll\ vhlcb -4 ••tas.ae4 .a 4eo1.,.oa of tu Usina, covt la Califon.la 4ea,tac a writ of :ba\•• oott-, pu. 11’14.c•• bu eot&Ch’ thl • na.S,, to pnnat 111• 4tp0ria\1on ae u all• t•a4 1q the .l\\ol’UJ’ hul’al .. after appltall.e aulaf.alatlT• J»ftMUHa aa4 hearl..l\p, to••• beea • Oouulet or afflUaW vl\1′ Coauat••• n’b1► quat lo hit -.,17 late the ‘fhdtecl Stat.a. ·fbe a41111lie,rat1T• phaMe ot • \he ••• ver• q,111 te .iaboate. Jue• lear•• a toaer •ta•• J,:&4,- ta lew Tork, bad. coaduote4 the ‘ba.114 adata11tftU ft hearlq u4 ha4 d.eot.4el &4- ftn-17 to lridae•• 1-,. lear•’ 4ffit1oa 1114 lt•n l’fflewe4 \:, lhe -haft • of 1–.,.uoa App-1•, v>d.ell 4eol4e4 la tawtt ot •• lriq… •• _.,,..,..,. Geaenl, bowTer, -4• \be ft.Ml tleoia1oa, ta n’i•taue n•Wataa -‘wlc• hal’I, tolle.w4 ‘bJ Ille oovt pnoe.U.ace. Ille Dt.1\l’lot Mil 01na1, O.vt, to–4 » l:tall• fer llol4ia,. oa Ilda 0011&\eral atlMk, ••• \he 4eoletea of the A,tome7 General allo\ll.d •• ••• atltle. !be hpr … Oo’Ut. bovwer, rnene&, 1a ettee\ lllftlld.atlag tbe 4e­ po:r,?tloa on.er.. !be Ne.Na clffA, aa I noall vltlaet1.\ aow nna41J1C .\he· 4eolaloA, naure4 •• ala• o• tea J’•r• aao, •• ••• •• prooee• of law ba4. •’ lt•• aooo?d.tA la the autatetaUn J»l’OO•llllap )eoauN of “1taJu,- – 184 – • tn W1rt upoa cena!A mdenoe ot a MAl’•T t7Pe vjllch the Ooun 4″21M too u.oil”\aia a bast• tor 4-,orl&Uon. ,_·,, ? ,,..n,, u4 th• 41Yl•lon ot th• Oo-an, “1nutel pr1urt17 •• tM li/ ‘. – . prt??lple a4wcatect b7 the aonruc\ 1ntt toUDI not appU.oable . the· •• ,:rJ\ Co•?• that the ttad.lnc of \he AUorn•1 General vaa support.a b7 n’ba\aatlal m- 4-.ce al4 therefore vat oonalutl•• on the courl ca a collatem a\taok •. !be -.ai,7 ‘bat1a on vhloh the 4tt(;rae7 General•• 4eo19lon e.oulcl l>e a♦t aalde •• tor IM Co1t.J’\ ‘to coaoluAe \bat tu ffid.eaoe •• ” tl1aq 11 ••” nal? ?4•••• •• \bat .. riou pl’Ooedural •rftr -bad oonrred. ri.,J.?, nl•lanoe •• val the Oo•n Wd.. wt th a w17 atroac dleMnt vnlt• \7 OW•t luttic• Stoae. !MN W beea a pJ’fflo•• ctectsion of I••• •• .lian41• as Ji.&eanac uu- 1ur vbloh the »oaJ4 et latpaUoa Appeal■ ap,anmUt took a• the c11.U.e. • fh.r appar-.117 coaolude4 u., \be procee41nc before Juge Sean ht4 not pro4,uce4 e’fld.eue of UJ areater aomeat although tu henUYe ‘breach ba4 • lhnVII\ ••’• •• 1 t “”• \he t.aa411 procee41ap am lal Uate4 \hie uv oae. ·1a aasvenac a aeat•Uoa of cou.eel to• :tn4p1 ta reternaa le ,i. ff14eue •• aot eri.4••• I •– •fba, •• 1,t i, •• aot a c)llDtt. • ht tlw llaJon \7 of \be Oe•rt held. 1 \ vat aot eaowp. 1111:l’lac the ?, lull•• il&ok lhow:l Ill• ,NAIi of ‘ho11&ht. Re weDl•Nt\ vl’Mtther the ………. , 1hould lake a poa1,1o11, where \he U.ben7 of an la41nctu.l vat il&YOl.,.., that tu 1aae l”Dle 1hotlld applJ ••• tor eS1111pl•• l• a Labor Boan -… wh••• \lie co\).1″\t wn n(ld.n4 \o lea.Te utia’1:t.J’\erl th4a fl.Mlap of tao, ot l!Mt ‘.Board tf npporled. ‘bJ .,,-.nu.al m4enoe. U •• a ,;oo4 .-•Uoa. 71,,a I.he ,.-r ot tbl oplaloa \be Co•rt felt a 4itfennt 191>:l”Oaoh ahnlcl – 185 – • ‘be Md• ,o the gv.e■tion of eYlclenc,e vun it waa a •tier of daporUnc • • • penoa. Mr .. i.e. Pr••aa up.ed the oa•• tor Jlt4P1. lliH Carol ltnc aa4 ·w … lllohard flateWa appear oA the bttiet. 1 Ud.ak Ir. tllada\eln alto ……. e’8l17• then wre brief• tll-1 ulou outa• \y. the 4Nrloaa Oh·U Llb•? ue, U.loA, the Aurloaa Oo•i”-• tor the Pro,ea\ion ot the Jloretp lora and ••J:t.• Aauiean LegloA. Mr. PreatMA•t arpaent •• a ••roac oae. a.t•rrlac to ti. qllalnl• of tu nport of the oa•• to ntnah -, reoolleoUoa, 11 na,•• the oov.rt hel.4 that ,apoa the reoord lbt flaUq ot afftliaUoa •• kHI on too loo•• a IMIUlq of the ten. Al• tllen •• the q,u.eaUoa, vhloh ••• back now \bat l ••• tbe qlla’b••• whetbu the a4- atata,ra\1Te hMna« •• ·aoatuotecl aoool41ac •• tu l’lll•• vbioh ha4 ••• 1&14 d.ow b7 tbe J>1″0J•I’ nthort.’1•• adal11l■’erinc U1• lff. lllponut la oou.oUoa with the au1,11oa of oenala e’ricleu•. the Oe’Ut hel4 11 va• •?r lo ab1 I acat••’ »nde•• oe:rlatn uawera •’–•–••• la Tlolatloa ot the rules. Jiully, it •• U.10ughl the ••• •• aol J)roperl7 pl’O$ where m4enoe vu upl’Of•17 reo•l•ed. uA vhen 1′ •• apeftlatl-n vlMttMr Ille fl.Jl41nc wo.U -•• , … Mh bu\ tor•• a4al1•1on ot enuaoe ta nolaUoa of \he aonralltc nl••· lt l• aot a oomaol.ag eplaloa. el\ltiovgh I ••’ -, a, \lie …. U• that. ,u pl’OOf ap1at\ Jn4c•• •• aot conTlncing el \hel”. ‘Ille ••• a,alaa\ Int.gee on aaber1b1p la or atttltaUoa with u orgaal•tloa Uat w1.-,.a la the oTerihl’ov of tu CDYel’DMn\ ‘b7 tone or noleAce •• ut ••ronci bv.\ IM appntaal of the e’ricleace wa• a •tter wbteh I thought \he law left \o \he At,ont.., Cleaenl. Ila reeoluUoa of \he taotual 11ne 1 IIMra.ght tllov.ld not be d1e\ur\e4 l,7 \be Court uad.er the uiattng 1tatuto17 aohelle. that – 186 – • va• the baaia on which Ohiet JuaUoe Sto11e. Yi.th ial:terta an4 hankturter, cllattn,.a. !be Chief JuaUoe eq1, •The Attonie7 O.neral has ht.1 tancuo,.• • • and. ”-• •1&J”•• theln 111 au.ch oa•••• Our• la a ••-rr ltattecl one. In •M• •••• ov teoltion 11Ul”ll• oa tbe appllce.Uon of the loq 11ttle4 nle that .· in r•nevtnc \he fact ftnd1ag• of adala1strative offlcere or aceac:I.••• ocurt• •r• wt thou\ au,hori t7 to aet aalde \heir filld.lnca lf the7 an ap• por\ecl ‘bf ••ldence.• • • • • • • • . At ,u INll’lier p•r1o4 wh8II tu prooeecU.ac• acalnd Bridge• )wl. ‘beea lait?•• )Mt •• an upopul.ar labor leaclel’ oa tbe Wee\ Co••’• When. the ••• Naohe4 the Sapreae Oou.n 7ear1 later he and hi• ulon were •ld.nc a fl•• recod of ooopen.Uoa la ahlpplag 01. the Veal Coaet durla« the Var. And a• 1n 19blti4,ems the aJ’gaeat ta the hprue Court waa al••’ 111 the m1d4le of tu clefen.ae l>7 \be SoT1et of S’8.lingrad. vbloh the whole coutl’1′ wa• applaudiag. ln the Jl4a ud letMDID caae,. bowe’Nr, I could not ’87 \her•. wae aa al11etphere a4ftrae \o 11rut co••l’DII•’• fhe atNDCth ot •r•• •en.I &gaiul ,u &OT81’UR\ la tho ..•••• -· tba\ vhU• tben 1• CN&I poV4tr la ,i. 11111 ta17 iJl tlae of •r 1 ,, ueroise la •••• oaMa we too clrasUo, ta toro1•17 •Tine …. being■ wt Uda Ille ooatilletal trnl tel State• vb.en the 1nter1o1′ wa• aol a lta.1\le,:roucl. Jwtge, are bllll&a ‘beiac•• ln oloee oa••• tnTolTing the libert7 ot lndi•id\2&11 lapond.erable•• hoveTer n.bcoll1oioual7, are lntlueaoea wld.oh affect! the Jude•’• ‘t’iev ot the law whea the law 1 • u\ clear and ap11c1 , • • • – 187 – u. 1.tax1 T. v,sb,,d ,, .. ,.,. 32s u. s. 91 (1941) 11•• •· 11\IM 111,111. cteo14ect Mil7 ‘1, 1948, ,,., a pn•eoution. v th.a ‘, . . . . . tJ’ntt;il ••••• povla« ov.l ot ,1w ldl11AC ‘b7 a d.eput7 •hel’ltt la Georgl.a of a Bepo vboa he had arreete4 an4 vat ‘-king to Jall. He beat Ida \o death. fbe.· orlh •• nbJect to proeeou.’1011 u.der 111at4′ law1 but the United $\a\aa . . imiot.i the depu\7 sheriff ua4er the civil 1’1ght1 1u.tu.te on the theolf that the ao\ioa of the •’-‘•officer•• a\\ributable ,o ,ta.te author1’7 u4 ooaaU tu\ed a Tt,olatloa of the ladl•idu.al • • d.&ht• pnteote4 b7 the l’our\eath -‘ae.lAM.nt to the Coa■U ’11.\loa. the eoari.ottoa ha.cl ‘bee11 atttnaeil. b7 the Otrnt\ Oou.n of .t.ppeal.1 tor the ntth Oll’O’ll1t. ln. the hi,J’•e Court the oaae tva.ed on the ooaaUtuUon.allt,- of the 1tatute. lt coaetn..S. to pentt tlllOh a pronnUon. for TlolaUon of .the 4u proc••• clauee of the Jouneeatl:l .Dd.•nt. !M.1 •• a terlou qu••Uoa l>eoau•• of the npen••• 1A l11put1nc onm.nal re11pOadbilU7 uder the oinl righ\t ,tan.\• to a Tiolatloa of du proc••• of law, w1 \llo-.t other ttpeoi• . floaUo• of •• on• obarpcl. !be Sapreae Cov, suatatae4 the ftl141l,- of \!Mt ,-.,v.,e lra.\ re•erH4 “11• parUO\ll.ar ocurnc\loa oa ,he en.. that in appl,1.n« \he a\alu\e 1 t •• ••••nUal for the trial oetu’t to laell”H\ \he Ju17 aore pnelael.J’ than ha4 beea io:u oa the qu1Uon of latent and wUNa•••• el•• there woul4 be uooaetlhUonal -nau.e••••· !here vaa al-, \be que1t1on vhe,her the ao,1011 of the deputy *•riff onld be at,rtlm.tect to tbe •’-‘• vi thl11 the meaAt.nc of the 1ouneell\h ‘Nlld••••• fhe t\att coaddered the ou,oo• fa•orable to \be ,…,.ft’UNU, ‘because of the bado pnn.oiple• vbloh ,11e oa•• e■\abli abet. I \h.1.nk \he oan waa ban4lecl b7 the Orild.nal J>iytdoa U4 the CiTil • Bight a SeoUon. I cto no\ re…,,er aoouatel.7. but I noUoe aow, in lookta« • • • – 188 – a\ \be ‘bl’l•t vhioh waa tiled 1n the hpr•• Cout, \hat it vaa •1-e4 ao\ oAlt: )7 •• Solicd.\or G•••nl h.\ b7 AHlatu, A,1orae7 tln•nl !’u o. ,?. vho ,–• \h•• 1zt. oharc• of the Cl’ildnal l>S:ri•toa. ‘b7 Kr. l:rtahl. 1n ,,,.i •t?t• lolt• aia4 )f Victor••••• vbo •• la lhe 01T11 ltp\• Seotloa. It •• a dit’U:c,u, ••• to arp.e and not.a. • 1rea-t d..al ot il•ouado1- betwea \be Cou?, am4 a,Mlt. Ooul4 a oJ’lsainal 1tatiate be phraaed 10 broadly at to Mk• a, m•• or a •1olat1oa ot 4•• proc••• wt tholll 1″1.rther ol” aore upl1oi\ 4ef1Jd,Uoa1′ Bow voulA a penoa kaov •IIM. he •• ooaitUac a ori••’ u .. ,. ?· ‘ . . . •• tu 4.,i7 1hel’itt•• allepd orlalmal ooad.so, eta\e aoUoa vlUd.a ta . . –.at.q of tlut 1ovt.u.tll l-.dm.aU Bow oo’Glc\ 1, ‘be aald Iba\ aoUoa of aa eapl.o1e• of tu ••••• el’ ot a n’bcllTS. •loa of a •ta’•• waloh •• 111-,.1 ••r •”-‘• law. allo111.cl be a,,r11naw ,o tb.e 1tate 1,aelf’t Mr. Ju1Uoe -? tel” •• panicularl7 oonoeraed. a’bout thl •• Be ca.u.rt.ed whether an lll–1 act of a •’•”• offlnr. uale11 1n 10ae ft1′ dopte4 .. ,. the 1t&te, could ‘be altl’lbuttd. to the •’-‘•• Oae anewer aa.cle d.urinc al”put •• a reference to th• ol.4 oaae ot II MUI IltGAII la 100 U. S., where the 1&11e ,tatuq• or t.•• pndMuae:r. •• ‘1>,Ml.4 ta 1,, applloaUoa to Ua• ooad.uo\ of a J1Ml&• el a 1tat• cous-\ 1a tepl’lrtq aa lD4ln4ual ot J’lch\t eoucht \o be pro\eotel Q’ o?..-•·· UDlle:t ,_ ,. …… ,h Allendaell\. fh4I Oovt’• op1n1ea aa1verecl \be ooa■tltutlonal. q,U■,ton• faYOrablJ’ to the pftJ’DMA\ in u. oplldoa b7 Judi? Doqla•. JuaUoe laiUe4c• 111 a uparate opln.1oa ooaoune4 la \he renlt. luattoe hrpbl’ c11••.ate4 – be wo1114 ba•• afttnecl eatlNl.7 – au JuaUo•• Boben■• l’ruktllrler P4 lackaoa dl1sen\ed beca••• \lu.7 would. no\ ••• tent the oaae ‘back for a retrial. ‘bu\ W1ll.4 bave :bel4 tu tta\ute ‘IDlOOaaU\utloul in it• applicaUoa t.o \he taot., ot \bi• case. ?ntall7 I t.hlnlc ,he 4h·1•1oa wtt.lda the Ooun va• – 189 • 4ue lo 41:ff•Na\ new• at \o the dl’f’ldln« l1ae between what •hould ‘be left to the •ta\e1 a.ad wha\ tho\’lld be pend.Itel to ,he tecleral go•enaeat. • • the r99or\ of \htt •••• 326 u. s. 91, ahon that lt wat arcut te, .. ,1i1 peUtloner b7 Xf’ •. la11e1 “• 1.-p, but 4o•• ao\ ia4S.oate that ha vat a pullo ettjoill.l., ao he probably •• pl’iftte ooun••l. !he report aleo above tlat • \ri♦t •• filed on ‘bebalt of the Be.tlonal Aeeoo1at1oa for the Adflllleeaeat of Ool•NCl People at aaina cnu-1••• elpe4 bt Mettr1. W11U.ali I. ••Ue, !b.ugoo«• la?dall, ud I.eon Bauoae. •• ao lnet ai,pean to haft \••• film ‘by \he Amenou ftTll LtlJerU•• Union aozo to a, t.colleo\loa •• there . .,. oti.t p•n1otpatloa la •a• ca•• at tlla 1up, … Oovt 1 … 1 • . . Wa• the o.n •n la\ez,eate4 lu vbat the loltc1 to -r Goel”&l. W to -, ,.;..Wl4G for lll”, Sonnt 1 4ov.lt tt. Alie• ell, hrev1 •• the lalt..t4• -1 laY01Yt4. 0el”61al7 lhe Cov.r’ vat intenate4 in hlt rlchl• aa aclYUot4 ‘br bl• couael. In Tl.- of what tbe Co’o-1’1 bad already .held 1a. the <lkHlA oaae, l cll4 _, ••• llow l t .001114 4rav an UllCOAIU taUoul 11•• ta &mt- ? thit araueat l vat aaked if theH •• an, 1tatule of a otl,Jd;aal aat-ue ln. vht.o ,aa. itaaa.14: of orWuJ.Ur •• “Taga.e. I nfern4 \o \be Sheru.a Ao,. vldoJ:a a,pu.,, or1a1ul auoUoaa lo one vbo natn.Saa tnAe. l aiwue4 \hal lhen au\ l>• viUN oeaAuot. lere •• eoaduot vhlok . p.Ye oon.teal to the ,tan•• and wa• of a oharaoler ta. :perpetalor lmev •• lllepl. ie vata •t ‘belng lnppad. ‘bJ’ a ftP& e\atuie lak N-,Ollt1’bU1 ,1 tor .oaelhlnc u at.pt ao, lmov tes lllecal. le lllght no, ha.,. kl\ova wld.oh panicular at&h.le• he•• YiolaUnc bat he•• aotlag lalowincJ.7 aJM1 wilt-ally in• adalul •uer . • • – 190 – Aa9Ulllllg t? eT1denoe showed ti.t hrewe beat th? poor •n o1’er the heat -.,Uh a ol,a.\ \U\til be -.u.a. hta – tba, •• ao, iJUaOoea, or aoa• oritll? o?••’ vhloll. a na,u,e alp\ grab hol4 of in 11n utair •–?.:: 1, 414 not ••• to • to ltak• a dlffenaoe ta a oon•tltl>.Uoaal ••••• that. ,.. ru, waa •H.n, lonn1 he dH not know he waa Tlolating a panJ-.lar fede•l 1tante. fho’t\Ch l fell perffaal.11 wt.th lu.1Uce Mttrph7. that thttn ahou.l.ct he.ff ‘-• COIi.Pl••• aft1ne.su•• l •? 10t qaanel. 1>anlfuarl7 with ti. MYet”Ml of \lilt ooarioUo.a oa \}Ma na:rl’OW Cl’D’IID4 ef laahq111•• 1.1,eln.otloa• to- the !bi• •• tu ttn, eo-oalled. l)Onal-to-ponal oaae to r•cb \he hpnae Cov,. It a101e Utter the J’alr Labor Staad.a:dt Act, at the priftte 1uU of -,l•Je•• n,reeeate4 )7 looal ulo••• te nOeYv ooapenuUoa tor tlae ••?• \,J’ lliaen la laftllac Ulld.el’gl’OUll to all4 tna the f•oe of Iii•••• vhtl’• \he7 ao\ullJ’ lllae4 eoal. Vaa W• •wa• tor whloh ‘- -,lo7er •••• ,.., or •• 1, ,a,..uac oa tlMt -,l.oFM•’ ova Uaet f.be Ualtect Sta’-• ba4 lateneneA la the Dlatliot Govt ln nppol’I of the ,o•lllon of tn….,. pl.o1••·· ? Ditlrlo\ Cou:r, 4eo14ed the ••• \o the -,101•••• ad”fU.tap. Vl\h 1t0ae ao41tioa.Uon Mt here b1poru.a\ \hi• cleotat.on waa atttn.4 ,, the Otr­ oul t Oourt of Appeal.a. the Stipre• Oo\lri craated oenlorarl ‘bNn•• ot the lapor\a.nce of \he .-•Uoa. The ar…-, there•• dhi.de4 ‘bet¥Ma ….,,. … HntaUYea of the uplo7eea ancl 117ulf repreeenttq the tJnlted Su.tea h- • ca.use of the latenenUon of the Wac• and Bour Dt:ri1ion of the hpam•t – 191 – • of Labor. Mr. On.mp-ton lh.rrie ot •tningball presented the al’gUlent tor tbe ea.plo7eee. (Be it reJ.ated to an old IDlle, Georcta, taally, trt.eai1• or the lflh1’1.) ? Oovt atttnad in an opialoa \7 Kr. Ju1Uctt lfu.rpq. fh.re ven aepan.te ooAt1lrrlGC oplntoa, ‘b7 Mr. J’u\toe 1raalcfurier an4 Mr. Ju1’1•• Jaokqa, w111b Mr. Judice ltoberte writing u oplaloa fol” nYenal ln which Ohl•f Juat1ce Stone Joined.. !he caae \11\1 area.eel oa behalf ot the peU Uoalnc oOJl)Ule• by Mr. ••• L •. liller, torae1′ Go•enor ot Bev Tork. GoverDOi- Klllel’ •• the a . un well alo-« la 7•n but ot flae plv’alqu aal of vtgo.rou• ..,,a1 oap&oU7. Be er..-,ied tb.a f\111 >aour allowed hla, vtlh hi• bl’let and othe• Iona•’• ta tront ot hi.a oa th• leelern., but I U411k he ne’fH’ referred to aq of the•• pap•r• or ‘° Mt•• 4utnc bl• coce•’ o4 strong .arPM•’• l ,b:lu ti» case waa All ai-guable one a1 a matt•r of etatutory oonetnu,- • ,t.oa, but· X alao tblnlc the Act conta1ne4 adequate 1tan4ar4• to cpport ov eo11tent1oa1. -.en tho’IICh thle pantcul.ar problem had n.ot ,NA fore••• b7 •• Oonsre••• it •• •• vell to leave to \he courts, 1n the flret laetance at l••’• the p1tton whether or aot \hla •• OOl’l!)ea1able work wlthla \be 4ef’1ni Hone .. tu alahte 414 ooatata. • W.e 1, talr tor llMht,tr, to ‘b• Nqain4 lo ••’ thl• ft.aaaolal , … , when Coagreee ha4 ao\ ffM ft\ to V1’l\e a panlaralar oo’ferlna 4etWUoa tato the 1tatu\et fhi• 1• u\ •••7 to aatwer. In light of tu ,.,.. ot the au.tute, howne:r1 l wo,ald ao, M’f 1.n.dw.1177 , … n111 ba4 a right to oomplaln ot \Ulfa1n•••• for liuluat17 C&H•all.7 va.e not affeotecl 1>7 the 4•ottion. The deol■loa affec\ed.. a1Jlin, e■pMlal17, although -pahap1 aot uolue1Tely. Aenaiag tat th• cat• aftNte4 a 11p1t1caat par\ of 1n4ud’7 t think the qu••tloa •• 1n a coatroTe.rt1al area of dii,pute to ‘be fa1J”ly N- 192 – • aol-ve4 ‘b7 1111-ga·Uon. lt would aot have been fair to atnlng 4t11Plo1••• lf the .•tatlit• .ba4 he 0o111tn.ed to ue1m, lhl• ‘1ae in the wrk week •. l••Uo•• aa4 lwlpe, vhea the7 feel •’roJld.7 about a p1’1aolple1 ,….,… U•• 1upport \hell’ Tlew■ \7 1ta\eMJlt1 wllloh ••• to lq down pliaetpl•• hlo-4 … tbe. aeoe1tlU•• of the par,iOlllar •••· ‘l’her• alchl b• •o•tht.ng ltt Ju1tl•• Ma.q,h7’1 optaion along the•• lh••• Jut .,. a-pproaoh peraoaallr •·•·< a ?• aa4 1 \hlak c••rall7 •• an ad.vooa\e blu bee U.iat Ille ••• 4ec14•• 11- ••• u4 aothlDC aon. \laoqh wbat 11 eaicl bqoa4 thl1 llleht be ue4 later t.u arcuut to extend U1e 1cope ot the 4eoi1ioa. 1 ‘a not ••1’7 OOIIP•lent to eo•eat o• the quaUoa v1-thei- uteaaioa of the prlacipl• 4eo1414 la ? 1 oa■e led. lo 41 •ton1one of the a\a •••• I 4o thlu: \bl\ a11 \her the ,1,w1,1 11kt nor the l•an111u ••• wen noh 41•to,.- loa.•. Queatloaa’ble appU.oatlon.• ld.1ht 1ino• ••• beea cf,:wea b7 ooun,. • bat ta tu ld.ntac of ooal or ll”Oa I thlnlr: olearl7 the etatute •hould. ha.Ye ‘b•• co••••• to appl.7. •ciearl.71 MT \e too 1tnn, a wl’ll. 1 aeaa to -, that the •’-‘•’• thoul.4 ha:Ye been eoa•lru4 a, lt na. fat 1• a 41tferent que•tloa troa vi.11 Ooacn•• atpt 4o •• a matter of lecllla\t.oa • h.rther coan4eraU.oa •f the 1 aaua, bv.l •• lhe statute •• wrd.ed. lu Oovl 1a -, op1a1oa … the COl”J’N\ 4ffldoa. • 1a. .119. •. ,m, JU .,. • m. 31.s u. s. 447; 311 v. s. ..a, ‘lhete ‘1to oaeea, ••• 114 u4 056 of the Oo11o’be1’, 1941, ten, laYOl•• the •1141•7 ot a a\1tutial n•’ber of eo-oallect chaiA ‘bl’Oa4oaetlnc ,-…,i.aUon• pro1Mlc&te4 ‘b7 ‘1• J’ecleral CoanmloaUoa• Oo•iaetoa. !he7 were &r­ guecl OA be.bllt ot the latlonal Jna4oa•Unc Oeapany by Xr. Job ‘· Oahlll and. on ‘behalf ot the Oolubla Broad.oaaUng ‘7atea by Mr. Oharle1 I. Bqhe• • – 193 – • Jr. lnTolTN fuAd&mtmtallT vat the tooJ>• of di10Jiet1011 the Supl’&JIMt Court wulJ -1.lov \he 1ederal Oo–.loat1oae Oo•i••lon la 1&71nc down gnerel n1.,,.. .–.,uat1ou to ,a.to l114ut17, an4 1ta114&1’4• for tu Oo11111a1t-.ii’ s.,,.if to follow in gruttac lion•••• !he optnioa of the Ccrut, ‘1>1′ M’I’. ”””” 11’8,1t,lctvtei-. tnet• eaoh ot ti. detailed nplatlon• •epara\ely u4 rathel” 1’11117. Mr. Jus\ioe Mu.JopbT, Joued ‘b:, Mr. Jue\tce lobert,. 41•••••• oa till ll’OlUMl the Oollllleaion bad exoeeded Ua atatu.to?7 a11thorit7. fhougb X pre,at-4 the O&H tor- the Oo•l aaloa I a no, a\l• troa HIIOl’t \o 11.,• a ale&1′ expee1’1oa of’ the npla\iollt. ‘lbe:, lad l>•en JJIO• m1,aff4altel’ loac llea”‘-AC• au oea1lcleraltoa, an4 ,,.,.. 4e1t0,e4 to e1ta\ll1h tlaaclal’Cl• tei- tb Oolllde■ioa aDl la4set17 •• to lt.oen1tac for o.baln ‘bftdoa.1\t..a,. ‘lhe, 1&14 Uva J.Altl a;ua prino1plN ,. -••= .,rograu1-,. oo••rac- of \roa4ca,u.ng. illllq of prog:ru•• au oYerlappt.nc ot p:roa,ua• • am ataUOAI. • fbe attack I tho\lgh.t •• d.ooNd. to tail. !he broadcaaUq 0011p&11le1 a1nael a–…, ‘b’O.l’d.ea ln tqing to 1>•1’••4• the lapNU Oo\lrl to nlOt\,;.te 1,, JajpeAt tor lltat of \lie Oolll11aloa. Ot oov• \he Covt ehtt’lll.4 pnteo• the ln4u\O’ apaa, ar’ltlt,ar, or otllff 1llecal ael1oa lilt luJn •• aa ln ….. \elllc•t u4 re&tona\l• •ffo1’1 •• the pan ot the Oolllll•uoa, after .,.,. tul.1 ·u.4 ela’bo•t• heart.age. lo ••• a 1>11.lJllo probl•. ., ewa effort, •• l noall the onl al’gUlleat. w.a \o ••• to oouince \he Ooun, oa ooaw14eraUon ot •ch prlaotpal ncalaUoa, ,hat U •• natonabl•. . fM Jin, .a…4- ., .-..••ton – -,hau •• onll.7 \7 Mr. OahlU .,,.. \llu bJ Mr. &ac•• – d.14 not ellolt n.oh lat•””‘ oa H• pan of the Govt. !he ••• •• no\ aa ••7 ou fol’ ae in pnpaaUon for arpaent. ‘!ht• – 194 – • •• 4u• \o -, peraonal probles la uden\ud1n.g the nc,uatloa• in thl!lr applioa-Uoae to an 1D4utrt of vhlch 1 be.4 ,…, little Jcuwleclc-•• fa1r •. pP&’ble prateata.t1oa. l aner bu.rd Ill• father a.ipe lnt.t 1 haff h•? ••o?•• about the ‘GDUUll7 tontful ob&raoter of bf.• a4Tooao7. Be wa.1 a gne,t pres141ng Chief J111Uce, a U:rtnc per•oalf1oattoa of the offlo«, 4\IJtlac tfferal of the 1NN of V appearances befON the Govt. f:be Ai.utaM 9el&ltPI ••• •• rwnable noau•e ot the MIU. of tM Al:mdama ao.,.., of Aaerioa, •• vel.l •• tor other reaaoaa. S..enl ,…… vve. ooa….. la \he trial la tu Dla\s-1,ot 0.1’1 for the So11\1Mtm JJiatm• et … ‘fork. In the ead \he cl.lltrict Jude• deli Tere4 a leOCUJF opinion, • priao1l)aU7 oral• bolcllq \Mt the Ooftmae? lad. tail-4 \o proTe that t!Mt Ooa,U1 had Tlolahd the Slutr1111a .lot •. le aooordlncl.F 41uleeed the auU. Ud•r the applloa’ble •’-‘•’• ture •• a 41reot appeal ava1la\le lo the SupNH Cou-t. la Tlev, >aoveft1’• of tta. lone bl•tor, of the Gaff la 11- l>epanao\ of l••lloe. who tu app-1 N&oW th•••• Cnrt theNt . ao tt•nua ot th• Oou.n aftilaltle clu \e c111q11&1.lfioatioa•. CJ.def J’u\lo• •’-••- 411.-ittiecl l UD4en'”4 b.o&ue •• AUoru,-0..f’al he …… lalUa, ect \htt oriclll&l iue1Ugatioa. I b•U••• l••U•• llup)v and •et all4 la?”° or Clark -• 1’• ao\ Mv nre whloh – fell 411C(IIA1llled. beoauae ot . .oae parUolpaUon 1a ,tie caN la the J)epanaea\ et h1Uoe. !he •\ter •• takea up w1,h the Jud.1oia’7 oolllitt••• ot Oonare••• · MT ovn opinioa, •• la lhe ladh tnr!OH -·· when a tiJd.lar dl•Uoa 81’0H on a wi-U of oer,1on.rl fn>a \he olroult oovt, w.1 that a quoi,m of fl•• – 195 – • •boulA be peal ltecl 1>7 •••’• to d.1epoae ot a ca••• A parliunta17 quol”ml bf a oovt of aia• la f1Ye, b,at the q1lol”l1Dl of ou.r &apn .. Oout had b … ,,?•• au b7 aa 014 atabt•• cmacle4 I belltte whta lti. Oo1t–‘ ooa• st••·-‘ of \• aeabert. VMa the •••r•blp 4roppe4 . te atae \he ,tab• to17 qunua •• not chuc•• U 1• a fair 1llf•reaoe lllat ortgtnall7 u biato.l’laal. aootclen.\ left \ha qu,oru at a hicur auaber tbaa t1•e. • Db to the still pnftlllq alaotphel’e of OoQSresa oNated b7 the Cout fiaht tbere •• relutaaoe to llake a legitlatlft ohup atteotin, the …… Oouri. la lhe •ad Oucn•• … ,. a ., •• ,. will.eh proT14e4 la c-..ai , … ,_, YMN a tl’9.aUoa of U4• ld-4 aroff Qe ••• tho,al.4 l>• oerl1t1.S. ta a oou.rl OOllpOucl ot lbe three HAiol’ o1″9.11 Ju«•• ot the olroUS.I wllh\a vldoh the clielrlot eo’U’\ that 4eol4.« tm ••• •• looahd. !he 4eol1loa of 1h11 ep•oiall? ooaatlftted oourt wul.4 ‘b• ttl!lal• without re• • aort to the hpn• Coun. the .. WPDI ••• aooor4incl7 •• hear.t b7 th• three seioi- Jud&•• ot the Second OS.mu. Ju.get lt•:rae4 Ba.a4, Aucv,alu• Ba.a4. aJl4 hu. Aiton.•7 Geaenl 11441• atlkecl .. ,o •••l•I in ,he oal …… • flMt reoo’4 wa• a ••11•• …. I leaned ,., Lawea.oe Alpq, la ..,… ,t •• •••la.the•• tom offtoe of \Ile Aatlt.111.al DiYlaloa. ·kuw ,be ·•• ,Jton111hl7. h., ill auonaaoe vilh lhe wlthae of ,ne .Ulo.7 ha•ral 1 41•n••ec1 \he •lier v1 th hi.a aad Mr. Ber«•• Aaaia\ant -”?n.,­ Genefal la ••re• of the .b.Utn,, Dtnttoa. lt •• 4Hl4e4 1 1boulcl ucu the ,ao……ilet oil• lmn4n4 pea•oo, aonopol7 pot.at, vbloh •• falrlr -.oepU\ le ot • .,.,.,. ,reaaea,. !the Mill’\ allowed tw Ml u.1• for •h• aqua.••• l uael oal7 abou, ou laov a»A held olo1el.7 to ,11e pota, ina, l>eon•• of \he pecuU.ar taol – 196 – • ,hat the .Alulawa 0ompdJ” of .Aaertca oonett.”1\ed, prior to 1o•e”111eatal. ••’17’ tato \u au• tlel.4 an.a, ‘he •r. a lluMlred pen•• aoaopol7 ot ri.J’-? .i•aa ‘• oo.,..,. •• ta ‘ri.olailoa of ‘1M1 lhel’lld A.o\ as a ……. ,01;ta11. 4•• aald.e. Kr. •••1• ‘4th ,reat at1.11 u4 a fl•• 1ra1p of ,, ·;;,< . ,·’ . – . . ‘ “? . • • · – . . cl•-ll• ot Iba goTenaeat •• -··· Md• u O\lletandlq &l’g’Uell’ OIi other •• …: peot.1 ot \be ca,e. The caN •• well •rcaed• ‘°o• oa bellalf of \he coapaq, lhe iialn burden tallinc upon Mr. S.lth ot Pi ttalnlrgh. Xa aa opla1on vrllla lt7 lwtc• Learned Bud the Covl natalud ‘• · ao••–•”• poaittoa \hat Ille OOIIJ)Ul’ was ta nelaUoa of ,u Shena.a?•• tna, wlthhel.4 c1eo1tloa •• lo ,i.. lena of a tlnal teoJM beoauH of \IMt uMtt1’7 of ooa•14•1’lll \be 41apc,altioa to ‘be •4• bf’ tu ValW Statn of \he alaia• plaa\a coutn.otel a■ part of ‘l’le wr pnhottoa pnpaa. 148 “· 24 416 • l …. le now lwlce L•nel 8u4 per-.Mll.7 n17 pleaeu’11’ oTel’ the 1•r1. >o,h be aD4 Jwtge Aupatue ? were extnord.lnaril7 tine Jude••• n.a aJ’TIU\clac ter \he …,l’lal ••”1••• ot ,be lapnae Oo•rt bar ta boaor of Ju\toe Jran4e1•• l au:ecl 1-.l’Md lwt to Cl Te oae of the ftlocl••• a. 1•4:f,17′ aooeptecl aD4 of oow.ne 4el1Tel”tcl aa U1P11Ull7 fin paper. •• ••? leotton •• ••’ enUnlJ’-, •• ••••· l ooanl.W Mr. l•1Uoe ?•r, v.bo •• a .,..,., olo•• fri•• of \lie Jraa4.tt taml7, aDll perhapa othen, n.\ 16. 1.11.bo •• Vil \d hdtlt ? l1. s. &49 (1944) .. flli• •• Bo. 73 a, ,? Oo\ober, 19•3• ten, the tlret oa1e 1a which the J’eho’fall’• Vlueehl lltlpt94 vl\11 the Dalt• .. , •• 1A ,_ Sapnu O.vt • – 19’1 – • thoup. \hq bad bee ot11ea iaTolTecl \ber• WMl•r IIIW11o1pal or elate fttPl&Uon.t • • .. fhe ••• arou -4er tla.• S.leoUft fralatac u4 S.rnce Ao,. •r. w-.. • Jebeftll•• ¥11••••• ole.11114 ,-.,uoa •• a atat,ter froa ld.U•;?;• or o,Mr ••nice. le wa.1 ela11tfleit •• a ooaaolaUou o\Jeotor u4 •••NA to repol’, for ol.-’11, noa-llilitaq duti••• le refu1ed. to ,eporl au vat tn41oltt4 tor nolaUoa of the ,tatute. ta lhe reftl.Ung crllliul pro,.–. tlu he ,o,icbl to 4efu4 bl• failure lo :report oa \he arouA Iha\ hi• o1a .. t;ft0&ttoa •• lrn.114 1a i11a, be•• a aim••• an4 ao\ ••rel.7 a ooa-. •ot•tto-•• ol>Jeeto, ad •• •’1rel.7 • ..,,. !be 4l•tn.ot on.n la n’t•••• 1-14 tbl• 4et••• aot a…U.lle ta the ol’S.alll&l pnoeecllnga. the ,a;q te-4 Illa ptl ?. •• oout.oUoa ••• atfS.aect la ,u eil’Cftll t cnrt ot appeal 1, after wbioh •• kpnae QoQrl cru.W ••ntonrt. • th.re •• a •••••• aeotloA la the ».,ar\Mll\ of Juattoe wbtoJI Pft -,eo1al attu\loa to ooaaoteaHov.a ol>J••••r• la the etto•t to p•naa, •JuUfiable prot”‘1’1en• aJlll OJ)l)Ntah·• … n.n.. l thlDk ••h • .,.o1a1 anv, ,,., ‘back to tile ‘1• when. Barlaa J. Stone•• At\orae7 O..•al. le W. ,,.-a • peat tatana\ t.a ,u pnl>leaa of oouoi .. liou• •’-‘”‘-“• fae lapNH O.vl ‘1p-.14 the ooarioUo•• ftlbc \!al Mk W aot •? -••ltd hl• n..U•• ud.•• \he hlffllft S.mo• .&ot. i..n open •• the qaedlo.11, laTolft4 ta nlfaeq,uat 11 •taattoa ln tbe Saprta• 0oun, aa to the Nlle47 a’Mlla\le att•r reporttnc, aooeptaaoe, a.n4 1D4v.ots.oa. if oa• tUll olalM4 tllat bl• ol•••lfioattoa vaa llltPl,. See ,_.,,_ ….. lllJID w.1 lllpor\aa\ 1a •lataialnc the lat.pltJ’ of the hleoUY• ? -rlee 17atP. If \he deoltioa had ,ou tM other wy the door• voulcl haft • 198 – • ‘been:opea tor aa’bstlw.Uon ot the covte tor ,u S.leotlYe S.nice kal’d•• • l ••e4 ,ta, 0.q:re•• W a rl«h’ to lea•• ,11. flaal deoia1oa wt \b the •–•• ••bJ••• oal.7 to ooV\ 1n,•neaUoa to pro’-••’ oon1Ua\t.0Ml J:f.Ch’•• 84 ,., noh OOllttl w.ttoal ttcht• oou.14 l• prot.atecl \hrovch reao?, to …. MIDU ti OU • .,. naa11, tJlllute4, whloh had aot oocun4 la . 1alt,o•• •••· Jueuoe Murph, d1eMate4, and Ju.atloe Butled&• filed. a coaouri-tn, opla’ioa u o 14•1” p1’lartl7 ,o oo••• upoa oae part of the •Jori.t, eplm.oa? The oa•• waa •rcu« tor 1albo b7 Ir. Oo’fin,toa. u. aoooapU • .W aA’N••• wt \h ooutaer&U• upel’leaoe la lap nae eou-. 11 ttcaUoa oa behalf ot , …… !•• 11,……. !he OOVll’OOa -· tatMr 010.ted. vt.•)i ,.. .. ,.,1. · wbo• 1 ••–‘ lo be a4hereat• ot •• “1 tu••••• pleatMm\ aact ml tn1fti 70’W1C MA aad. woaea “ho oa111 to li1ha “1th at,eatlon am reepeo, • 1e. 1A1koa1r.r: ••m ltlnu !he la’1onal Wal’ Labo:r ?oal’d W lHto onated. to “* uJu,,ueat ot la°lo1′ 4ttpG\ea lated•l’bta vl th ti. vu etfol’t. Ot’eJ” a ••••1-l•al»le pulocl of U.• a ,ood. 4-.1 of tro•l• bad ooanel ‘•’•• \he wo•• a!Ml Noat­ &e•1’1 fan at t.l• lhloap and otuf’ plaa\a. !he ••ter oaae ltetore ,11e :Joan.. aat 11 -4• aa ••Ill to vld.oll ••tcollfl7 Wal’4 ?•1-“4 to aooeh., fhl• lN1J&ht about ao .. aet•l lat•ri,rptlon of ,he enorJ10u1 lfont&e•1’7 Ward operation•, a.i threat••• tar\llel’ 1a,ernptloa1, ooaat4e”4 b7 tu h•.•1-­ cleal am hit eeoaoalo 14-n. .. r, – laolu41Dc Jbl. ‘flasoa u4 I aleo thiu Mr. IJ’l’1l•• – to \hreatea Ille war effon. After II• Joai,t. 11&4• 11• 4.eotstoa ’11• coapa? le\ lt be kaowa that it wo1114 no\ ooap1J,. the Preet4e:a\ \1-r•upon, on \lle r•ooaa•Dd.atlo11 ot h1• a4naen, inol’Gdin, Mr. Wllllu J>.an•• – 199 – • Cbair.11a11 ot \he BoaJ’C\, tan.ad. aa. lnouU•• Or4el” direottnc the otfioert of the .. ..,..,. to \Ilk• po• .. ••1011 o t the plan••• vblch •• •••· .tppno1ati1JC. hev..?•e r, tb.e legal l1n.e1 taTOlYe4, ti. 17a1te4 Sta\e1 ■1..i.,……,-17 .ftb- . . . . . . • • ./.” -., . ‘””;_·- . :-.-:-·:-:· . .,., 1a\o;”1)• O&le whezl lt •• 11l the 411,rlo\ oout ta t11lae1•• ., Obioqo. ‘beto:re »11triot luge Philip L. s.111.,.a. fhl• wa• a nit tn1Uate4 ,,. ,he h.ited. S\ate• •••ld»c a. 4eclarato17 J,ldpent to the efteot \bat ti. otttcilile of lhe U..t.W Sla\te •ho lad. talto poeMetloa ot the Moatco••l7 Vaid plu\• “? lavtall7 la ,o••·••toa. I vo’ll14 MV Hltate the •• ., polal of .. \lle: oa•• to ‘be vhethe’I’ the Noa’eo .. 17 W.14 wholeaale and 41.atn’h.Uoa plute u4 tacl11 Uea oo’Gl.4 \e coaatne),•?flpfc• ta 8,nd.v.cU,ea• vi tld.a llte .. a1q of tlle War k’bor Dieput•• Aot. 1 ha4 had. ••rr 11 tile to do vt th th.- c,a,,e uUl aner tbe tu1 t •• ttleA. tba the AUen.e7 Geae:ral a91te4 •• to Co out w1 th M11. Jiich Cox. A•eittant Selioltol” Oeural, and pre .. at .\he arpaen\ tor the Untte4 Stat•e. ftd.e toUowed p”te1lt7 olo••lJ upoa ‘·• Alain• ••• to whloh I ha.Ye ref• ne4. X ..,..r felt OMtonable a\o1l\ ,:u u..-,q ot 117 prepataUoa. •w••••• I ,bi.at \he ••• •• ar…. …. .-,.i,- on ‘bebalf of tti. va1,ec1 8’at•• ‘bMav.•• la aa, enat •• Goa •• wll Jnpare4 &114 utNNl.T a1>1•. J•• s.J.lhaa, hewn:., •• oleu la Id• ri•w that the Pn■luat ha4 .xoeed.• bit poven. In -, opinion 1, wt a 010 .. ca•• \UMler \he ••’•’• .• ••71 a’bataaUal. lepl .S.otol’J’ tor ,ba Val te4 S\a.11•• …. la’-1′ wua tu OiNUit Oou\ “”•”• \be l>l.ttl’iot Oov\ u4 attaiae4 \he &eTenaeat. I 414 DO\ panlolpa’• ln \he 01″”1 I Covt arcueat. ? reoolleoUoa la \bat Mr. Cos Alon 1’aacllt4 1 t \Jaen • – 200 • • ,.Before the 01 roul t Cov\’ • 4•a1 don the United States nqueated. the • • hpNM Ooun la it• 41aonUoa to itrru a writ ot oenloa:r1 to l>,tac “1♦,? oateJ,etor. u vi\bout a11alU.ac the 4eolt1on ot the Olrouit Coun. !bl• ••.t·aetrooecbt.re tollovel la Ille 11Ul,1equnt am tuoa.a aqei Seiar.t- oa.-· 4uri»c the ad.aiai•\ration ot Pree1dent fJU.aU, wl»n the 8’lpN11@ Ooun took \he ••• after l,aq• Pt.a.•• 4eote1oa wa1 a-ppealed to our Otrao.it Ooul”t bu.\ baton ve had paHect upon l h ••rl u. In the h#ko•ttt Yod oa.se • hen,••”• \he Sapnu Ocnu-t refuted to ue•o1•• its powz, to tu:e ,u aa•• pl’tot” \e • C1N\11t Oourt 4eo1e1on. .,. noolleoUoa 11 that vhen the ••• again ….. to tu $Qpl’tllle Oourt po•••••1oa ba4 lteea al>aJldoud u4 the Onrl oont14•”4 the••• aoot. ·.- the 1N1ldet of JfoA’COMrJ W&Jt •• a au of .,.17 ■tl’OIII pe:raoulU7 and. coa1’10’1oa1, a!ld q\11\e oute,oaa lA hla Yievt about tlle whole •Her • The oaee vat a n.\httr notorlo•• oae fl’011 the pu.blio t\andpolnt. l • N111D4e4 of IM fin\ teln.re du ‘° labo?oet 4isptt\e1 b1terl”Up’111C or threatenlac pl’Oduc’1oa Y1 tal to the •i- effor\. 1, hiT01″4 .Ille 11fonll .uierioaa• &lnftf, plut ia Oaltforala •. ftd• •• vhea l. va• AoU.C Sollol wr Geuml. \efor• Pearl larbor, allil baton tm.ao•eat ot the le&llll&Uoa ooaatru4 la IPIIOMl7 lf&zd… I f.nv ‘• fh••I cl.tat\ .r tbe ,Jzecut.1•• Ord•I’ WMler \he au\bol’lty of vhlch the 11Jdte4 State• tooJc po•••••ioa of the Jlo71h Aael’1GIU plan.\. J.tt•r 1oae rnltloa• 1, w.a sip.a. ‘b7 ,. fNaiclent, encU111 the atrlke. ‘l’he nest. ln.ataaoe. 1 ‘beline. •• \ha\ of the 1e4eral Sldp’b1lll4illl Coapaq, 1n lfew J•r•fl7• a n.1,.S.41a17 ♦t tTl\1\eA S\at•• lte.i, when. t• ooalra•I viUi Ior,h aerloaa, the auceaeat va• A•Mil4 at fault. Pio4uo’1oa for l!le • ., •• inolTei. the 0o)l)aa, WOllld not aooede to the, reooauad.aUoa• ot govermaeal ottiolal, who ta- 001 – • clmt-1. •• l aow recall. thMS.er leore\aq of WaJ’ Jlob•rt a. Pattereon. n.a all id’t0-:na al tt•J’–■1oa faileA \he pla.a, •• •••1″4, • endlq the \la$\• > . – • • 11. Im••· JlA&ttA.lkl••· a21 v. s. 41• (1944> · !hie aid. Us co11paaloa •••• Moe. 374 end 3?1 of the October, 1943, \ena, 4ec14ecl Iha ooneil tu’1onaU.t1 o-f the laergency Price Ooatnl Ao\ of lHa •• .elect. tab• vat pro•””‘• or1111aall7 tor ••lU,ag abon · •1w -,pU-.., ble pno•• ti:ncl b7 tM Prio• AdalnlatraUoa. le eo,acht \o 4.teJMl ••:-: Ille croad that the pl’loe NPl,a.Uoa va• 1a’fllll4. lown•r• lie W fall• to follQW , … pl’OOMVH .,1aon1ed l»7 the .1a,.,. tor attaa:t.ac Ol’ AeldltC •oUflcaUoa ot the ffll’AlaU•a. ? ,he ca•• 1• nalaiacen\ of “‘112o. the Saprerae Oov\1 la aa opinion bJ Chi•f lv.e\loe Sto••• vi. th Kr. la.•tl” Bober,,, Mr. luaUce Blitled.ce, am Mi-. 1-aHce KurphJ’ 4laauUnc, ., hel.4 the ffllldl’T of lhe.atatv.te alld the aoUoa of the trlal cou” 1n refut1nc \o peni I tu acoa.ae4, la \lle crlainal prooeediq 1 teelr. to requtn the o«>U’I to cte,•ntla• \.he w.114lt7 of the Ylolate4 ff&’lllaU011 vbloll lie W ao• •’–• t.u tu uaul’ •••hon se4 ‘b7 ,u Pnoe Qoatftl Aot. be CQTermMAt tao.a. lb 1u•••1ble ‘bnakdow of ,he vtiol• prt.oe 1\1’\10- tun -1••• thle flew pl’ew.11•. Ooacn•• Ila& a,,…,,,. to ,1.,.. a…….,. la an Jlmergeaq Oout of .Appeal• to whiob retort ooulcl be hl.d fol’ relief by one in lakus’ poa1 tlon. kiri pereoa ac,n•'”4• thoul.4 hla prote,, \e fle111e4 lt7 the adllla1ttn.-..P• oo\114 eo to Iba\ oout 1Nldac u laJ,mcUoa apt .. , \he replatlon o:r pnce ..W1lle. ftm.e Ooacn•• to111h, uifond. ,7 in 4eo1•; 1loat and \be preTeattoa of vld.eapreed cU1n:pUoa of -price coatn,1 which voul.ct tollov U’ 41,ti”lol oovt, all oTer \he oout17 coul.4 -pa•• upon. ta .. 002 – • Yalt.dtt1 ot the prices fh:ed. 1’he IM\lf ca•• preHn\ed very difticsul\ que,tton• of 411• pl’Oo••• whioh I lhiak mah• ba1’• ‘beon decided ad.Yene17 \o the .$QTH’lu .. a\ •zoep, ,ha, \he oonlrols wen of ••r&eno7 oha.racater, ?••’.”:’ 111& ·1n good l’•?’ ,apo.a \he 11ar power,. l aa ao, u eooD.omt ,, but I b-1:ine thflff ‘lf(t\Ud have been ••l’l.oue ecoaoll1o upheaval due to the latlat1ou17 ett•ole of wr pro4uoUoa. W the 0o”f6l’U8rt not been na\alAed in this •••• l •• troul>le4 aboll\ \he ca .. , b,d tel, \he coatrola veH eaaeaUal a.1: a ve.r aea.n.r•• lut·’1cs• loltene’ d.le1e\ 1• p•l’tuadYe, and. so la J11alioe laUedge’•• ‘bu\ I \blu the llt\Jor1t7 uoietoa, \J’ a YOte ot 1ix to lbNe, ,… touad. 1D. lf.c!l\ ot lhe ‘”‘X’ powr• aa4 the ••11tne which mat ‘• ct.•ea the 4u.e proc••• Olau•• la the 0011,u\ of \he preae«itlon of a war. that l• not to 98.J’ that the OoadituUon. 01-n&es. but oon41Uoaa A• affect .,aeaUoa• • ot 4\1• p.-oc•••• !M Oo•effllNA\ ooa1hten\l7 “1 tb. c1,ae prooe1a can Uke •••• la defente of \h• naUoa whloh &l’e not othendse aT&ileble to 1,. • 1a. Qua fro4uot• ltfluM 0.G. •· m. -.,. 680 Oo\o\er ‘••• 1944 fhl• ••• origlaate4 in \be , … al fracle CoaiHioa and l 11•11.ne •• \he “8hlole tor ,he ftn\ S.,Hlle Coun 4eote1oa hold.ta« lafl.l.14 a tooalltd basing potn, e7atem ot prioe fixing. The 0011p1Ude• ba4 \vo plant• tor the …. taotun ot glu.ooH or oon •7″1’P• ut4 la –.faoturiag oa1U17. One vaa at Arco, Illlu11, w1 thin \he Ohtoaco aw1,ch1ac 41thio\, aa« Ure · other a\ le.aaa• Cl\71 11uour1. the Oour, ,.., w”PheetttM \1ro ae\her • 1W aalJ•en• tat re at del1Tere4 pri.Mt v)doh an ooa,u,.a .,n colDJ)&Jll’• troa Ohlaaco or l’anaat Cit7 at \be 1 to Chloaao i,ric••• plu.e \he fntcht rate fro• Ohioego tu »1&•• of 4•11••1’1• whe,her or ut the ao\’aal 4el1Ye17 • • • – 003 – is f’roa Oh1oogo or from lansae 01 ty. !’hue purchaseN ln ell p-1.acea o\har ,baa Chicago pq a Meller prtoe tban do the Chioago pUnbaHI’•• 11 !he queation. •a -w-hetber thia cout1 tuted dtecrbd.natton acataat the pvoha.ser who ‘bou.ch\ il\o prodaet vhioh bat boJ”U lees tranlJ)Or\at:lca co,t ,ban be -was required to pay. SeoUoa ll ot the Clayton Act preveata dieoriain!;;t1on in price ‘between dift’ereat pul”cho.aer,, and S.otio.n. 2 prov14e• tba-\ it shall “‘be wuavtul tor aq person •ucaced in oor.uaerff • • • ‘° dts- 01’111111.a\• ia price ‘between d.ifter•t puroha••• of aoamod.1t1ee 8 of Ulte c•• and 4-..U.ty whore the efteo\ va11ld be wbttal\tlal.17 \o l•••• oompe• UUon. !he ••• pNaeated. a lntensUnc quea’1oa of 1tatuto17 oondruo’1on · la the light of the lact•lati•e 111,…,,,. ot \he acta, – wlu,\har Ooncn•• 1».temlecl to ex•11pi a ‘baeiac point a7atu n’en if it a.mou.ated to pl”ioe 41•• orialMUoo.. ‘?hie was perhaps the J10at difficult question. It aee.. olear the taob ad• 01’.\ a case ot prl.ee dltorlll!MUon. ?hether a ‘baaiDC point qatea bas aivaatage■ vhioh off•et 1 h dlaad,u. tac•• ta a cau•·Uoa. 0A one 1td.e 1• the pnteoUon of 1ad:utl’7. la lintacnaa. •·«·, 1a.t\u4 ot a d.ianpUoA of 1\. On \he othe• hand. lf ’11e q••• 1• ao\ u.1.S. th• \aduo7 le to a.14 the 4nelopmeat of 1ll4••’1” ta part• ot \he oou\17 where the ooanalac pll)l.lo oan l>e ntaohetl vttll low lra.ru,porta\1011 001’8. •rom an eooaoaioa ttan4po1J&t, I 4o not aUeapt to pa•• Jwtcmeat, though a:, leaaina• are toval’d \he policy of OoJtCr•••• which hat been aota,, pl’lo• 4laonalnaUoa. Soae 7.al’a -ao ‘h• Coaattsioa -4• a oaretul 1tud7 of tbt “‘”l 1D4us,..,. and 1Hue4 a.a elaborate r,port, ooaa .. 1.ac Ua ba•i– pol.At •1•••• ‘fhe Couiaaioa olalmecl the 1Aduatry ltiled 11 ia,o &.’bendonleg farther legal • 804 – • ‘•••• b7 p l”Olll ••• of compllanoe wt th the Ooaa! ••1011 • • cli reoU ••• b1:tt, a• a •U•r of t•c’• •• later Ooaa1111one ….. to feel, \here waa ut oompl1aao• a.a aa\l-ple4. J:a a-,q neat that earlier wt’k of the Ooaa1••1oa ta \,be . . ,, • .i t.aduitr, 414 ao, bea:r t\tll fm, on• ,. or \he olheJ’. ThtJ eo.tt111oa ‘ . NtLtwecl the paenl 1uJeol 1n thi• Com troAP.01 oaee and touaht l\ all \h• . …, \hrouch wlth gn&t •lcor aD4 coaf14eoe. ht I oau.ot u.,,e .. •• -. 1 ta appl.loatlon to olher 1D4uelr1ea tlloU&’h t!Mn•• va.1 the •rller oa•• la the SapNM Oov, irf’Ol’l’inc the …. , 1114•••1’7• the •7••• taTol….. ta that ••• •• ao• oo•-•• kt •hi• 1 thlalt •• not ‘beoaua• the Oout thouaht it to be aoa-U.aorlll1aato17, bu\ beoa••• ‘h•n va• ao ur•••l>l• •tt•ot on …. …,.. Toe Qan EMUII oan •• 4tft10ll, to? •. •• •- other •oou•to -··· were, ,uoh •• the 1au,.1 lro.MMIHa• -··; but before l ar…a. 1 t • l think 1 \’1Dleratoo4 tt, vld.oh ,,., ••••Ual lt 1 va• to ‘be ot W:p to the • Court. Ona. a4equate11 prepared the oa,e vae not d.1ff1cult \o &J’IU•• Yet l •• th• reeiatuoe tn• Uie Oo1t1’1 d.ulng the fin\ p&l’t of’•.,..,, u\11 tu Oout ll.Dllentoo4 th• tao,,. ‘1’M Govt •• U&Jd.11011•• •ZHP’ ,., luatlce •-• .. ‘• 414 aot parUolple la t!le d.eoltioa. all4 Juat1n Jaokeon coan.rNll b. the Nlalt. • epparea\17 W •• reaenaUoa altout the*’ of th• optm.on. 19. OqlfN •• NltsJ Pkltl The•• wn two wire tapptnc ••••• Joe. 912 u4 980, at tile 1941 tea. Ia •• .. nn 1b.•J 1aY01Tt4 ’11• qaeaUoa tdl.ether ,he u.ee of a 4.etntapboae to nooJ’d a ooawenatlon la a pl1.T&te rooa. Ylth \lt.e nool’d.1ag uH4 •• ffi.4eace la a ol’lalaal pn1ecn:a.Uon, Tiolat., Iha 4etell4ut • • n.g)at U14er ,he 1ovth – 205 – • Aaendllent iSot to be n.bJected to an UN&aonable 1earoh or ••isve. !be ca••• ••• baYe oo• u,p ULrou,h ’11• On.alul DlT111on. !hey arote la ? Tora. Mr. Iola 1. Cahl.11 waa the tJatW 11&\M A.Uome1 vbo •lpe4 lhtt ta- 4.iatqn\. l 4o •’ lmov their h1elo17, — how thl• aeu, of cetUac •? • . . erld,?– origia,.a. the aooueed wen obarget.\ vt th a con1ptra01 to nolat• oeriala prontioa• of tbe lank1″Up\c7 Aot. !hq llad met ln a no• in Jew Tork and were l!Mtl’e u.14 · \o baT• ‘bee 4llouelag 11» utter. \tbe reoedlq of tut .. dlanaelon. •• olttai».e4 \7th• DI plactac a UlUe el.•otrtoal la•lftllRI • \be eu.tside of \u wll of the rooa; ,i., le, ta an &dJoialn« roo• wt \h • vall co.uon. \o ,u rooa in vhioh the ooa•enattoa oocuJ’fld. ti. clmoe pl–‘ up \he ooaTenalloa ,,. aeu• of the tout •n• ooaiQ’ \hrol1&h the wall • !he -oa•• •• al’S’Q84 tor the aocuHd la \u lw,pr•• 0o111’1 b7 Mr. Jen..; mi.ah llahoaq, a toner -.Joi’ of ••w Tol’k 01\7, and a ••t7 Tlgoroue and tapr••• 1•• a4TOoat•• Jrlet• ven alao ftle4 for peUUonert oa behalf et the •ttonal 1e4ea’1oa for Coasu1a,1ou1 J.1lutrtl• ama• a1&u1 aa4 •••el for petl Uoun nN Jolaecl ·\7 o,..a I. J’rukel. Mi-. Jlrukel ta 14•’1· .n.s at ,s.., vlth the .Aaerloan Ol’fil Ll\eJ’tlet Uaioa.. A torat4al>l• effort •• –4e ‘• ••• the Oou\ o’f’H•nl• \be 01••?- •••• . e,Yeruea\ def• 4• the adalaetoa of \he eTicl.eaoe \ID4er the QladMd 4eolatoa. 1a whioh ,., optnloo va• b,- Obief luUo• Mt. the Ooun W there helc1 mcleaa. obtained. ‘bJ’ win\appl»c \o ‘b • acla1Hlltle ta \he i’ecleral ‘CIOar\1 u,vt,h1tandiag ihe J’oU’\ll Aau4•••· In u oplaioa \7 Ir. lus’1o• lto’IMll’ta ,. Oevt held \hat Qlutud oontJ’Olled. a..S. aftlrmecl ,he conno\iona vhlob bad l>e•a o\\alaed la par\ “7 – 206 – • the 11ft of th. eY14eaoe. !he Oolln WI WlY1ll1Ag to onn,tle Qla1tM4 • •ay- 1ng il .h84 beea the ftbJeot of prolor,ce4 oondd•ratioa b7 the Oou.d, vt\h the Yarlou• 1’1en of ‘• Ju•Uoea olearl1 •s.pJ”e■e.a.. Ml-. Ju.a\1ce Stou U4 kr • .Juettoe lnnld’uter atate4 \ha\ ba4 the •Jont7 of ‘1•• Oo1t.tt \een Yl?lllll ‘4> ••••nl• SU.Nlud lher wou14 ba•• been bapp7 ‘° Join la cloinc •• ht •• the •Jortt7 ht.d 4eolhe4 to do thh, and a■ •w• \h1ak \he oase it 1n4111\it&411l1bable 1n prlaclple fzioa the Q11atMd:: •••• • there •• no oocatloa \o rep•• aow the dt11a,1ac Tien in Qlu!nd. vltll whieh the7 atn-,;. Mr. l•1Uoe laclcaon 414 no\ par’1o1pat• am Mr. J’111Uoe Muph)- 41••••'” neorou.917. 1 tel, lad ‘lle oa•• •• ooatrollt4 b7 GiNtMf. tboqb 1 thoqht · Q)•tftMf l ltelf w.1 qu.eattou.ltle. 1 W beea o–tl7 l119N11-1 b7 \he 41•• ••tlac oplnioa• 111 Qlaa!tld- l 4l4 feel. howner, tha., tben wa• enow,h · • to l,41 1&14 ln f&TOr of 9l:Mte4 fot’ the CoT91′ … Jll ‘° ••• to uphold 1 ,. • tu Sol1cltor Geural 1• IOhllH• ooatron.te4 vith a •ttu.tton. when lt he w.r• a Ja.clc• he ld.cht MTe a 41ffe1’C\ new tn• tbat he upre•••• a• aa acl’YO e&\e. If J ha4 beea •1 u1111 1A the WU\Md •••• l atpt ••• acne& “1 tll \he 41■.-tlq newt tll … .xpnau4. ht ln lhete oaaea 1 felt 1 •• oalle4 upoa to pr•••’ the ttnnc••’ ••lla’ble alllllll4tah · tmt l oo\114 etal-117 ucl falrl7 lm114 la npport ot Ille eo•e11U1e11t’1 petlttoa. l ftlt the Oov\ l011l4 )e 41Tl4e4, but l do DOI r.oall \bat I felt )low it wo\114 cU.Ti4e. l voul4 ao, ••• b••• aurprlae4 u• the d.eotaloa had o>” \he o tha w:,. Juatlo. lup}o’ cl.tel n.ot ahow the uae ncol’ d.ving onl &1’1Uf111t •• t1 ent•oed l>7 Me 41•••’ – he rarel.7 414. le W01ll4 :not often lnteff’41)\ ,u-,12.aen\. Ill• optaioas. hovnet, were often ••’17 ,tllloreua. I vo1&ld baYe – 207 – • cu•••-‘ h• wul.d ‘be aca1n1t the goTenaent in \hie ca.•e, because of b11 c•?•l a-ppro&Gh to \he aart of pro’blea lnTolTed. • • 20. !IAtlewJ 011 -When I •• Sol1ci tor General the Depar,mea\ of the la.tenor .-4 W\la,.. te4 with lha A,tom07 Geaeral the •tier ot r•Cf>•er1q for tho United Stale• the 10•oalled t1delam oil 4-i>osi h. lfhe queaUon. ti rat ••reed l bellne la Xnleri.or. whita lb• • .A.be fona• •• la \hat llepanaet. At leaat he waa one o.f those act1Tt la tu u.Uer alone wt lh horet.17 Iclt••· l appl’On•• the ‘1•• ae 1944 when th• pro’bl .. oaae ‘° •· I ‘lll* the qtUtdloa w1114 ha.Te art•• nrcar4l••• of \!Mt w..r. then W ‘b•• 41•outllon oYer a lc,sapr period ot lime. P”O’Wi».c 011t of the lncnaee in I.be drillla« for oil under the •••• \rhloh I th1Dlc ‘becaa about ti tteea 1ean aco. At a cerlaia point the A\torne7 General referNd. the que•tion \o M tor .a.nee as to •ether be 1ho’Q.1.cl au,hoa n 1111 ,. ‘1’he ptobl .. ‘becaae aore urgent b”8,Uae ,here wa1 leclalaU-… ooutder&Uoa of puUJl& Ut.le to tbt •’-‘••• latertor ne atroncl.7 oppoted \o th1•• am thoqat \bat it the .,,.,. wre ltUca\ed. Oc1ere•• •houl.4 net leclsl.a••• or the Pretltlem approT• 1 .. 111auoa. ut1l \tw oo•n• llia4 pa••• ,:ap•a the ctQ8’1oa. Be.-.l”Ob. 111 ltasUoe. bad. ,i,,n.e forward 1n \be Luat J)lnetoa lUlder Atel•’8a\ At’°me7 Ga.enl lol’IIIIIIA M. l-1,tell, vbeN a &r•’ 4-1 of data bad ‘been prepared. 1 aeelped. Mr. leJU7 G. Ingrabaa, of -, daft• to make a spe-1.al t\udi’, ustnc all \he matertal attilal>le. Be -4• aa 1adepan4eal anal.7111 of \he lec&l qa.ea’1on1, la relation to \he fae\1 aftilal>l•• aal I tbea lllad.• an independent 1h47 vi.th ht.a. 1 couolwl.414 ttwre •• auffiolent – 208 – • queattou to Ju•t1tT the United States 1n 1n1t1st113C litigation to obtal» a Judicial delend.aatlon, and recolDlllm.etl to the A.Uorne7 General ua, Ud.t be dQne. l 414 aot come to a definite opllt1on as to how ,uob. a oaae 011Cht to ‘be d.eold.¢ l,7 the courts. !he !Uontey General authorised n1 t to be fllecl. l noommedecl. a.Di laitially this was done, that eult be tn•titu\ed. in a d19’r1ct court of the Usu\ed State, rather than 1n. the Sl2preme Court. to.it ws filed in one ot the diat11iot courts of Cal.ttornia. JJefore \he oaae prooeeled Yer, tar t left tor the wnt tn GenaD7. Later the alt in the D19’rlct Oourt •• vilhd.rawn and the Attome7 GeneJal — then .lt\ome7 General Clark — autbodse4 an orlctaal nit to be file4 ia the· SupNM Court. !hie ‘b.cue the ••hlcle tor the deotaion later Na• dertld b7 \he Oourt. My reason tor •vcce•Unc that the nit be filed fir•t 111 the D1etr1ot Court “8.fl tbat 1 felt the question• lli«ht in the end be • better naol-Y-4 b7 a proc••• of Judiotal progreHioa \hro’Q&h the couts. I leal’lled later that aome p10oe4ural ditttcul.ty made 1t ••• Ylse to eu.’bst1- tute an original. aetiou iA \be $a.pr•• Oourl. • When 1 •• ln prt.Tate pmoUoe 1n 1948, after the hpreae OolJ.l’t had made 1 ta baa1e 4eoh1on, the Oourt ,.. ad.er the aeoeHi \7 ot t11ppo1atia,g a 1pectal maale1’ to draw the linee ‘belWMD State and J’ceral OWM1″ah1l) ‘Wllller the prluoiplea laid dow la the deo1a1on. !bia woul4 lnTOl.Te ex\entiTe hearin.gt ln th.$ field. Chief J’u1ttce Vtn.aoa asked u pei-aoully it I ve:re aw.lla’ble. 1 lla.d to ad’fl•• biJI ot ‘tllf parltcipatton 1n. the earl7 stages of t.he case a, aboTe outU.ne4. We ao-“4 that al.though I bad taken no poliUoa on the ae:ri \• 1 t •• lnadTi aa’ble tor me \o aoi •• ep.oial 118.der. It would • • • – 009 – The Snpreae Court baa teJected a later suit f1led 1n the effort to ove:r-tu.n lfClal&Uoa enacted to overiUl’ll the batio Oou.r\ deo1a1on. l th1Dk the ??• .ka• •• up 1 te alnd tb.al Ooacre••• ba:ring eoatrol onr the pn- · ,,.-, …… ,,. ._· , . _’, · • it •. effeoi ot the eo–oalle4 LitTlaoT aote and. 1 ta aoo9Ptooe b; the Presideat .. In ooueoUon w1 th our reeopd Uoa of Sonet luaia la 1933• the Sonet Ooal•? for Jtorelgn Attain, Makin tl tTiDOT, in the ao\e refenetl to agreed \bat. the Sovie\ Union would \ake no stepa •to enforce any deciaion of oov•• or initiate? new UUption tor the amou,a adlllit\ed to be au or that •7 be found to be due it, a• a ncce:.uioi- ot prior goYenuach ot Btiaaia, fro• American naUonale, and ‘WOuld not o’bJect to such amounts ‘beinc aaei.g11ed, and d.oea h..t”e’by rel••• alld. a1aip euoh aaouts to ,he Uai ted Sta\ee.” h Acbovl.a.«iac t.be aas1’uent. tM Pre■idoat ea14 that he waa &J.ad: to lvi:Ye theae UDdenaklngs by \h lm.tlian CQ’Nnllellt, an4 wulcl be plea•ad \o i:toUf7 that goYermua, 111 each ca•• of aa7 aaouat 1’ealise4 1>7 tbe l1aited Statee fro• the rel••• aad anlpaeat to it ot the amouat, clu• tM eovernun, of the SoYiet Ua1on. fh• Uatted Su.\ee later tiled lftlit in ’11e 4ldriot oour\ ot lev Tol’k agaia1t Mr. Piu. the hperiate..S.ea\ ot In8Ul’8Jlce ln lfev Torie, to reooYer •·•••’- iu hit hand• ot oeri&ln lluaaian laaun.noe coapa!d.et (which had beea doing ‘bu•in••• in the State of llev lo:ra) reuiaitL« after \he olai•• of domea,1c oreditora bad been aali•fied. !? ultimate l11ue, aa I anal11• – 210 • • the ca••• wbich 1• prett7 0011plioated, •• whether it vaa contrar, to ou.r pol1q a• a .11&’1011., anain.g \1-.\ U •sht be coatrar, to the poliq of tu S\ate or l•v to’l’k• to recogni.se ,he etfeot of SoTie\ oonfiaoaUon or ell’pJ”Oprlalioa of •••••• of the 1AtnU’allce csorporati6n• baofar •• tho•• a••••• might belong to iueaia.n na,1ona1.e. !bi• in turn tnTolYed \he efteo\ of \he • • excbang• betwna L1tnao• and our Pr•tid.ent. contid.•1’114 •• u. execu.\lTe agnem.ent. Wlder whtoh the tin1ted States acoep\ed the l)l”OOeMe ot these bold.in«• in law York to be u•ed. pro tuSe \o aatiaf)- olaiu of Jaenou national• -,a1Aat luceia • .t. ra\her leaa,i:,, opinion•• mu.a b7 Mr. luttlo• l>o-«l••• vhlah v•n.t into the q,Matlon. of nenU-re •cn••nh aad \hetr nlaUon to the powr et ,_ Pl’eticlebt k ooad.uo\ our foret.p affairt. fbe Ooui helcl that t1- right lo the fade or propert7 lll quatiol’l becaae Yes\ect in \he So’ri.et co•en:u1Ht1J.t •• n.oc:eaeo r to th• 1nw.raaoe oompani ••• tba t “thi • right 1 • pa1aed ‘° the United State• uader the L1\TinoT ae•igmau.t, an4 that the Uru.ted. Stale• 1• cUlled to lo pl”Operty, •• apine, tll• OOl’por-aUoa uil fol”elp on41ton.” I\ ha• noen\17 beea arp.ed 111 a,:apport of the •rt.uer J.Nndau.\ \ba\ the i1,a oa•• lllv.atrat•• the 4-c•• of exec:niU•• a«h•ea\1 whloll clo .aot ha•• the ooaovr•• ot e1\hel’ the Senate, •• a treatT. ol’ et the two ••••• of Con.en••• ·’lbe l’.1AI, Gate ‘Gpheld the power of the Pre•ident aloae. in the cond:o.8’ ot fonica afta1r1. to alee aa acr .. •nt wbloh o•enod.e the pollo7 of a a\ate. ‘l’he aaever to the »n••r aaend.aeal propono\1 •• co.nta1ae4 la a letter \o the ltx Yor); fl.NI f,oa Mt-. Plmc hia1elt • although be W oppoaecl Uae GoYei·uet in the liUpUon. !be whole aattar bad. ‘beea la14 • • / • – 211 – ,-:,,_·,,-,: the lJ>ran,ement the President had eAterad 1n”o, so tbat la tu’betar&c• wl:lat Seaa\qllrlokw •• arc,aiaa •bow.A be don• b1 … .., to .. Coaau h.U,a ‘ ‘ hat ill t-.o\ been done 111 the ao-oalled Pliik epiaode vllhou.t a ooa•\Uu\t.?aal ameritb1eut. t think I have fairly dated lb.ft poaition lib-. Pl” took; I Jm.ov 1 \ 1• the pod tioa >tr. Juttice iober\1 took 1n oppo•llll the lriolter>,a-4- . meat afh:r his retirement, alt.bctaeh a• an ao\1Ye Ju•Uc. of the l\lpr••· Oo??t he bad Join.eel 1n Ohief J,ia\1.ae S\one’ s di uut la Zia. . . . . . . – t?••••• 110mite4 li\ awn’ber •• tht rear• pa1N4. A lle\ of •••• l pr,Hnted orall7, in vbol• oi- ta pan, for the Uaitei •••••• 11 app-4e4. Then•• vere .two other• after I re’\? to 1>r1Taie pl”&CIUoe ta 194?. The· Oout’t ?I Cbl,ef Justice Ji-J«hes wt then no long•r. It ba4 ‘b••• succeeded l)p \ba.t of Chief Justice Stone 1.u,.4 still later b7 the Court of Oh1ef’ JuUM Vinson. In 1937 when the Labor loard case• were preaen’led the Oo1u•1, ia add1t1oa to Ohief Juatio• 1ilch••• ooa•laled. of Ju,io•• Tan ».ta.D\er, Me• lle,aold.1. lll’U4e1•• SutherlaDd.- lu.\ler. Slone, ioberla a&ld Cartoso. At ,i. · ‘-4 ot r,· appearancee fro• 193? ic, 1948 IU)ne of tl\4teelullee■ r.-1a.e4. M, la•\ ar…-, ,.. the go-r81’Jl118at •• before Chief Ju,1oe Stone an4 Juatio•• lober\e, Black, Bee4• 1rukfuter, ?•• 1-rph;r, Jactktoll u4 lm.Ue4i$. My laa\ argwaent of all. 1a 1948, •• before Oht.et Ju•·Uoe Vla•on ul. the •aae lueUoe, laat al>o•• l’lalled except Juetto• hrtoa ha4 Joined ,, Court ·ua. .. _Qld.et JuaUce S\one ha4 4184. Al the Uu of the Jaa ••• la 1924, when. I vat firat on a bri.et in the Court. \hi, oovtJrOO• waa la tlw Oapt tol. William Boward !afl •• Ohiet JuaUca. w1\h AaM>clate JuaUcee McXenne., Bol.Me, Ta.n D..uter, Mcle,aolds, Brand.els, S;dberlam.. h\ler aACl – 212 – • Se.a/itt. Mr. iarlaA 1’. stone vaa A.Honey Geaeral. ‘!’he 1nten•JWIC :,eu• ,,.rei uoac th•••’ laportaa\ 1.a ‘he ORn•• hl•’4>J’T. Du.J’iDC the ••lle1- paril ot \he p•rio4, vl tb e,ronc U.•eea••• \he Ooun ooafiucl fe4•nl. •–•• .-ren ,tata .. pover to Mrn»vea- 0011pa11 lhu 1ectt1at’1?•• f•l’ the Oo11,1tt’1l• 11•? ,e(ll,l.t.nd.; tor eu.apl•• la ••••• lnTOlrlng ‘Ule nplatlon ot wol’ltlac oo114lt10A•. In the thirU•• th• ettorta of Cono-e•• aal \be JnautlTe to b?a the eoop• of aatlonal eoonoaio ad aootal at.4 to \tut people. 4UiDC In. :p.a, 4epreHloa. ft.l”at ••• alto with Ju.let.al nlnalt, with …. of Uiit an,,, … ,.., of Ille Oou.n, a\ Uau tn.ola,U.aa C:blef l11dloe ?•• apta cll•••tl.ac s.a ••nae ten,. fMa ….. a ohuc• la oouUtu.Uoml latel’pnlatloa, a retura •• 11 •••e4 to •• to tbe approach ot a aa.eh …,.llel’ . perlo4. the Qout ‘Depa to olo•• lbe ‘fO ld. where ul tber ••••• a.or te4enl ••lloa tor the ooaon po4 W ‘bffll perai Uecl. •• an aUU tn lhlt peli.ot. • Duiac the whole era, howffer, while the Oovt ‘faded. ta 11• ap,>rMOh \o v:bal l tea r•edi&l •oolal aa4 •ooaoato le,itlattoa, 1\ ruaiaed oond•• teat ln 1 \e defeat• of the l’ip\1 ,,ru.,..a. b7 the ltll of BS.pie, aa4 •nu–. \o aanu pove? .a.er the Aue proo••• olaun,. fhe:re ha•• l•• -■- tlaotu.\1oa, ho,,..,.r, ta ooaetnlq Nliclou fNeCloa ad.er lhe Jln, Jaul… ,. !ha latt biportu\ dtoltioa la ,u ID hr& Bt]IAII UM ••• Ma • . ·. . ,.Pf, t,f v. I .. IOI, ffl4eno•• a ft”‘j . ….. \o ••i to a be,teJ> position. l’JO’pe4, fer la rq oontrilnlUoa k •Lav u4 Coat-.,onu7 11″111’1 … , • Vs.n,e:r 141Uoa of 1.9’9, hk• VaiYere1,, lobool of Lav. the Oov\ 411rlac •••• 7•” -.lnu.lael \he blgh qul.U7 ., u. VOl’k. fbov.gh 11• coapol1Uoa ohange4• aad at.on• nae& a1>011t the Oou.t”\, l:bere ., •• – the tblft gNa\ \u,1.noh, the arltUer of \he OoneU tv. Uoa. .lll4 nea .. 813 – • c.\uriJ:il \he period• of 1 h latemal tendon l I •• ooaeU tuted of mea vho ooap-, .. :taYOtabl7 la a\lli\7 wt.th 1,a … bel’ehlp a,…,. \lme tn Olll’ ,,,.·:; . .-·-::·.’_’_ ‘ • • hi•?•· Ille p:neen,a’\loa of •••• fer the tfnltecl State• •• a rewal’4lng er- · · pes-l..,… I loat –• •••• 1 ehoul.d have voa ‘but tbt 4eoldon1 “•” ‘llnller­ etad&ll.e, and there were able dl.11enta at a ‘bl\ of ooneolation. Jla,q 1mporlant •••• t a111gae4 to othere, to J’nnoia M. Shea,-, good fl’ldl ……. the 7. …. t!Mn ••• 1,taa, Allome7 e..ra1 la … .,.• • of ‘he 01-m l)l’f’ieloa, or !Im.nan· A.raolcl, bold.la« a llte p•tU1oa 1a AaUlrut,. or W•ell ler,e, Ori.alMl Dlntlo:n, or to . Olart, •• Dt’ri.eton. or to ••\•r• ot a, own •tall or to lhe •’-ff• of other upariaea\t or aceaelee. l coalilt.’U4 the pn.011 .. of •••lca1111 Labor »oara •••• ‘° the Joartt • • O.eal Oou1el, or in 001uml’8.Uoa wlth hi• to a aeaber of h1• ttaff. One oao waa at1lgaed to !’c,a o. Olal’k, 1 ‘bel1eft h11 ttret Supreme Ooun •l”C’l· -.,. lo\ aa7 7eare were to 1>••• before he wa• oa the Coun tteelf. Shea ·and 1 vo1114 ot\a fol’eptller anel’ argt’llleatt to t17 to 111• vp •? e1t1lattoa and. .,, 411ou1 the -, \hlac• ha.4 &0n•. Re •• u delelleal &1••’•• •• ven all ot the•• tln• p’liltllo a8″Ut1, -..hot who• plqel • lllpGn&at prl ill the cleYelopMat of •he lav o t the pelie4. Alda lookwell aa4 In••’ Oro11 were alto a11lped their nre, &J’Cllua\ 1 4vi..Ac 1h11 pedo4. .A.flle14 ‘Bau bore • Ma’f’7 hthn, u4 John r.. Sterll va, aterla.g upon hie dhtlnca1•he4 ca.nett ta the effloe and in hpna• Court a4’ftoao1. Pal l’N1l1l4 too1c oa a aalter of la,orlaat an4 cllftlnlt •••• aD4 al•1• we u a1’g11Mat ot 41.tlaelloa. ‘lb.en wen 111111 olhfN, •• uw no\ 10 ,oug •• tllea, who bep.n to pr•••• •••• to the fin.al tri• • • – 214 – 1 aoqutnc! a area\ re1peo\ for the ••n on ihe Oovt, a• I bad ,.a1ve,t W fol’ , … Oou:n •• u lJL•U ntloa. the aon l w11te4 oa ••••• argu.14 ,w;, ao4 l.-.e penoaallJ’ lllll•r•ell l.u the rtctit• aat YJ”OAC• of d.iff♦na\ . . · . -? po•titin.1, the area\er cue• nal.haUoa \bat Ille Cout w.e a–..· ?tiw.Uo• like to a11,1 other,, ‘b7 no •••• infallible nen 011 \hou que1Uou peculi.tlt17 Yi \ht.a t. \e o”n apeolal tuacUoa. Jut the Court 1 a amt •• ‘-•• a aanelou, exemplar of \he ga1ua ef our laett tuU0111. ,…. aaoe\ bYaJla’bl7 oaM to bear ,q ••••• She •• a geo4 aa4 helpf’lal oriUo, •• well a• a flu aoapan1oa wt th whoa ? talk o••r the arga.• ., •• ‘before aad. at•••• . •”hill au o\hei- Court •ttloial1, •• well••• tlao•• . …..,.,.. ot tlt.e Onrt wllo taev her, alwa71 ,…a glad to ••• 1-i- u.4· · wen oov•••• aa4 tbouch•N. Sc,aeu .. , ••• of ihe olltlctl’ea …. ,,., \he7 wen aoatl1 la aollool. We lallced oTer 10• of \he •••• at ho•• at the d1a1DC room \able at ti•••• I NlMlber ,q 1urpr:t. ••• at hi.• TOVJIC ace. when .Ohal’le• thoved a clear graep of the probl• la Dmd •· 111)11’1- We ooa\lau.. \o 11 .. 1A the uall but pl•UA’ lie• at 3700 Wonhlulp\o a l\te•I• !J1e W&J’ -• OD aad. M 414 11 \\le efftolal •leJt\alalllC• ., –.Jabori.e4 reaalul a pl•ua• ••• tor the ohtl4na. vbo wen aolt.ft ta aollool. ’11e7 ,:,w -,pl11′ u4 11eallh11J ua4er \Ile ol••• 4notloa aat aare of 11o,her. Our taatll••, the o•Douell•• Lue• u4 fabi’•. eoa’1n.e4 to ••• 011• aaolhtt1′ la Ta1’JIJIC Aecre••• ucl, a, ‘before, tl»re w•n oooa11oMl Tl•lt• , …… l atteat.a Oa\tael ••line■ la the alt … oe of ,.,. Attoruy Geural Qfl -…. •r• a pan of \he Pnei4•t • • otttelal t..117 tJaa I ha4 \en. · t ?b•r wt.th eadn••• the la1t Oa”olaet •••Hiac before the P?’edclent left – 215 – • for.Van Spdag1 .1u,Yer to ntvn &lh·•• !he Prealden\ had not appeanl\wel.l tor eou U•• I bad ,;aotloed a nthei- 4eo14e4 obll.q• after hit r••• .•tm11 fehetan. ht he W ooaUmied \o beAr ht1 · lie&-.,. l>ud••• aad ba4 ,,-,1.-1; bbaaelt to tbe etnlne and. effort, of \Ila 1944 oapaign. fhA lad Oolu\ a”tt.ac •• rathe1’ q:\\let, •• lf then •• aa uexpnaeecl fe-11,ag \lMJ Pn•1- 4eat w.• QOt at well aa ‘llnal. ln a4d1 Uoa to the pi,,-.1ca1 atralne he had erut,u.•e4. and the traea4oua ‘b\\l’tltna ot the office of iho•• \1•••• -perhapa • • be . bat· lleca to feel la a 111&7 ,be eblll of \he oolt!. • •r to oe•, wld.oh 1″t had droT♦ 90 YallaaU., \o ))J’ffeni. le h&4 -.4• a gnat ltU. ter peau ta Ju\ice vith tile loflet. fheugh hit elte1″• baft not noc•ecle4 •• • i.,.a, aJl4 tboqh ta “‘”””‘ toae deo111o••• ffea a11Uaq on.•• HN to •? …… awl••· I OUIM)\ MT othen wo’Clld be.Te , …… lllONltM. ,-.. …,. WN -4• la the b-11ef lh•J were “1••• .fbe p,oltleat wen ooni.,1.11 • 1’he eolu’1on1 tor the tatenaHonal dle\unuce, and. 41elo•Uoaa du to \he tJ’Menclou• upheaYal• uc1 the gr• t torce• “‘ la ao\toa, 1te1″♦ not cleuou\. 8Jld. ven 1el”loual7 co-.,llcated ‘b7 \be taoi \hat. Int.ta waa ov pover­ tal all.7 ia tlle 4•t•• of the A:ltt •· I ahall •’ la tuH aot,s a,t..,,-, ova “‘117 •tat.a awnl-1 of tlwt fJ-etlf.•t• lN.t do ? .. ,, U•t la 11T ova oplaloa he•• oae of”” -re17 cr-,t••• 1N•14eat1. umnall.7 vell eqa.t.ppe4 tor ld.e napou1lt111U••• \bat be,…,, “1th tbea, •• aa 1atplrinc leu.er of a cnat. cou\17 la c,eat ti••• ••••well a wo114erN pereonallt.7, aad tba.t he •U?tt• •on,.,…. 1011&1 l”eepeol •114 4notloa. Ac•• u4 l wat to the Nfflcea •oh M&l”Oh 4t.h Yi th the Pnaiteat. f1rat at hi• calm.Nil aero•• fro• tu Wh1 t• Bou••• later ln \be ••• loo• ot the 1fld.te 1-ue tt.1.it. d.eeaing thea of at leaet a •eai-offlolal oharaot•r • – 216 – • !he President. I have always thought. v&• a good JD&n• od a reli&tou• one. •• Ille var d.r•w t:owrd• 1’• dl1 •o did 1flT won •• 9ol1o1tor Geae:ral. The ?tu:N lurud DOW tovarC the 1nteraa.Uonal. Mr ns1patlon aa Solict tor General, howner,was not offictal.17 aooepted. uUl S.,teabe:r 21, 1945. vhen. I vat ta German7. See 326 tf. s. p. 1v. President ‘l’raaJI had reaea’bere4. A Tel7 tmnc ,pecial aetiguent from the Attome1 General oome& \o mid., tnnlTl.mc the laffl Oil leeenet la Califol’Dia. Pel’bap• l should ad.4 a f•• wol’Cl• abou\ 1 t. It 1• pl’ebable that lt led a wb.11• 1a,er to \he l’eJIOftl b7 tl’le Preeld.eat ot Mr. lfoi-ma Littell at Aadat&Jit lttorne7 &.11eral in ohtu”Ce of the l.anda l>1Tla1on, due ? bi• ditficultles with Attorney Gen&ral B14dle. ‘!’he. BaTT had entered into an agree.11ent vi \h Standard. 011 ot OalifonJ.a • tor -what might be cal.ltd a ?o1nt operation of the Na:n.l Beaen-e am p?’O\)erUes of the Company in tbe same Ticia1q. A drainace problem vaa involTed ,hat lailcated ,? deaira’b1llt7 of uaU op•raUon of ,o .. ktad.. !he pantoular mt acreeaent bad ‘bea approYe4 b7 la’t7 and •• ••nt to the lfh1 te Bou.•• tor PntidenUal app?ftl. !he Preeideht l\1ba1•t•4 the •U•r to the Atton•7 General vho qu.tte properl7 tent U to Littell. Be Dintloa Dade au elaborate ••d71 followed by a “leak• to the pu’bl1o betel”• the renlt ot ,he study w.1 J8$Cle knoWll \o the AttorneJ” General or \be J’resiclo.t, to th• etfeot that the acreeun\ v&e moat d.lMdva11tageou1 to the Uattecl. States, etc. t •• called lo a White Bou•• conference to dit<‘ftl•• the 11atter with • Mr. J7rnet, Mr. lonea\al and. 1t -..017 aenea, wUh Mr. SUasoA preset. !here va• ao nc«•stion of aq oonupUoa, ‘but l thought \htt agNaaent vaa not a good. one tor \he United State• and recoDendtd 1\a cancellation. !he – 2.J.7 – • CoJll)eny read.117 agreed., \eking the poai tton 1 t d.id ao, with to tey to hold the la”1 to u acneaent d.eeaecl u.uaU1faotor7. • Then followed. a long negoUatton which the Attorney Genenl placed in ..,. Chlt1’1• tor the Depanaent. 1 1aa1decl oa Lil\ell beiA& kep’ fully a4 … vt•e4 and contoplated securing hi• full a,aent to the tenH of a new agree­ aent. Mr. bi th lane -priaril7 repn1ented the la-q’, capabl7 and paUentl7. A •hod fora ot interim arran.rement waa prepared b7 •• and agreed. to. In tu .a. a. full new a,re•ct •• entered into and au’ba1Hed to the app}’.0- priale lfouH 0Qu1 Hee tor ita ·publlo knowledge and aoquieaoeace before the .l:nouU•• braaoh aooepled it. U •• a touch aAd ted1oue aaeiguent. 1ourteo 7ear• haft pa11.a and l b&Te heard no crlU.ol• ot the outooae • Aa a JOUC man 1 bad been a dtm,tee of Wtleon•e eftorh ‘° bring the Uni Md Skle• to latermtlonal lea.dereht.p. •• the Secon4 World Var :period vas coming to u end. it vaa pod to tee the United State• aoTing etroncl7 ln the 41:reoUoa et such lead.erehlp on a ‘b1-p4r’1an ‘ba•1• ud.er Preeident Rooanelt. Practicall7 all co-rernraent oasee rea.4:, for \he CU.1’reat ,ena of the Supreme Oourt had been sublllittecl. ?e va• cont1derable &4d1Uonal paper worir but I felt tner than earlier in the term. Soaevhat cola.cidotal with the oo.nolualon ot the Daal>artoa Oak• Conterea.ce, 1n which 1 bad no part, and a fev vaeks prececU.ng the Se.a :rranoi,co Conference, the State Department ,,… 0011Yetd11& an 1ntetnat1onal Jurists• • meeting in Washington. RepreeentaUTee oe.• from au17 aaUona, including – 218 – • ‘ln,l.Ud.. P1Wu:u,e, lel.1tu, .luetralta. Ohlna. South am o.n,rel Auricaa ooutn••• (bieeo•, Ute Sonet Valoa, tucealavla, J’o’pt. Saudl Anbta, 1?, ha?, 8’r1• u4 Polu4. ‘1he purpo•• •• to renae \he 1tatu,e of the ?1’14 OoqJ. .o that vbea the VIAU.a laUo•• OonfeNJlM ooaTeu4 thl• pnlt.ltlA:&r, vo*’ w”14 have been 4oae. tJa. au tut• of the f1&’1lft Worl4 Oou.rt waa to beoo• a pan ot the 0-l’Ml’ of the tlilUed liatlont. Mr •. ? !. Raokvorlh. tb.Q ,.1 .. Yi•er of the Departaeat of S’6te, vat the Amert.can ?epresea,a..: • • H••·•• tu Ia,enaUoral J’vl•••’ Ooafereue, ua ……. ,,. obalnu. Baton the aN’1AC9 ‘beau he asked. •• to be o .. of l!Mt aclnaen ‘- ,.­ .Aur1eaa nptea•tat1Ye. Mr. lfacu:wonh ha4 helcl \he oftlo. of L.,.i Al’1.e•r for aq 7eu1, lon.pr I ‘bellne tho art other penoa. • •• u a11\aol’it1 •• b.tena\lou.l law, •lllel” of oae ot ,he beat laaow won• on the nbJeot. At 1 write theN note• (Aqa.at 1954) be 11 a raedlel’ ot the World Oourt 11• . ■elf… 41 a acoUa’\or he •• 1laple, clear u4 aa4ontcl la aelho4 ot pre- au.taUoa. 4• obalnaa of the Ooaterenoe 1- •• NIPffled ud tn1cceeahl, bu\ AOt l lld.Dk a, •oh becaute of U1′ epeolal aep-ti&Uq oapaoU7 •• ti.. peNat1 •••••• of pod Uou be •••• lll’. PbUlp C. 1 .. -, •• \he o\b.er u.’ri•er ,o M’I’. !aekwonh. He.alM •• aa auUaon ‘7 ,a 1atenatloal law, wt th a repulalloa \bat V01114 •tvall.7 1-4 ,is. Sta\e hp&r••• lo look ln. ht• 4lreoUoa tor •••l•taao• oa 111.th•\ters. fh• tact lbat. Mr. lacborth ws oha11’111Ul ONllle4 a IIIIIU.1 J)l’O’blea &I to bow we a• hi■ ad•l••n should. f\\aoHon. l’l work• oul pnt\7 well; all ef ua oonaul\efl oa poia\a a, to wbloh the t1n1te4 state• w.1 reqainct to take .a pos1\loa. JS.al po1t.Uoa1 of laport&AH voul.4 alto be olearecl with ot1-.r• of the l>epartaent. u4 we bad \he help ot a t\att. la the ead. final 4eol- 319 – • storif•r• ,he reapont1’bllity ot the S.oreta17 of State, but a\tert vete aot t?n up vlth bla pereoul.17. 1 Jmev Ml”. Ball pleaean\17 1n1, W .., ‘beeA clo•• kl w… •• had. Ml’. Hackwl’\h, ta whoa 1 umerstud. he plaoel j/. ,.,.., deal ot ooalUeaa. • • · >for pel’hap• tvo week• la late MaNh an4 eaTlp April, 1945, \Id.a ooaf• J’•oe of repre1eata\l••• of eoae Ud.rl7-od.cl t1a1te4 Jattoaa •’ at the · hpal’?U.l Aud.1 tonu oa Ooa•ti ,uuon ATenue. ltt prooeecU.nc• wen con … 4ue,..i anal.17 1a three la..-a••• aad tome\1-• la fl.ft. We Nrihd \lMJ 1tatu\• ot \he Oeun. A npon •• -4• ‘° tu Se.a heao1eoo Ooafenao reoo–.1nc atloptloa of ,he na••W rmalo••• lnlt on a tev •”•” tile Ooatenace ••ltltMl alten:aaUTe tolu’1o••• l bell••• thte •• \hit ft.rat laq• p\herlnc ot n,naeataU ••• of \he l1Jll tad kt1ona. We COllt1den4 tu •••-•• of \he Old Oov,, quite a lac”‘7 docueat, pa….,,h ‘b7 paragraph, &acl worked hp\her oa Uo•• ncce1ttoa1 u.4 mo41 … fioa\1011• the United State, &Dd o\her naUone desired. to a4ft!loe. !her. were cp.e1Uoae abo11t a nattea aooedtn, to Jv,ritcltoUon. ta a 11111 tel …..,r, or vl \bout 11111 \atloa, bov oom,.tri•• •• -‘b•n of the United •u.oa• aipt UYertal••• • .,. aooe11 to the Oov,, llov -..,. J\tdc•• U•n •btul4 · ‘be, bev ,..,. 1hou14 ‘b• 1eleo\e4, the pl”O’bl• of 4ou,u, ta relaHoa lo l? tenaUoaal •••Uou, ‘1le oompen•Uoa u4 temn •f the .tu&e•, v1-\ber · the Covt abollld ha.Ye coa’1w t7 Yi th the old Ooun or eho1114 be coatt4ere4 •••• vhe\ber t ‘8 IUUD9 1ho1’&ld •….S.• the IUe. lflwre were al to qv.edlon• u to “‘l)Ntent&Uoa ,hrov,h oour\ aellbenhip of the ■neral legal .,.., .. , ot the worlc1. PJ’Ote111oaal lleil la a oontenn.oe of \hie tlll4, to a ctecre. r•••• fl”OII poll Ucal contlcleraUon, – although of oour1e not enUnl.7 beoauee • • • .. 220 .. lbl’i,ipJ”e-anta\iYe• are 1ntlueace4 ‘bT the political o11aa,e and pol1o1•• of \belJ’ owa COW1t17 — r•ch a broad area of acnea-., 1a wol”ldag on a la1tn.••• O’t. th.11 nature. fh. repreaentaU••• voritecl well to«ether oa the wbole. So• … pre••’ bad area, pn1Uce la lepl o1Nlet ot \be 1aternattoaal co.llda1 t7? So• .bad ‘been … ber1 of the Ooun or clo•• to 1 t ln aoae ca­ paci\7. !bel”e was aleo 1111ah nev blood in •? picture as a ren.l\ of \he •cop• of the Second WoJ>ld. Wal’. d4 the ta,ernatloul ao•eaent• couac out ot 1l. •• vere all ft>1814t •••• ‘before the l>eclutnc ot the 0014 …. ltl- 4M411 1\ w• before the ueoJUlUtonal avrend.e:r ta Gena»7 a.I.Ill \he 4•1•t of lapu. there waa a p•t –•UN ot aecor4 ea\ a lack of ooa\n-,ertl’al eplrl\. !here wen latellectual 41.ffereno•• oa 4e-.ll• to be •speoh4 ta &DI’ .croup of 1er:leu.1 MD 4ea.lin, Yi th nob a pro bl• but there •• aot a ooatroTereial ataoapbere • The oonterenoe uftAl.17 •t il1 whilt atght ‘be cal.led a ooal\tee of \he whole. !here were n.boo1111UteH on 4ratUnc ot parUC’Ola1’ 1n•on81on• ac1’Mfl oa 1A prl.nt,d,ple. u4 otber oo•l U•••• 1m, pnnoipall7 the work •• ia the oont•r•o• a• a whole. Tou alk vhe,her la tene of word• ‘beta« bperteot tool• to OOAftT uaatnc• w• raa iAto oeutn.otloaa aad ooacept• vhioh W. a apeo1flo IIMDlnc to an AtJClo•Aaerioaa oouoa lav a,atea but ,rblch 41d not ftad an appltoabl• word. 1a the 001ittaental lav q9tea. T••• l tb1Dlt •• but 1 don’t ltaov that 1t ?•• parUoularl7 •• ,o different qdeae. !her• vere ao•• 4lfteJ’eJlcea to vhioh v• eaaU1 be … ao••to••• Jor auple, an .Aau1.oaa, 1pMklnc in teraa ot the tort of •••• a Oour\ -, a4Ju41oate, ordinaril7 speaks la tera• of Jur1141oUoa. Otblr nation.a are llkel7 to apeelr: of the ooapetenoe or the Oourt. .l d.1 fterenoe llicht &ri •• betveea a lav;yer acautoaed to • ep•k ln tea• ot 1ntel’l18.t1oaal law •• to the tacffrt esMl:ltlal to a .,._ \lot?l.• oontro••r•J, la oo■,panaoa vlth ov coa,U..,Uoaal law. here ver• ·? 41tteruoe •••r lh problu of a4’ri.Nl7 oplalon•, but aot q.ld.•• •••Oh•• there ttO’lll4 haft ‘been b•tore ve be–. &eO\leto-4 la ov GOUll”J’ \o 4eolara,or,- Judpeah. • • :I 4o ao, thiu the relaU••lT Jalaor role of the ooaUAeatal law;,er ll’l. oourt follow• tale a oovt of thi• kind. Moat of Ui• contlneatal laqv• wer♦. “4Aklai la tent ot the olcl PerMAeat Court of la\u•naUODlkl J.-u … vhloh •• Ml • trial on.fl 111 ,u uwal ••••• the e&Hs or41D&l’ilt cue \efo-re the aou, oa r>&1J•r allll aot oa •••’1•a, taka 1n ear\. .u,aaa1a oa llw lav•I’• Mlle ,o •h• Goa.rt •• ta aa appella\e OO’lll”I. I 4o aot 7 … a­ ‘ber :aov IU’feNnoea cl11.e to the 41.ff ereat taoUoea of a juge la eoattmW l\u’op. an.4 tn the Va1te4 l\at••• There •• a feel.lag tUIOJlC eou in f&TOl” of the old couri, and there waa a hop• altOAC otl»r• of •• that in U1e future the Court vould be •re lllJ)O:rtut. 1 thneht •• olcl oourt W fallell to plq the role bopetl tor 1,. l •• not na to •t• nr••l••• too 1’lc141J’ ‘° vu., had cou lttiton •?r l.-ue 1 \ , ai,u 1-efon. I •• Jlopef,al t.be dearth of lllpOrlaal pJtOl>l•• beton the old. Coo.Jr\ wou14 ul, am then would ‘be a tl”Ovtll la the ia\eJMUeu.l ooaamd ,, et a nl• of lav whloh vo1&1d aake the On.rt a a11- A1f108Jlt 111a\NaentaU t:, tor ,he setU•ent ot coatro•en7 ,,. peac•N · aeaae. for till• reaeoa 1 4U. not waa\ •• Oourt to ‘be l4en’1f1e4 loo olo•el7 1A people’• 111111• wt.th the ol4 •••• vllleh alp\ rl•taot tna lta a’bllit7 to oo• 011.t of the i,a1\ 1ato a larger aaoa, of Jmlc1al aoth1,tir. I waat-4 to keep the ‘beufite ot the 014 bu.t no, 14entlficat1oa vt\h tbe fail11N• that followed the J’tnt Worlcl War • • – 222 – !he wriUnc of the r-,ort was b7 a oo•Ut••· !bie report ooa’61u4 ? ,,eooaem.aUoa• \o ,n. OoAferenc• al Ian 1raaoi.oe. Soae l’epneenta..­ U .. )Ja4 ••• a1elpei tna the Waah1actoa eabatai••· Ditfenat pe?..-.1 Vftl.l’Npteaen\ ,ou of \he oout•l•• at So fautaoo, ‘b,d a peat ., w•at oa to the OoJ>.f ereaoe ther.. S.Tenl d1ff10111, pro’blema were lef\ U1M1n1wered b7 the report. I ••Uoa tbn4t. One •• whethff the Cavt wae to 1»• a oon\lauaUon ot the ••?a, Qoun of h.tena\10Dal Ju,uoe or•• ? be a aw Ooan, a• l ,…,.., Tcu•e&. 8Nontl7, .. ,. tlle 1tahte tho1114 ooawa proY1t1oa tor ….,i .. IOl7′ o.1′ opUonal JU’iNJ.otioa, •• ba4 beea volke4 011, cbll’lng tbe Ute ot \he oltl Covt. !ht.1’417, \be ..,. of aeleoUag Jll4ce• -• vheU.ua!’ \7 tJM Val ,.a latioll• oa Nabatloa of •••11111uh or. a• 1a the ••• o.f tba ol4 Oou\, on nolllu.\ion of nattoaal croup• la4epend.ea\ ot P’f’•naente. Of oovte ta. • whole eta\u,ta waa left op• 1A a •••••• lecau•e the -oomtttee•• vodc vaa onl7 Feooaend.ato17. • l WDk oa reneottoa tb&\ pi-obablr tb.e npon •• ut prepan« ‘bJ’ a ….. ,, .. but ‘b1’ tu npperinr of the Ooaterenoe Mi’t.Jeot to the approftl la 4eYelep1q tile Mlrioaa po 11 Uoa on the ••leotloa of Jmae• •• letllap -4 l OOGnltell Oblet Jw.1ttoe S\oae ut l’e’1NC1 Chlet h•lioe 8aghe•• the 1a,, • ., of whoa ha4 ‘be• a aeaber of the ol4 Ooun. Jach va■ .. ….,., nttoeai la g1Yiag 4afln1te ad’rio• but l theu,ht Rfflotat17 tJJ41oa\e4 a -nn fa1″trable to aaa-,eltlloal uat.nattona, la at4 of the lad.ep•••t – 111.,•naUonal – oharaotei- of \he Ooun • . The n■U wt.,h Ob1ef lu’1ce lfache• •• pollD&Jlt. lad aewe 1114″4 oaae vh1le we ven vltb hia at hi■ reaidenca. We had a’bout coaolu4e4 ov – 223 – • 4hotlaa1on when a umber of the ate.ff of ht, houaehold.. a oolorecl Mlla aaae to ,. door of the 1tuq .-a a14 that Mr. Waaaaaa. Ma:r?hal of the lupru• Co?,’.,.. et.1184 lo a4Y1•• tu Ob.let Jutttoe tat Pre114eat Booa·ffelt. Mt 41.a-,· l need. not l&J’ how 4Hp11 ta44ene4 I w.a. Obi•f J’uUee lqhe:t .,.,; Yiti’\)J.)’ af:teoted and 1eeaed J>eluotant to ‘believe the ••••g•. He a1kecl that bia 1.areta17 OJ’ law olertt. I am not n.N whloh, ‘be called vi \b a ‘lin to ohecldDC on \he r-,orl. Wblle thie vas being clone a call oau to .. tn? llle ».,.rtaent, reqaetH.”C that I re’1ml aa qa.lakl.7 aa poaa1ltle. I \ook ,t11a 1Dl1NollF to ‘be Yenfloatloa ,., th• Pre,ttent •• 4-4. · Xr .. • • – — , •• .,., U4 I lef\1 J N\u.mlq lo tile ».J,al’, .. ,. Chlet Ju1tlo• Bae••• a4Yloe on the “1••ttoa. •• l ••• i..Uoated.1 1.-.a toward ,he aoa-pell Heal aethocl of aoaisaaHo••• I aa .net to •naS.a 1 t wal pNfera’ble. I lbiak 11 a!ght wll ••• been left to ibe goYel”DllQ.,a to aoJd.m.t• \hot• ‘° \e ooaaid.ered tor eleoUon b7 the United. Bat1ona to tbe Oourt. 1 do not coaa1d.er noh a. aetho4 poll \teal la an trdclloua ee•••• 1 ••• al,. lbo’tlpt ,-., ,u Pnddea\ vo”14 pro’babl.7 ‘be \ett.r .-itn.i to .-l•o• Aaeneaa, \la& u, e\h, .. …Uu ta tll• oou117. Ju\ at lu hunaoo \M 014 .,.., .. •• 114Mre4 to Ull -, ow 4ou\a Noecl-4 la ta•• of ,:u·,.uuoa ,uea ‘bl’.,. …. niaea,. ·Jetor• \:be IatenaUoul lUitt•• Oo•f•n••• uct.a., a• I haw tal4, Pns14tn\ looanelt d1e4. We a4Jounecl \he Ooafennoe tu at\enoo• the ltoqot the cr-t ua pa1N4 4owa Oon1tlh.Uoa AYellU afteJ’ r•old.-, lau­ lDCIOJl f’n• W.ra lpriJIC•• We veat out u a,aat la aol- tnlnlte •• t». flag 4npe4 oalaeoa •• 4ava ‘b7, vi \11 \be earllal.7 naatn• of a poet fri•n4 to •• u4 lo all the people. fAe la•U h.Uoat la \he 1nlernatlonel 00— 1,,. vbioh he en’Yi…, •• laatrv.amta of p•o• la Jw,atlo• were ‘betac fome4 – 224 – • at he naehea. hi• •nal -‘• ‘Phe T01ce ot coura.c• u4 of faith w ha4 heard 1A Saa’8. ‘le o••r aacl. aboYe the eta\1o ta lhe Spriag ot 19?3 •• att11e4, k\ hi• leaderehip ha4 brough’ u lo a beUer lal’Ml ta \1- ••••tJ.o ol’ller, while ia the 1alerM\1oDal collll\1D.it7 he bad tak•ll up where WllllOa left oft tho•• Jl8JlT 7ean co. B.e tii1Uated. acat.a Alwntou leader•hip. this liae ,oward a n.oee1etu1 con.clueion. C , • Pn.tl•tlooaeftlt• va• later OJ)QM b7 Pi-ettcleat truu. °’11” report b. “” •••lped the legal pa,ltleu wbioh ooafNa’-4 tM Ooa:terence. •• v-11 •• ••• othera. Wl:an 1 \eoau a4n••r at ‘1le Juht•• … ,1nc I 4o •• .? oall .\ba\ I aev I wlll.4 also ao ?o \he Saa huoi100 Ooten.- •• .. a4- nae:r, though 1 ‘\blak 11 llkel7 the latter dealpatlon oaae aoll9Vhat before • the .Wa1.bbc\oa ConteHaoe eA4e4. ‘fb.e Altorne7 Geural at oae poiat •• lhlJaki,c he aigh\ go \o Saa haao1 too. Jut lhe Preat4eat tnwe4 oa … ber, ot ti- Cabinet, other I.bu the Secn·••l’7 of S\ate, parUe1pat1nc ‘•”• · t 1n41oate4 -, latena\ \o 11441•• aacl • tolA • \ha\ lt he 414 ao\ • i woU \e 4ea1pa\e4 fna ti. ».,.rt•••• • Jlat”le7 1o,1er• • ‘book oa Ille. pnparauon, ? f•r the Coafereace latt•••• ,., a4nsen of IIIJ’ atatu we-re 1:atoral.17 nolllaate4 by \hf bad ot \hf l>epartae ,. 1,, ,. reoolleoUon t • a le,ter oaae fro• \he ..,. • .,. of Sta\• ntqus\lq ., ap,otauea,, periMlp• aft•• aa 11lfona1 dee1,-l1o• ‘i7 the 4ttom•T G&eral • • – 225 – he.pt ta connection v1 th the Oou\ ab.tute a• alrea.q deeorlbe4 1 bad. ao -pai-t ta the preparatloD.a for \lt.e Ooaterene•. Ae •”•”• 4…-.loped t •• again to vork olotel.J’ “1th JCr. Backworth. He, like Mr. A.raatna,, Mz-. >a•lotq, Mr. hlle1 aid. Mr. :Bowaan. we•• pnaotpal &4’f’i•era. o,hel’t troa ••••ral Dep&r,.menta, including Mr. Adlai Stnenaon tna la..,., Mr. Ae Jlortaa tro11 Interior, .aJUl iqaelt from J11.aUce, · bad more limited rol••• ‘l’he work of \he Conference waa 4h14ecl uong four coaat•doa,. M7 -.os-k -· plillal’lly ta Oo..S.taioa “· to w.bloh legal prob1•• “” ·••11:UA. ___ _Kr . •?nh va, 11Mliapo114 d.vtn1 a cool part ot ?lie ea?’11•r week• ot tht • • Coater.-. whl•• tun •re reapoa11\111,7 ea Ir. Je1np, alao aa a&n .. r.; oa legal •tlm, n4 .,..it tbaa otbe’rwt .. llieht M’ff 11 … ?• ….. 1 at q,dte ofte11 •• tb.e Npne•ntatt•• ot th.e V.lW Stal•• ill Comd.Hloa JT, hud.111« the detail• oa the aceada of llal Cout1a1oa, ooapoaecl of repn•••a’ 1 ••• or all of the aattoa• parUo1patlllg. We tcept la touch wt.lb the 4elecaUoa aa neoee,ary ‘bT llellOl’allia u4 f’Gll t7alhd Su.Ma ».1..,.,1on. hi ve .. , vUh tll• l>elep11oa oo••leMJ.17, eflA vhd,,. bacl ao tpeo1&1 probl• ot our ova. ‘!’hnuch n.oll aeeu.-… o:r vi\h Ille honta17, w WN kept -N 01′ 1 … 1n touch with ,_ PNllN•• of affair•• vilh aa oppor’11alty lo eoaeal or IICP•t, eapectall7 a, Ula aNl- 1nc• w1 lh the S.onu.17. !he nporl of Ill• J”U’ld•’ Oollldtt•• eaae before 0o•1••1oa IT. I ..attcl ,ae Oo’UI of ti. ta,ve to ‘ba a aew Oo•rl, wt. th u tonal ooaUa•Uoa of tht old, Oil pol1q ae well aa leaal, Pl)’IUMle. Aa to tbe lal\el’ 1ue naUoae wh1oh ba4 ‘been ••b•r• of the 014 0o1U”t wre nol Npn .. at.a, 7et the atatute wat behc aaeaded and II041f1e4. fbte rahed a question whe.\her • • • – 226 – we could lep.117 arran«e a oonUn.uation of the old Oourt. Mr. Jessup was of a c11tf’ennt view fro.JP illiae. Mr. Baokw:rth lulld off taking a po ei Uon for: qa.lte a while. After a perioi of ,m.oertalnty \he deoiaion wau made tbat ther• vould be a new Oourt. 1htt 1QaJo:rU7 ot tbe San Jnmo1sco Conference fa’lored cnui\111.g the, Oourt co11pulsory Juri•dicUon of legal co.ntrovenies ‘between State•. A minority, in.eluding the United State9, were of a cont:rsry Tiev. AltbtJ? in princlpl• ve might think U deairablft, the United Stat?us waa not read7 for it. 1, ueaed uawiao to endaager ou.r adberenoe to the atatute, clepnA• ent upon seu,e approval, b7 harln« a pro”finon vhtcb wuld call tor re,er• tlona or qual.U’icaUoa• bt the Senate. So \he a,Jori t7 of the Oonference, rep:reeented. ln Oo•l•11oa IV• acceded 10 poliq- arguments which faYoNd a clause know ae the optional Jur1ed.1ctional clauae, vbioh had been worked out during the life of the old Oou:rt and w.a repu,ed to b• in ooru1iden’ble part \he he.ndiwn: of lllbu. loot. !rut Uaitecl. States l:ad nner cranted the old Court an:r Jurllld1ct1on. Jut. •• appear• later, the Senate adhend to the etatu,e of the aew Ooun in 1947, wl»a I •• Lecal Minter ot the State I>epanaeat • .l c:nat deal of contia111 ,,. wt ih the old. 0011:rt va• of ooU•• mat.ataia.a.. It wa• pJ”OTlded that en9’1AC tna’1•• oalling to-r eubm1ee1on of dteput♦e to \he P.i’Mn.at Court of lntuu.Uonal Judice would have the effect of ••ndia, auoh tli9pUtee to the Iatenatioul Coui-t ot J\11t1c.. Indeed, the statute of the aew Court •• \bat ot the old wUh ao41t1cattons, but with a new le&&l ata\ua for the new Court. !he Seoreta17 of State aade a report to the Pr••U.ent oa tu reault1 of the Conference. publlahecl as ?ar,ment of State Publication lo. 2349 • • OoAl.i•o.oe hr1•• 41. 1′ clTea a ra,ber tull \u\ no, enaueth·• repon oa ihe .whole ••f•ren.ce, tulucllng legal })J’Obl•• •• well •• the MN 41tft.otl.t pol??l? flU•tlona NN1Te4. • • )then ba.4 l>ea a gnat deal of atatt work prior lo tbe Oollf e:reaa. fhre• tldnc• which oaua.a. oont,roTen7 co•• iMe4iate11 \o m.nd. One vaa whether or aot Arcent1na ehoul.4 \e &4111\ted to the Ooaterenoe •• a •ab•·• ot lht, l1Al W latioa,. A \errtflo furor arose about Ihle. tfbere vaa a •1 witM• the delepUoa. One poe1’1on •• \bl\ Allmiaa hatl aot r..U.7 boru Pl’ ot ,11e ‘bna, of the WI’ •• ou ot ‘1ae Vat'” h\loae aa4 \at oal.7 when \h• tnn4 ot nu•• •• o’b-.tou.1 bad. •h• 4.eolancl nr lat• ta ti. 4&7. 1, •• alao ••14 Ual her pffruen.t •• ‘IUM111110ora’10. The Unltecl. Stal•• poal Uoa ‘b•ca• pntt7 olearl:, aad. qv.lokl7 Jmo•. It wa• that AqoUna ahoul4 be &da11te4. t \he\1,:hl thit “89 n.gbt, aad. that S.Cl”ata17 Steltiaiu• 1niell1geatq a.114 pernat1Yel7 t\ated. ,he .Aaeriou. poe1Uon. !he alder np11bllca la South Aa•ri• watecl Argentina a411itte4, and vn14 baT• l> .. 4,1111• acc,iffl4 .W. ahe beea aol\Ule&: •noftr, I 414.D.’\ … …, ,…,. beaefit \), pvnlJIC ,. lb.e bit’8r …. ov Uuppolataeat OTttJ’ ……. t1a’ a Gctlll’le la IM val’. I lbo•aht the ltett .-.. .. ot 4rawlAC her le a . poaiUoa ooasia\en\ wlth CMJt J)•llol•• w.1 •’ to el.o•• tta. 4oor oa Ml’ • . ptuJ’ Ter7 aoAtnnnlal ‘1i’••Uoae, •r• laportat u4 -,n f\uM\aaQ’-1, wer• the T•to u4. 11- ooapoe1’1oa and pov•r• ot •• Sen.rit1 Oouoll ta.-.? laH,oa to \he Gueral. AtMllbl.7. ‘lhe Auatraltu 4.elepUoa, uAer \le l…ter­ •hlp of Jbt. Renert ,. haH. \ook a proalaeal J)&J’t ta manbal.llag \be Nlltlaent of the uall 01” MCllua-alaed u.Uo•• to NIIJ’lot ‘h• ••to power. The tJaUed State• ta’f’Ond. the Teto. In a pedeo\ vorl4. an lcleal slhalioa • • tu.oh• ••to oo’Gl.4 no, be d.eten4e4. ht the United. S\atea oollld not, 1 tbo1’tCll’, ·.u4 f-11 ooatl4o.• \he Senate wul4 fHl the … w.7, pa\ lie .Uttai,pow•r al \bt 4ltp01&l ot tlut Vaitetl>: ….. vltbout ou ooa• .. t, • • -vb1oh t, NallJ vat the abaeno• of the .,.-. oa ou pan wow.14 b&Te ••• ·la \blol’J• •• Uu ha• pae•e4 the alnue of the ••to b7 the So’riet 1.JtalM •• . · olouded \he i•••• Jut 1 still th1Dk W,q \he l.mU-4 S\atea should e\tp’pol”t the Teto a1 ooadtUoa• ens\ and that uu, Senate wu.ld not apl)roTe a Cbanir a…,,., whiea al,c,llahe4 lt. The troule 1• the Teto ba• ‘bMa ••• wile lt dlo’lllcl ao, haTe ‘b .. a. 1 thlak the Teto tho\114 ‘be llaUe4 ‘taut aot 1•t altol1ahtd. VJ.Uala ,u .. … … 4eltcaU,o• t!lere waa cle’bat• o••r the, •NP• ot the ••’°• •• 1 noall. ht there •• ,… .. 111. nooplUo:n. the Uaitec1 S\a\ee would 1neta, upoa lt. ot cour•• the SoTte\ thl1on tadetecl llJ>OB 1, too, bv.t -, point la Uat w laah’-4 upon u . . Another queettoa wl th the Son.et tTnion vaa vhethei- the Teto eouJ.4 be applied to prneat ooa■14arat1on am cU.••••toa ‘bJ \he Sefu>U7 Ooaoll of a 411pu\• l>n11PI le 1,, aUeaUoa a4er tu :pnTlet.on• :baTlac to 4o wlth \he peaoetvl .. ,,1 … , ot ttaput••• the loY1e\ 17aioa, •• l aev noal.11 1a \be ••• of a Mttw to w.btoh \he ••’- “°1114 apply lf aoUoa wn to lt• tuea -.,. \he 0e•e11, w.att4 \he ••’- to e:xMIMI aleo to ,,…,…, it■ •?••••ton. But tbe Va1te4 state• atoo4 t1nll.7 on the pri.noi-ple ot 11- neat to 41•–•• !be renl, •• Ille i•nanoe of a ,,.,, …. , b7 ti. apoaaonac power• \ow.rt, tu eD4 of \he Coatennoe wld.oh \eoue 1u,r1 of the leci•la· “·•• hieto171 •• it wn, of \ht.a pn.S.aloa. It ncopi1e4 \he J’lp.\ of cltaouetoa. n ,,a,e■s • • • – 229 – lfo 1nd1Tid.ual •••·•o.r of the Oounc1l can alone preTent con.814- ,,.,..,.,,on ud. 41acu•sion ‘b7 \he Oouoil ot • ,Uapute OJ’ dt•\ S.on bi-ouch• to it• attenUon under Paragl’IIJ)h 2, SeoUon A, . Ohap\er 8 • • • !bf.a refareace l• apparently to the old Dwabarton Oalta prapotal, which ? atate, vheth•r a mea’ber of the orp.niutton or not, MT bring any- auoh diapute or •1 tuaUon to th• attention of the General AH•bl7 or of the S.ourU7 Oounoil. • ‘fhe atataant of the epoaaorinc powei-1, vi th wh1oh hance, who wae not a apo111oriq power, aet0cla\ed heraelt, oonUnuea: • •• nor oaa pan1et to n.ch a dhpute be pnTen.ted by the•• ….. fJ’O• l>eln.g beard by ·- Oouo11. L1lc:evi1e ,. NCl’liffJIMt for unaniai ,7 of the peraaaeat member• cannot prneat en7 … ‘bei­ ot the Oouo11 fro• reat•Uac tu aem’ber• ot \ti. orpnhaUon of tbeli- general o’bligattont atwaecl UD4er the ohaner aa regal’d.• peaceful ••ttleaent ot 41apu\e1. !he nport of the S.oretal”J’ of State continues • B7 the t1•• the Joiat atat•ul •• pr.tented to tha oellllit\ee it appeared that there vas ao 1eriou1 41epodt1on on the part of other 4elega\io111 to pNH a.rtain uendmenh detigud to ella­ tnate the Nl• ot unanill:1 ,,. Yl th reepect to eafoNement acUon • .! M oal.7 oPU quettoa thea •• to Y0’1DC procet’flN •• wt.th aot- . ‘l1Al p•o•ful tetU•ent. laD7 clelep.t1on• ba4 propoffcl uemi•• ta to alter the wUnc prooet’llft. tfferal ot thea vi.th \he 14• ot nae-nag the -proo••• of pao1tio aet\l•ent fro• the nq1llr• e».t of uu.aiaU7. thla •• ,u prpo•• of aa 4-u\ralt.&A aadae’l vhloh. •hen offered ortglnall1, bad eD11tted. the nppori of Mnral other d.eleptlon.•, aaa.. ill a rm,ect fora. pro’fl- 4• the ,.,, of Ooaterenoe unt1Mnt of lhit pro’bl .. after \he ia-1111 of the Spoaeonag Power•’ ••••••’· the aaead.aen, •• reJeoted., although mu7 d.elep.tlon1 ab9’a111etl vhea the Tote •• taken. hl”ing the oourn ot the 4ekte 011 the Au.1tl’aliaa aaenuent ud the YOUJ1C foniula lteelt. U wa1 1tre11eA b7 the anat power■ that their apeoial <J0\1113 po•1Uon would be uucl with a · ar•t aeaH ot re9poa1ll>lli ‘7 au ooaaiden.tioa of the 1ntel’e■t of \he aaller naUona ud that therefor• the -reto vould be uud 9partngl7. fu •7•• of world opinion will be ell reo,ed \t()Oa \be Secmr1,, Ooaou 111 all of lt1 4el1’ben.t1oa1 vtth re9peot to the aintenance ot peace and 1ecurl.t7. A.a, a1n•• of the ‘rOUJ:IC procedure would ♦ffead thia g7eat weight of opinion uA lmpalr ,u • • – 230 – d•heT• eolopargaaeab\a oUto nth wie pllr ed•tept..gende up. on.Si nvchleo hth eth egr wl:Uaaeat powete rn.o• hao:•H• • of catem,-,elt l•’lh b•v. ‘bUl’Wl.41-,\ o fa two er•• van la one c.. ratloa. ,heh? ta•• nnc aa4 efteoUTe orpalu.Uoa will ,;? Mk• ll:Mtll ne• ooueln• of •1•’-1•bc tlde pl’eeUge. ,., (pp.. ,._.,. ) . . But the Secre\a.17′ • hope we aot Mfilled. beau• \he SoTtets. oontraq ‘° tl’l• uaUaea\ ••fleeted 111 the a,motphere •• Saa 1:uoitco, • ..,. abuee4 ,i. Te\o. lor uaaple, l!ae7 ha•e uae4 1 \ ooae\antl.7 to keep well croallfled. nation• troa ‘heaoaing aeaber• ot \he lhi1\e4 llaUone. · ·’fhe So’flet tJaion’, atU.taae at Su Jruolaoo •• \o what ooulcl be 41•- · ouaeel vl\l:loa\ belq n)Jeot to a wk ntoft eaa ‘be eaS.4 aov to ba”Ye fon­ oaet 11• later obatn.ottoua, alttWe. Jut oa the whole l left s.a J.a .. ct.eoo •l \h \!Mt t4’Unc tlat ti. lone\ Vm.oa wae ta s,-pa\hJ” w1 th the real pul’J)o••• of the UalW laUon• 1nNfar a, \hot• purpo••• wen 41reo\e4 toward ti. •in\eaa».M ot interaaUoul -p.aoe. l cauot •&7 I thouc!lt llw Son.et leaden were ln ..,.,117 wt th all etatemeatt ot principle• la thtt Obal”lf1’1 tao,sch •• n.beorl\e4 to tne Charter; lnd I do thlllk tl:le •• au1oa• ‘* for \be wor14 to’• ul\ed. 1A aa ol’CUllsaUoa \o pl’fl’eal a? ftffellh of a world var. W I 414 ut th1Dk \h• tat •• vow.4 b•••• •• 0111,ru.ou •• •• la taot •• ,…, u,,. •••· hell it tide 1:1&4 lteea to?•..- . a\le lt wo1ll4 la -, .,t.atoa ••• ‘bea outvet.W. ea \he l•n• of \he a.­ alnb111 tf of 11.er aeab#ablp, b1 the world s.anueno. open.tine upoa the 8o”1•\ Vaio». a, a auber. wt \h opporhal t1 for Joint aa4 coll•oti•• aouo. l U.ioqbt 11 would be l.leelth7 fer her to be cl:na lato parUo1pa\loa wlth all tlle•• other 11att.oa1 ta la\ena’1onal 1u•1t’bl•• vlthla the J11rie4loUoa of tu Ohaner. l tbl* thle new vae perhapa IJplcal of the Aurl.oaa 4elepUo.a. I • cannot speak for other,, •’ •• far •• I cu. Jud.ce. I think 10aethlng of • • . . – 231 – Som atght laav• lhoUllh,, ‘Yell, w• ought to 117 thi• in u;, .,, .. ,. • ‘but •hl1 -, :ao\ baTe bad mv.oh hope. hi X thiak Ula ••’1.aeat of the H•• Sia \he••?– 4elep.Uoa, la 11- oout17 and. in the wol’ll.• waa \hat \he_.., … tet”P?•• woul4 Ao a great deal of poet. l bad 10•• little teeltnc lhe Oonterenoe •• too l&1Wel7 composed of clelcaUoaa aoou•tomecl to tateru.Uonal oonterenoe1; \ha\ t.a, \he old 1oa,•l tJf ih• Leape of laUoa, and vllat had coae ‘befon, vhloh to ae, vhatnel’ ,. -.u … – u4 1 baY• alr•q 82J>H18t4 1111elf – bacl talled.. But l>d• · pl’OballJ •• aon Im• ot \he lecal peopl• lhan of the i,oll t1oal –••• et: 4-1.ep.’10111. It vaa no\ tne of ou own 4ele,aUoa. n re1n•••eattil a bn.ad •••’ of n.nen\ Aaenoaa pollUcal oplalea aad llte. At tor IDcleA4, their laV7er• were ale’l’t cUHr … their priulpal •• $1r f1111aa Malk1n. tu ltteal 114:ri,er ot tbe Jor•t.c• Offioe, a nae genUean alid excel.let laqer. Sir Yilliu lost his llfe on \he wa.7 bo• ‘b7’ air tna Su Jru.oleoo. Bl• plau elmpl7 ttaappn”4 o••r the A’1anUo. l r••b•rtcl )ala pl•eu’1,7 ul aclllS.riaclT fna tlMt 4••,nJU-•••• ..,.,1a .. Uoa• of 1941 la London. the aeoou. lepl. au 1.n tlMt lri.Ueh croup a, tu l’naotaoo •• Cl. c,,. ftt1•utoe1 al• a good aa. le bacl l,ee11 at ,u lviata• Ooafereace an4 I vaa to work wl th hi■ 1a,er ln ,u Geaeral u,..-.11. I MY’e no ladepeadent pertoul lmpn■lioaa galnecl at Su hu.oteoo regard … lag· their lo, poll Uoal mea • . the la.11iaa legal . wen, priaoipallJ, s • .l. Oolu.lk7 anc! s. ». IJ’J”loT. lqlov 1a,er beoaae a … l,er ct the Wor14 Ocnin. »oth were altle laqen an4 •••• to be :relatl••l.7 aoll-‘J)ol1tloa1 am io approach \he lcal – • problna of the Ooaferaaoe prett1 mch troa a ,nteHloul atampolnt. • the· 1Aten•Unc ,hill&. at 111T own. .tew1 deYeloped \hrough fur’\1-r oon”8. ot• “1th thft Son•• NpNIU.\aliTel at •• Un.1 \ell •tt••· — al \bovch thl1 •• “°’ olea? •• Saa Jnaol1• – it tba\ aoMthetaDlllq they “111,f,c: . . . aoltJelf pa:rUcipa\e ta coaa1tt••• of \he General ••••bl7 la the ton,1.&4′ Uon ot lepl don.a•••• n.ch a, \hoae ••Hine up th• Xaternatloaal Lav Ooa­ m111lon, u tu end tUJ’ voulcl ao\ &pJ>roYe tor poll Ueal na1oa1. ao.aa,-.; loa• •• la ooaaittee \o obtain uuia1tr voul4 in tbe encl tail of tall’ pUl’JtC,He. !bl• became preU7 olear to ae — l don’t nov enct11 wbea, lnd at a oe..Wa point. •otv1th■tu41ac a prote11loaal appnaoll lt7 ,heir lav- 7en to iatenatloul -Cl’HII•••• tu Sona, po•t’1oa la Iba end•• ut • acn• to be bO’Qlltl ‘b7 lecal er J’U’icltoal iaau attoa■ .. 4oouaeh, ,.,.,, o-17 to be guld.e4 \y poll Uoal or power oou14eraUoae. ? later lepl won with the lone, ln the Ooalrol Cot&aoll aohineq fol’ tb.e CO’Hl’UMI ot Ge11111117 • can auppenta,: ….S.clenoe of the ….. Ullltatloat upea their law,era. • I 1aw \Id.• llluetrate4 •••enl U••• at Uie Uattecl laUona. We woulcl olear lllioqh th• Sbtb. Colllll ”•• of ,he Gueral •••eabl7 to• peel tloa ta vb.loll thet ·ac1 lalcea aa ao\1•• pan ta ooui\tN1 u4 7et wllea tbe renl\ na–4 the tloor of 11- O..enl A1tN’bl7 tor appi,,Tal ,.,. al>,tataect or TOle4 aota,, 1,. 41 .,. Jruclaoe w m.4 aneral tntereauac pnbl.e• ta our Ooaal11toa other \bu t:boae laTol riDC \tut ,,atv.te of the Oovtt \he om.ner proYll1oa1 oa pJ’lYllec•• am 111111Ul1U••• •• orcanlsatioa’• legal •••• in the tatei-­ naU–1 ooaaun1t7 u4 “1\hta aatlo••• ,11e etteot of the Chuter on Mrller tr•U•• with uooal11\eat pnnliou, \be clffelopaeat of 1atenaUonal law ut 1.IM recta\rat1on of tna’1••· We dealt wl th Olapter 18. te1’11114 1Ml•oell….,.. Pl’OYillo••• • a• I noa.11. La.\er, to•l’d. \he ucl of \he Coater• – 233 – •Mil ltlleft Jll1′. •o1r.wn11 ud Jtr. Ooluu:, ••• well •• o••-·· wen 4••?.{ ,’ ea to …., ,…, ,11e vbole 4ntt ot’ tlae ha1’ter ‘t or taooa,1a’ t-.1•’ •’ < ??<· te-,i’b1lt I 41.4. aot penoul.17 ha•• a Mllll la Wa. Oo•t.••loa IT••/ ? ·. · . . ·,. .. … ,,,t;,t\? y,., .,’, u4 eat r…iui,,. •• •nally ••• –.,1a •natnca d4 an••” .•••.• , ? vl tll’ ‘.. lu.olleoa bnatt. tu. Aller1ou croup •• boa.•• la cllffereat bo\el• lftl\ th. ottloea of Iha j,Iegatloa1 laol\11ltnc a4″1tere an4 1tatt1 wn all la thtt Jall’IIOal Bot? •. •• ot •• a.icauoa l1Te4 Ulen toe, a.as., va• Ille … ,1,a1a pl&•• •t lbe 4talep.UAH1. · I 11″4 al ,ia. 11? Jnaote Drake •••• ota,.C. ·.·.· .. · -.. .•• 114 torta lo -, effloe at the J’a11119at. , ••• l’uel>u\, ., •.-.UUJ’, •• al Ila haul•• ….. a peat help u al••• 1 11.aullr w111t · ,. ·-, efft.• te Ille ••’1• of Colllleatoa IY la a a.iecatloa or ooate…..,. -•• ol” l at.pl ao ‘b7 •r. the -•tlq plaoea ven wll urupA 1A ,, cn,ap . • of ‘hil4u.p a•r IM 0,•• lo••• aa4 plasa. fte ,1 … 17 ••••1••• •?• la • Ille· Opera Bo•… !lie Coateraoe f1a.aoUoucl well. the berl.caa 4el•aa Ilea waa “11 e.-S,ppe4 u4 wll ata.tte4 • .. · lbtf 0117 vu.I f1l1l ••• le 4o en,,11:ata, ,.,a1\le to help tu Ooafea-· …, ut 01111′ ti-oa a atulpotat of .n1o1…, ., al• la ,_ -,. ol ••;,W. n, u4 eoolal ….,,,.,. I •• JIDpeN ,-. .,.,…., is.a.-mn ?t ,11e Val w •’1•• wo’8lt ,. al Saa fnaol••• aa4 ,,u1 lllblt t., ..U· 1’1&•• …… 1Ml’411’. •·!lie Ooatenaoe •• ooaaole4 ia lw la..-a••• Jraea u4 laclt••• l!w e14 laa&uce• ot 4lp1oaaq • ll1t.l n•l70• 1laA • a.chi lo JaTe a \nadal$;oa lalo lpu11h. Butt.ea. •• OlduN. !Mr• wn .. 11U1′ lolllh …. ft .. 01′ lpadth apeaklac »atlou. Qaat \be n•\lae •• tor pl’llo’1oall1′ all ti■- oueto•• \o be trualated. lnlo Jtnaoh, »acli•h. a& S,uith. If a leYt..1 – 234 – • npret-entaU•• 414 not Wllh1’atud. lreach o1′ ?:tu. a •eparate iaterpret•r vat pro’t’lcle4. ‘fh11 aaYe4 a good. 4Hl of Uae. ‘!be aaae ?•• waa uel tor ·tbe ChiA•••• ‘lho’Q&h the vorJdag language, wen lzlc11&h and fnuh, tbe off1oial lucuc•• wen lllcli•h. lreaoh, ltH1lu, Chia••• and S,Ul■b. Ot oouae \he uo•••l ‘1’ tor la\erpre\aUou al.owed 4owa the vorlt, but oae ‘beo.ae ao0\1.ltoMd. \o it. the etaltaaeou• tl’&JlalaUon •7•tM l.n8’alle4 l.&te.r at hNll’berc &Ad. at the •••tine• ot •h• orcaa• et the tta1 tect llaUoaa vaa ul an.llaltle lo ua • . the people of •• l1a1 ,.a State• ud pu’blto optatoa cn•nl.11 tuoupout the wl’ld. ba4 anat JMtpe Ill the VaUe4 hU•••• !here were bou4 to lie 41ttenao•• in 4e&r’ff of up.oh.tioaa, “‘1t the .ra1 teeU.na l aa caaft- 4eat wa1 oae of \N11tado11.a wol’Uwhllen•••• a 0011:t1.otton that \he ette1’t wa• oo».s\l’I\Cti n and 4.edra’ble, aJll4 would bN.r fnli t ta helptnc to prffeat re- • oUJTuoe of aoh nttenq •• \be wrld had. twice H.pmeaoe4 ln a ftw , …… • l voul4 like to cu•aea, oa \he l:>l-parUsaa nature of the Ualte4 Stat•• 4elecaUoa – wbieh ‘bliap •• ‘baok a bll \o the Vlltoa •n. vttbou, wa?ia, •• ., tlaoqhtat -· of the NalOAI i• …. alvqa felt the i,…,,,. tall• to HRN ‘1,e ad.lMtreaoe of I.IMt Dai led State• •• ,,, 1, bHaJ1•• wtaclJ’ la .., new, a pan11&Jl 11-… Pna14en, loou••1′, U. chief worl4 1-4•• ta the teYelopaent of th• Ua1te4 •auo.u, ao\ olllJ’ ‘4>ok the tlltoemlac step ot ha’Yiag Ule Ooaf enna. uruc.a before ,bt ftc}ltbc •• o••r• vh11• all the 1na\ utlon•• at well a• \he o\hen, were Jolucl ln a COJIIIOB en,•rpn .. , lmt alto wiH17 co-,o•t4 t!le ..noan ct.i …. uoa o• a aoa-,,arUUA ••1•, at GJ•rl.7 e’f’14o.oecl ,, l ,, ulll>erahil) • • • • – 235 – !he del-,a’1oa coaet1\e4 of \he Seon\a17 ot nate •• ohalnaa. aat iaolued both the chair.ma.a &D4 nnklq llinorit7 aea’ber1 ot the fo.-elp. atfa11’t G0111tt?ttiei11 of the Seat• and of ,1ae louee. ha\or Toa OoaMll7 vaa 1))1 oellldttee cbalnu, – Sualor Ar\bu I. V&adn.bera the maktac 2-publloaa ae!rA’t.•r o.a the hu\e ticle. In the Bou1e. Sol :Bloom•• oba1nan a.a Cbarl•• A. la’°a •• the raulng Bepuiliou llellber. Doth Mr. ‘YalUleaberc and. Ml”. laton at well aa lb•. nooa ad Mr. Ooual.17 wen … bert of \he tleleptlon. MT. s, …… a proaiaent lepu.bltoaa polittoal ttcv• at the U•, •• al.10 .· a..-. • .,. Ou ot \a pnnclpal a4flaen \o ‘h• d.elepUoa beoaaa Mr. loa loiter ?1••• a proat.aenl hpullau kaowa to l>e e1peolall7 latena-4 ta laternatioaal affair,. ftl’&• the Pl’etltea, u.dertook ‘• llake •• .noaa poeltloa aon-parilua, aad 4rev 111’6 U• ♦ffori aen of peat latl.ueaee u4 pneU.c- lz,. the oppoal le poll \teal parl7 • 10 t lat the, not oal7 would. baTe the educaUoul adnntage ot aaU•e pariiolpaUoa, -., the cout17 would. ha•• \he aclfl.A’-Ct of t.b.tir tupport ot the work of \be Contereaoe. J ban a footllO,e a.’bou\ Seaator ‘fu4••?•1’C ud ldator Oouall7. l :tel t SeJJato:r Coual.17. wbo wa• om.lNU of th• 8-a\e 7ol’Mca lel&Uoat Oo.., a1,, .. , bu4le4 0011\ron.rdal l•••• la ,u 4elep\to• fl17 lld.11Mq la relaUo• to Seatol’ Yaa.tea\•J’I• Ille aiaon v naJd.nc —• vho later •• ‘° beoo• oh&i:nan of the ooattt•• vhea blt 1>•1”7 cat.a.a. ooatrol af thtl Seaa \e. S.a\or VanderiDel’I ••Mecl \o •• at t1rat to \e •n U4’J)Uoal \baa JIOt\ of••• inoluclhe Sena\or Oeual.11’, a\out t.u Um.tel ••tona. la 4el.ep.Uoa … un,a he oft•n ra1ae4 lnu.e1 or lnd.loat.a uac•rtalat7. there •• .no effon ‘° outnte anJ’bod7 lJl thee• uetinct, as -1 Neall. !be prooe■a •• .·oAe of opoaitloa, cplaAaUoa, &l”&U,llent, 4laouetoa aacl of r•ohl.uc ooao11 ground, v1\llov.\ aeeklng te cletenlne who•• 1n the •Jorit7 a.ad who – 236 – • ln •? lll•n 17. Workia.g that ..,-, w1\h the Secretary of State as tar •• 1 ooul? o’.b••n• \elq aa euellea\ ohalnaa, the 4elega’1oa lteoaae a 10liot·• CJ’O\”Pi• · ‘-” ISNV la Sua?r laJIAal>erc•• al.114 •• ,he Oe.ate1·enoe pJIOCftt”4. ia ,q Yin. aon l3opetalu111 a n.’b11tl.lq of aupUc1aa. le b.caae aa a4- •eca.ta of the United laUoa$. 1 4o IIOt aeaa tle upeotecl 1\-, aooo11pl1•b mon than 1, •• -,.able of aeoompliahinc. but ‘that he ‘°4>k a rea.11.tio • • Tlev of wba\ lt could aoco11pl1ah aJMl oaae to belie,.. in t.t, to bel1••• tilat Jolni:ac aJ.14 lllppOl’li.DC i\ -· rlght. !bl• V&I a tnwaph .. , oal7 ••• t … 11, tor rich\ natoa, lt•I alao for u.i. llrea41ll ot the Soator, aacl of •• fred4.eat la the bl’084 aaUouJ. felUld.&Uoa 1ut ca•• to t.u clelep\l•• whiob vaa to -.mil• la• Allll•iou. poalUoa a\ Su fnaolaoe. ONdlt 1• not •• priacipallJ 1o 8-a\or …….. ,, “b11t to tho•• vboH poal Uoa a oaae to a4op\ aa h.1.1 ova. 1\ 11 a aiatake, 1 thlatr, for b1•’°1″7 to giTe predoalJUUL\ .DIDC!Oll OJ LJGAL l>ltlSIO• a, OJCOUS AID LIGAL .unsn !0 lllt..l!All? GOnD>Jl 0? GIIMAJT 1. Appotalllat a, Dlreo\or ot Lepl »tnstoa of OJRUI nn4 Ltnl M1i1u: M IAllkrr huwg A.a the •J’lc ‘° vhioh l vaa u•l«-4 clNV ,o an en4 at Su huoi•eo I \hoqh\ 1 abould re”11’n. to Washlnc\oa. Mr. Johll J. MoOloy bac1 beea lll \ouoh wi\h Attoney General. Ji44le about allld.ac •• to ge to 0.1’1111.1¥ •• head of \he Lecal Df.Tlsloa of the tra1,e4 S\ate■ Of’fic• of Milt.tal’J’ Ooftnaaeat and as Lecal MTS.tar \o the Hill t&17 OoYen.or. kr. 11441• oo1111Uloa\e4 • th1t oTer \be pboae ,o ••• follove4 bf more direct coatao\ between Ml’. • • Mc0lo7 –1 •••lt. ;1et.?r.e :Pa-..S.cl.•t looHTelt•a d•th la April, lt eeeme4 u.., X vouli be offer.a appolatmat ‘° \be Cour, of Appeal• la \he Dt•tno\ •t Oolu’bl•· rue posaibtllt7 •• ■”111 opea, aa4 tlw:re waa alao the q,ae1Uoa vhelhel” I oould or •?uld rewa as Sol1c1 tor G-.eni. I csue oa to Waahingtoa Q4 talk-4 v1 th Atton.e7 Genel’&l detipate !oa Clark, w!lo theA wa• not. aolul.17 ta offlce, a• I naall lt, but 1-4 ‘been. nolllmated. le 1nct1oate4 1- tbo111b, I onl4 i-eaia u loll cl \or a.ual lt I 4et1re4. I fel ‘• liovwer, that Uie Jnda.., pro-.,1, vnl4 wltll to -· a … hllol\ot” Oueal, •• be ha4 a aew Anone,- Geual. I• U7 eTU\, I thought tbat tt I wn to n­ llaia ia the pyerueat l ■hould nov eltber go to Oenaa, 01> co oa \he aoan. 1f the latter•• e\111 a-..llal>le. Chief Jutge <l?a•r bad vpel .. to accept appotnt111en11 to the Coun and Barold M. Stephen■ bad aleo aoouaged. • to do ao. A\,out a week \•fore I wae to ntun. •en•• oaae ‘° It.a 7au11eo. 1, waa aa opp1na1,,. tor be:r •aro•t• also to N-Tllll laat• ‘•• w••• •• tpexit • week at \be •• of Mr,. Alesaater aa4 enJo”4 ••tac acata M-4• of otJ.r first •m• 7•n. t.o• .Alallo• •• lhea a ar•••rr to a.a,a reaae. It wa1 lhe tce:o.e of an uploaioa vb1le ahe •• lhal’e. Mn. Al.aaaAer •• on ,o San han.01100 wl th Jc&••• lo \he ve4d.1q ot her NA La’\lall.lS.a. Villlaa .Barker, her hutbu.d. du.rinc ou yeara la luta ••• and X,nchlln’ • father, came separa\917. ill of us atteDd.0. Ille ‘\’81″1′ l>eauUhl weld.la« at tu Cathollo Olw-ch •hat’ of \he Sea,• .,.,, ou\tH.e ’11• Ott7. Ala•• aD4 t bil4 pleaUAt -,11th with Will, too. !bat w covl.4 no, all be ‘°«ether at the aaJae ti•• wae aaa. Wei 1:hH’ Will aor l’c\h (Kre. Aleu.n.4er) nel” ■poke to • tlDJdsull.7 of the other and I neTel’ Jmew Ju•t what the trou,1e ••· – 238 – • Agne, ·u.4 1 re,urned together to Waeb1ngton · after ‘Ill¥ ow -work •• • • ttnl1betl. I vnl.4 haTe liked to 1ta.7 to the ••• but 1t va• aot •••»•17 u4 1, t ••eae4 l>tttel’ 1• Tln of the otwnp la the Walblactoa eoene to i.,­ ,-h• .117 011111 4v.Ue1 were ooaolllde4. ? elater lt.fth ba4 co•• to lfaehl.,,a to 1..- .aft•• \he chl.lclna u4 U• bou• while Ape• •• ••1′. a ve17 aloe . tld.-.cfo1′ her to do. Jb>. CJ.arit told •• • taew of ,_ plu.a which act •tvecl before Preti• dd.l ltoeffYelt• • 4.eath tor -., appolatMJlt oa the Oollrt of Ap-pttale. ‘rb.e .,:..: polataerd W ‘bNll held. up becau• of uoer\aiatJ’ ta the Pre114ot•• ata4 about • nac.1101′ a• 8ol1o1 tor O..nal, 1aolu4lag tb4t cau•Uoa w1-lhel’ ll14ge Su …… algbt,.. ap-polated. Olant lolt •• M fut oo:atldcmt ,., lf l 4••U’94 P.-.tt1d.e11t f:uea w01ll4 oa.r17 o,d the plu of Pre114et looan-elt. Bow.Yer. the •·Uer n.eTar l’eaohN. a point of tln.41.ng out whether th.ta •• 4ef1111tel.7 \ne ‘beeau•• I 4eo14e4 1a aq eYent to 00111plJ’ wl th the Nqueet tha:t I ao to Geru.D1′. !he War Department va.1 autou1 that Uie datf \e o..,.. pnlsed. aa pl’OIIJll.J’ aa potdl>le 10 that a1nU.u■ who ffff ‘° bead. up the 1.,.i work la 0.l’IIIUV’ oo’ll.4 ID \hen eoon. I W 11114 no latlaUoa l aighl ‘It• a•ketl te 10 to h? u\ll ••r tu u4 ot the Sea ll’Uolaoo Ooatereaoe. le l bu aacJ.e no 1peot.al ■Wt•• of \m pl’eltleu and had aot ltffa lnvn la\o pnpan.tloa of •DY of \be l>atio 4oft.llell\e for llill\a17 connaent•• operaUoa1 la hnaa,. 1 nu•?J’ on• Cabt .. , •••tine wen there•• a •••n.l cl11n.11S.oa of..,., at.pt ‘be •acu4tb’ called a plaa tor Ge!’JIU7, la .oh hore\&17 Mol’Cea\hlm. J>&1’t1clpate4, b1ll \he 411ou11lon •• too pn.en.l \o p•• • aoh Jm.ovled&• of Ae\&111. .ltter 1t W.I deoicle4 I tllould •• I -· g1Yell the plu for .w,. aad ba4 IOM 41•Cllldon• of 1 t vl th Mr. Kc0lo7. One ot the thlncs Mr. MoOloy u1d. •• that • • • ‘ . – . ‘ . — \iii ‘1!1&1 1f 1 read 1, careNl.7 1 wu14 ••• lllat la ••••irl re1peol? the,•:•• ?• tor tlen,111,,. I w.a a,traote4 to the •*• 1’ would. attort aa oppor\ual\J •• •IIPI• 4ireetl7 la \be Ullllftal OOOQ’l)&tloa pN’bl••• followlDC uoondt Uo,:ial avren4er of Ger•ar. Mr. KoGl.07 Uio’Qght that it we oov.14 n.ooeecl 1n GerlllJtl 1n 6v nl•’1on1 with the SoTlet ve woul.4 nooeecl goel’llll.7. l ltepa to 1en11•t • a fw •n ot .,. o’WJ\ aeleoUoa to 1uppl•••• -111•: taq .,.,.,…., pel’aouel &l.N&47 la GenaJJT. A\ a l>•l’NMl ooatar••• wt. th \be Pr••14eat 1 pTe hi.a -, real..-‘loa •• Soltottol’ Gaeral lnt.t ncge1lecl that he Ao ao\ aooe,t 1,. ul••• i. felt 1, n♦o•••1’1• ua\11 I lla4 bee la Oenaa7 a aoalll or tls we••• Be -.1, be volfl.4 follow -.y ova wlebet 1n. tu., r..rt, and M dld. “• In faot it va.a aoo«,pW 1>7 the appo1nuaa\ of Jbo. l. Bowal’d MoGn.th. Go’f’el’Qor of llbo4e 1•land. ·• a, .-, ncoeasor. ia Septaber or Ootober. At m, ?1tlt v1 th the Pre1id.ea\ i,,. 1a4lca’84 he ha4 otteN4 the Solloitor Gearalthlp lo J’wlp lh•,,.. llatu, a fonel” S.Jia’al’ial 0011…,. ‘•• oa tlle Oovt ot Appeal• tor ,? Snea.l>l Oll’Olli\, 1n latel’ 7•n ‘- lte appolatet l>J ,i. h•t14ea\ •o Ille. ltlp1W1e Court. It •• atfta,17 1U10re4 aftel’ l •• la 0el’1111Q’ tba\ tile ott1• W. al• beea ,en4en4 to OoTel’DOJ” .11111 A.ntall of Gaorli,a, vbo llt.4 4eolb• 1,. lhell I •v \he Pr1114ea\ ln J’Ol.7 he ha4 been in otf1•• abou\ llln• aoatha. Aboul a week lat••• la 0.l’MD7, 1 Wt’O’• thla aoCOUll, of \be nut, whlol>. I ‘111u coatalna aothhg ot a oonfld.ealtal ollaaotert On \he f!m.ncta, l>•tore 4eparture. •• Pnt14ea\ 1’naa Q.4 bu4ecl b1a q lelter of redpation. l taid ,., •• he knev t •• l•Tin« 111 t!le oapaoi\7 of I. G. (Sollo1\o1″ Geaeral) but tboucht a s. G. abould be 8J1P01nted reaeo.nabl7 toon. De eaid h• • • • – 240 – WO\tli bold the ree1gna:’1oa \t’fl\11 I \.bougM proper, tbat he wlahet\ to band.le the utter a• I wante4. I Mid. p•J’haJ)• a ao.a». oa- 81:r veca va• -, tho”QCh,. lLt aaid that wa• all right, · that he waa leariac tor the .,le ‘fhne• aeeUng (he did not to pha.•• 1 t) wo1114 ao, t..e ‘baok for •b: or 1nea veek1 — votd.4 not amaouoe tu reeipaUon unUl hla re’1:lrn. !he heelclen, W:t &flllMt looktd. vell aa4 1poke about . pro’bl• et hl’IIU1′ •• …- lenc’h. lte ••erae4 uhurrle4 and collected• 1polce fnel7 .• aa4 tilo”tJChtfull.7. S. •••toaed 1.he ideal of a V. s. of Juope, but a4cled that oal7 Moe bad it been aUopW, b7 Cae•i- u4 . ….,. IV — both of who■ Ml aUul7 4eathe, thought h1’118Jl7 · •• out a, a threa\ 1a &1\1′ nent for 80 1•r•i I •• wt th hla )elwea ao and. 25 aiaufl••• Ldt -, letter of nelpatlon and esp).alaad -, poet Uoa n,ardlrc the aee4 toi- a lolloi ’81’ General •••1’17 eooa ta JuUee to the vol’k. • • • I rfl11uoJcecl abov.\ \be. new vol’k ,., l tel, AO parttm:alar ooapetooe tor. Be u.14 t.o pv.t *’ o•t ot -, at.net, that he would. not ••• au:e4 u to do 1, lt he !lad _, thought l oeul.4 clo s.,. 1 IJ)OU of ., feel- UC abo11.\ the offtc• ot Sollci\el’ Guenl, \b.e prhilege ot n­ preaenUag th• »•OJ>l• ‘before the Ooun. le agne4. Said he ba4 1Pokea to J,ulp Mia’-• re ‘-kine •• ofttoe. ln1’ h1t 414 not v1 ell to do ao. le walked to ibe 4oor VS. th •• aD4 vi9hed. •• •ell la \hct work. l WS.ahe4 ht.a ne17 ·n.oo.••• ••aU.oalag particularly · tm ooain& con.ter•••• aJMl u1d be w.1 do1nc a tln.e Job. to which be replied that n W. pod. ad:YiHr•• 4ltolatll1ac peraonal aoooapllshllenta. The aJmO\Ulceunt ot -., aatlpaent to \he Oenu voric vae made at the Wh1 te &,use aa tbowch \he ••leoUon bad beea by Oeeral It tenhover, who vat Millt.17 Ooftnor, vbeN&•• a, a •tier of tao,, the aeleoUon bad been aad.e ta Vathlagton, i.bo11&h perhape lt ha4 ‘be• olea.N4 with General •••bower. Geaenl Luolv.1 D. 01.&J, ».i,ut7 MilUa? Oo..-enaor, I feel an •• ooaftltel. l had not had UI’ pH•aoaal ooataot wt.th O.er&l •••above• Q4.. •• lda tor the ttr,t U•• la luJ..1. in hi• office ta Jl’UkfD.rl. We vere fortunate, 1D4eel, la the aatoc1ate 4treoton — Judge .r. Van• Wei.ea, oa l••• troa the Oovt of Ola1••• ai:ul Mr. •rmn Phlecer of Su. rnaelaoo. Jude• Maclden, •• Uie•• ao\ea ••• already 1Jl41c1ded, ••• cbail’llllA ot \he laUoMl ltabor JelaUon• Joarwl whea I •• 1\e general oousel. I ba4 the greatee\ reepeot tor bi• ab111t7 and character, u4 •• – 241 – • toad ot bia personal.17. J: tlu.Alt Mr. Pbleger ha4 beu 1ntere1ted b7 Mr. • • Ko0lo7 wbo 1’bw bl• vell; l111t Mr. Plllepr 414 ,, wish lo eo wltbeut .,q P•rtoaal -.,roftl af\er X w., 4e.S.pated \o hea4 the group. Re oaae.eal• Wa.al:da«to• aad ve bad a Tleit. 1 uzsecl bl.a to co vttll ••• not oal7 on \be ‘b&tl1 of MJ>. MeOl.07’• Nco•aaUon., which va• ••rr high. but on the \aala of • owa appft.iul. ot ht• and \he OOIINAdatloa• also of Kl’. Jae••• Ke7er, of the llaah1a,toa lul, also a pereonal friend of Mr. Phlege:r. Re only Nllal..a. uUl l>eoea’b•r. Ma44ea Naiaed. IOHVbat loncer thu l. 1 wU.1 .. , ea … ra\e all ,_ &’Docl •• 1tho Jolae4 \u eta.ff, 1nolu4lnc Mr. 1.hll m…n ot . own Sollot tor haeral • • otttoe aa4 effenl other• fna •• ».,artaeal ot J,aauu. J.a\er on, Jtr. Al:na J. locknll, rith whoa 1 bd ‘bHII aaeoa1ate4 la ..,…., wl’k oYer a auiber ot 1’•”•• Jolaed. 11.e ud later beoue head of \he Legal lJlviltoa, as alto 1C1″. Ma.44en clltl tor a v.bile. lookwell’ • taallJ’ Jo1ne4 hta and he reaatae4 eeTeral year, altogetber. Va took oft from tile Vaablqtoa .Urporl Jui, 13\Jt.. Charle• oaae to . \htt allpor\ •• Npnaeatat1Te of tu tuil7 to •” •• off. Aca•• an4 · l ,..,. •14t4 ta\•• the best-,. . aa4 I par\ecl. at tu hpart.t of J’uaU•. t bu .. Wk vi th Oharl .. &bO’ll\ M. OV!l future. le eat.a tbat he ltlll ta- , …. -, ‘b• a prleat. whloh, Qo4 wtlllnc, pl••ed • ••17 neh. We 1u4e4 la J’ewto1ladlall4, the Aaor••• Part• and flnal.17 at Prukfurt. la ero,elag hi.ace, be,oal Parle, w oould IN e’rid.eace of eoae cte,tra.oUd l.u to \u •r• bu, ,, a P•’ cl.Nl that I ooul.4 plck ou, troa the al.r. And ln \he ‘bl’let ‘1•• 1 t took io traTe:ree fraaoe U va• laipo•alble ,o eppl’a1te \he elaaS.tloaao• ot all \ha\ ba4 oooutted then \he la•t tew 1•r1 • • – 242 – Ge11eral ‘.ldvard o. Jetta. the theatre J’Odce ad:n,oate. met 11e at the 7n.? Airport and look 111 to hla e11’ta’bl11luaant out 801M ml•• tro• •? cl.\? tor ou tint nlah.t ta Ger11U7. the 4et\no’1oa aro\UMl ?• •• heayt., U wae •–rili»c to se,e. tn the light of our ow reaoteae,,1 fro• . n@ a r•nl.t ot parUoipaUoa in. ,he wr. A1 w •• out tn,o the ••tq- 114• \ovard Genenl 1.,,,1 plaae of reat4ence \be de1t:ro.ct1on ••, no\ to ol>Tlou. MaXl7 people wr• wol’kinc in th• flelde, ano,U7 old. men and voaa. Ou hal’dl,1 ner uv a l’OUC aa. and the roa4a were alaoet enUN11 ? ot’ l•.l”ll!M ••hloular traff1o. !heJ’e were IIU1′ b1070les. f),,e o-.ra1, alone with other Aurtoaa offtnrs, ll•ed ta a n•14-.t1al ••oUon padt4 aad n,nu4e4 \7 \a:rlte4•vlN. , 1’he •••• •• a.l’ pret•llou,, well fu.nl•W aad well appolawt. !he M&Aqarter• of ov vorlc •• then about ••• kilouter1 O\l\ t’tO■ • Jruldu.n, at IB chtl. 10.U.tar:, 0oYe1″Dllellt, 0Mft18 •• 11 -· oall«l (Office • of Uw M1lltar, ….. ruu,. Val led State,) t bad taken OTer the I. G. Jar’b• ‘nll41DI• there. ‘-•• veH tu1 te •••taaUal and. la eoo4 001141 Uoa, al,,… •’ •• en••lw and. ao4ea •• tu \’O.lltlap of ‘1t.e ….. OOJll)aQ ta ln.alttut ilaelt, wblob ve1’e tllen General a .. JLbowr• 1 :bead…,rtel’a at MtUtaq Go••nao• u4 haeral of the oeapattoa al’lll••• •• Nft .,. •• offt••· la ·•h•t uA “·” Hoa llllleted la & …. .,.,_ •14• of \owa, witll a oar a, our diepo-1. Jla4ctea. Phlec•r u4 l Um toget-. r. ‘, We aA4 tu othJr lav,er• who lad. ooae vl\h •• ve!’e volbd. lalo ,_ ext•Uec llilltal’J’ PY•mutA’ ••’al>lltbaeat Q4 oaae umter \he 1-edta\e n.penldoa t>f G♦utal 01.q, »..,?,7 llll.1-.,,- Go1tenol’. 4lreo\17 h-,oali”‘ble –•r CJMenl It tenbowr tor 11111 ta:ry connaea,. Geaeral •••bowr thea • • • – 243 – Although -., new grcup of laW7er1 bad not been a par\ of llll1ta17 eo•ena• I • were oorcllal17 ,,.1ooaed. b;r the flae offtoer• vbo had oo• lato the ·.&flQ’ tna c1’fillaa lite u.d bat W llll1t&l’7 eo••naent training Ud.•i­ ‘be ,a.ae.i Wtoker1bo proou. fh. whole of OJlfJOS va• -.ting Ut plu• to IIOYe lo Berlin at tu cu- · oluaio• ot \he Potad.aa Ooafereaoe. vhloh w.1 to activate the tour-power coTe1″Ulent of Ge:rMJ11’. a. r., … ,a (uu,, ‘•*•• ••. \ha llnab•II M&L h.nac the PotNall C.ntenaee, Ju■,toe laoteoa •• 1n lioa4oa •• 011.’f pnaolpal. ueoua,or of tu 111.atruaent vhloh t,..,.. lmovn a, the Ohaner of the latenaUonal Mlllt&J7 frll,ual. I tbn.14 •7 here tliat the lepl •* of vhich I •• ta ohlrce did aot 1ra.olude to an;, 4eC1″9• the hNaberc !rial 1 t•elf • though ve d14 belp 1n geHlng the trial uad.er va, vl th Gerua oou­ ael for the accused ud to. a auber of o\har reepeot,. Mr. J,i.Uoe Jaaktoa ba4 hl• ova aeparat• oipnlsaUoa. At I ,o alone 1 will pl’Ol>abl7 polat out toaevbat bow our •* ‘beoue nla\e4 to or IO’ll.ohell h.11. °’11’ orcaat1atto11 •• napoa1lble tor tile Uattecl Slate• lepl work of Ille oeoupaUoa. aa4 ot the eo••nuzat of hniu,, o\lMtr tbaa tile Jlanabe,s I rial a. J-a.1UN laokeoa, 1n 1.ondoa. ••’ wort \hat he wl•lwd Oenenl Jett, a.114 .. \o ••• ld.• ta Berlla. Be wl•hed to take a4ftAtac• ot the pr••••o• lheJ”e of \!Mt Jlreeiunt, the S.ereta17 ot State (Mr. IJ’J’M•) • en4 Mr. Mc0lo7, ‘° \rlag \hea wp to 4at• on \he ata,u• of aecc,UaUoa, la lion4oa, vhffe he va1 haT1Ac Uttioult7. p1’11\o1pal17 bece.1a.e of the So’Ylet po1at of flew, ,u, ut e».UNlT due lo \he lonet • • • • – 244 – &eneral »etls and l flew \o IN’lla 1.a General Jetta’ plane, an1•1lll 1n ibe •”•noon. ‘We wn driYen out to \he Allllrioaa qua:rtel”I at >ota4u aa4 \MN .. , luetloe Jaolttoa, vho bad flow onl’ fl’OII Loa4oa. !bat • …, we .., vlUt the leoreb.17 of State all4 Mr. McOl.07. As I recall the ••ti• waa pantoipated in )7 •• JuaUo• Jaclcson, the 8eore’8.17 of State, Mr. MoOlo7, M.s-. Je.aea o. Dwm of the Depa1’\Mnl of State, General Betta, perhap, · Ml•• Jatberine 11 te ,. an4 .,-,.it. la:•\loe J’aokeon uplalne4 hts pi-ol>leu. ’11. J.oa4oa •qoUaUo•• wen . \akiaa loapr thaa •• healtlq. le wt.sW. to 001u111ll the S..eta17 a\etut cln.wlaa thea ‘° an -4. 11 potalltl•• ‘b7 tut.DC a •r• ‘ri.corot1.1 aH1We. Whll• he •• au1ou• ’11&.t ,be 8o’fi•’• putlclpate 111 tu trtal. then •• a …. ,.?•• laaw tar the Um tel State• ehovl.4 aow &o ta 1Nlda, acneMa\ lf tbe ••UaUon• ooAUAUtl to be protracted • l toa•t rueal>er I.bat he lad.teated. to me 11111’ Uaw.ft&lloe oa hit pan that ,, .laHlans aicht be ••tltlng aoae parUoular ac.r•••n• at Pot.au b7 4ngctac tbeir heel• at Londo».. Be 414 tta7 the 1tu .. 1aaa wre nl.uetu, \o ••• •• •• 4• p1’0o••• or prooe4v• •• ,,. 4••t.n4, laklac t)te .,,…., ••• a ,011,t.oa>. 4NieioA ha4 be.a 11114• ‘b7 Italia ••• the•• •a were 1’111’7 • . lacdl:aoa •• eaoovace.t ’17 Seontaq 11′:ne• to 111♦ hl• 1>e11 JtMIIIN••• ¥1th \he f,al.l aupporl of ld.a ao•enaaeat. JIIJ’ ftll potl’1oa1 whioh I e3rpre1ae4 aon f’llllr to Jaok90a pel”aoul.11′ tball 4u1nc ‘h• ooaten••• wa1 ta I h4t ehnl4 1>N•• pre\t7 baricl Mva1’t1 a ooaclueio.a., nea it l\ aeaat a nbnaaUal thNal of hanna \o coa4uot IM trial vi thn.t the So’ri.ele. At our ■MliDC v1 lb lda the hore\&17 tpOb of the pael’lll el waltoa. 1 no\fd. laur ia penoaal uh• tbat he eata, 9We will aot eaontio• our • • ‘ • – 245 – prinoipl•• or tn.clt ‘10111.” He ,-1 consoS.ous ot I.be tutUN opWon ot the wor??–;•c.J\Unc \M polio7 of ,. .Ua1tt4 Sw.•••• -.::• · ,.”17 b•fo1’• o1U’ … u-, word had. r••W Pett4u that the ?11 , ·, . .. ·. ‘ ‘ . . _- ___ ,;..·_,_,· :• ·;• . :>. ·;, .·· .· . . . ,..,,.,., .bacl falle 1a \he ele0Uon1. Mr. 0h1u’oblll bad let\ Pot.a .. , .. reoet;Te the renl•• ln .. laa4 u4 vo,rJ.4 not reh.m. Mr. AU••• who had .., … wllll hi• a\ Po\ld.all, Nll&lAed.. the nut d.&7, we were taken 011 a, tour of Berl ta. ‘• deatl’\1.CUo.a •• · u.1t.•c u4· -i.•,.i. there !Mut been a temtio wut ot tigbU.,,… -.>lfl .,. .. Jl••••••• weat \o B1U.•:s-•• Ohuoe11•1’7 u4 to k1• uar’b7 u1.,.,? .,aarten where he JJ”Okbl7 ••’ hi_• latt •-••• •• av tu •Mb oa vhiCJll -? wae euppoH4 M Mft ao, hlaulf. Jlee48’a1a• w•r• aUU tun; the .fl••• •• 1a cUaori.el’. !bat part of lerl1a •• the patnlle4, lt o• oo’lll.4 oell l\ taat, b7 Sonat \nope, a fttW n1,b8r aoD4eeoJ.”1pt-loold»c 90ldlen 1\Qding aN’11114, DOt pqiq -.oh a,tentloa \o vho was goil:ag ia uct out. ti., 414 ao\ preaut a ••i-t appearaaoe. 1• \he l•eclta\e area ven one “•r 1w 01′, aballlloaed. b>ned.rawa luataa weou ,-., had been 4nwa o16• up to ll.’1•r• • hea4.-run. la coat.ad wllh \hl1 aoa4etod.pt ou.raot•p et .-. la.a•lu •l’ll7 puaoaael \lM 1’011.’8• ‘9 Po,…. tna the a1rpoztt “” pati,011.a b7 •••1• eol41en vllh -,1r:1., all4 d.laolpliae. flMt lo’f’l•t W &lao broqht le ••rlla a oorpa of Jl»UC la.ealu ‘WOIIU who dlreoW \afftt a\ kq 1.a,er1eoUon1. fh97 wen 1arU1 ultorae4 aa4 41.d u uua-1 u4 US.•• Joli ot \raffto ooatnl, 11UAftl”1DC ••rtl7 vlth 11\\le nacs. Sou HVaC• w.1 b..U, 011.\ of order. b th.e oeater of the 0U7 tu octo.-a w•r• ba4. !her• •• a ‘bect.naiDC of oleadrc 11p ot iu n.’bl»’le. Xo1\ ot \be womrt ,,… • .. u4 old –. We \bollcht we aew vb., Wt waa to. !he ,oun« 11e11 ver• 1Ull pri.on.•r• of w.r oi- 41al’Jl9d eaei17 fore••• a1 tbe7 were calleA. • • • – 246 – J.♦rlta •• a “”1· 4epresain, plaoe. The dffaltaUoa •• in etan .coatraa\ \,s,ttl .-14enoe• of the lwlpt ot the lf1 tle:r reglae. UV in ra.la1. the . . 4••???Jtoa va■ 90 extuelff 011.e 00″1.d aol !Mlp wllden.nc wl\7 \he Cieraan, ,.,·::!:’::·.. . . . bl4 ao, 41U’i”eJJAere4 earlier. l, net ha.Te beo appanra, to lhe aili\UJ” lua kfore aotaal t111i-ftJlder that the d tu&Uon was hopel•••· lfu7 W l>•• ·’4Jd.uc a tentfto ‘but1,nc. ·’fhe ei tutlon. 111.eht baTe beea aore •laTlou to \he ol•ilia.n.e thaa ‘° \he allltaq, bu.I 1\ 11 a etnnc• coaun, oa\he whDl• .llltier regime tlat la Ille •• J!t\ler peNl IW hit oout17 to lte u­ atro7t4 to extea11•el7 wba M au\ ll&ft nova he •• lhoroqbl.7 l>•tu. Jut lhft 0? 001ll”lt’ he 414a•t u .•• to ha•• lo VOl”JY aka.I 1, …… hl• ,_ pl1; lle apparea\17 4••t•7e4 h1 .. elt, ‘°o• · Ia ., oplnlon •• hna’beq \nal vat J••Utled.. l d.o aol noall ..-, 41touttioa aaong ov•el••• of tnattq I.be •r orllli.nal• •• lapoleoa, tor U1U1ple, ha4 ‘bee tl’eate4, aor &DJ’ dieouHioa to tu etfeol the tna1• wn iaet.rmaents to Ju.1ttf7 polttilallJ wha\ bad ‘been. aobieftCl alll\aril7. ‘1’he h? l..tei-e bad \•en ._let •• wuld be t:rle4. la tbe Mo1oov Deolara’1 oa •. ·•• •r,17 a• 1945, \liq were warned the7 w1114 \e W4 aocoutall• •• -, -,tlllaal• for alrool’1•• aat\ eo tonh. leaa lteton h.Jtubel”g. l\ •? oaaf:• fbtil pollq of tu Alll••• ••rialal1 of tlae 1Ja1\e4 ftate1, Ila\ Use wr >onalaal• wu.14 lte lr1e4 aa4. put.abed aa o’l’l.ataala. fllen waa ae 4ef1a1t1oa then ot the prootl41lre to be adopted. nt one ••• r. … ‘ber \ha\ the tlda&• 4oae bJ II.Iler u4 hl• rectae nre orlmnal. We appl1 \ho vor4 •orllllul• to an ln41’f’1411111 vllo Tlola\ee the law ‘tt, tteallag a lod of ‘bnal or a tall na of IIOU7; tb.e thine• \he1e au we?• &oeuet of dolaa vere 01’1.aual. the tact \bat \hq aotecl on a ••et..,. toal• toe• ao\ …. thl I le•• true. • • • – 247 – X.,S.ng aa14e ,u pa\ion. whether a Ju8’1 oe ot the lmpr•• Oourt 1ho..;l? ••• 1’-..a aeleolecl •• our pl’iaotpal pro .. eukr, the Pretlclen.l lit.· eele.?.:na, · Jaoktoa •el••t• aa outataulnc mu, a la””r ot &rMI ollaft.olir. . . au ·oapao1,,. 1Ja4ea• lll• 1-«erehlp our goTeftlllu.l worked out the lateaa- Uoul Charl•r vhf.ob ffea’1aal.17 bad ,.be adhereue aol 1i11pl7 of ,m tour 1ipatori.e1 in London but ot eo•• tvea’7 044 aaucm,. Under ii theee •• were triei Y1 lh fa1 r prooec’lu:re. It l• ta14 the ooqa.enn wen ti. tnen, H U.t the trtlnuaal •• aol lllparUal. then 1■ aoaetblq ‘° tlal1. II voul.4 be ‘beltep lf, •• l thlu the Bol7 lather bat polate4 01t.t aon reootl.7. there were a oov\ to ooaclu.ot tl”ialt of lbt• ollan.our, “‘ \1f S.a a4ftltoe an4 oo\ ooapo1el ot n,reff!ltatl••• of lbe T10\or1. Although 1h11 ol’lUota of lueakrc hi.a •• aubt\allH 1, la aot nttiolut to ha.Ye wrl”‘IIAl-4 olll•dea to 117 th••• aea • !he tribllllal -· 4iH1″1111MUna; 1, -· _, a pollUcal 0011rt. U r•ohe4 4.1ft ereat Jwtcaeata 021 the baat • ot the eT14•o•. lhe 10Teruu.t of tbe 1Ja1tecl S?t••• whloh proteou.te, a orllllnal, 1• the eaae &o•ernau.t ,i., appotat, \he .tcaqe. ftli• s, ao• qm.te • pal’llll-1 ntuation; n, la WiJ•· u-, for ,he tlrtt “·•• la ht 1to17 ■uh a trial …. aev groWMl ba4 le be bl’Oko. the •1’Pll•’ acata■\ be141ng head.a of ••’•• n-,oa,1\1• la at nw l• anmn4 \J’ ,.,auac 0111 \bat the Uu bd coae vhea the la\enaHoul ooa.. 117 aholal4 4aoaiaa•• what va, done a, aa tatematloaal orlae. Ve clo ao, 11ft la a perfect world, lnlt I \ht.Dk ,u … …. eaterpdae w■ toUDA 1.ll light of the pl”Oble-. !he ffl4 ..CM WI oTet•vhela1»c – t•a Ml 1p.akiag DOW •• ‘9 •oh lad.1d4ul. • …. 4l1Un,’1111h ,., … thaa •. • • – 248 – _, t.f ve are to pudth people la Olli’ o1Y111•Uoa \bu. —·· &OO’ll•ecl Wl”• aleo, -.?J••’ ,o p’D1■hllea, 1t ga11,1 of \be ob&rs•• ap.laat \hell. :. .’ . ‘ . J,·o.–.,. Olq looked to •• to alt• anuceaea,■ tor the oeaH.-tt,• ·01 var ;.? .. , trial• allel’ \he ooacluelon of tu fln\ late •UNa1teq ,? undtii.Ju,tla. Jaokaoa. ‘the ananceNah bad to ‘be aa4• well t.A Mlftaute ot · t.he ooaoluaion ot \lie mta trial to tha\ whonei- vat to ‘be re9Poaet’ble would ?•• an oppos-‘\UA1$7 to hold oa to aea’ber• ot Judice Jack90a’ • ••tt. hn•? Olq W oo•• $o the ooaolu■tea — vlth whtah I vaa la.,,… … ••• ….. ,-., after J.uaUoe laotaoa o•aple,..i IJle •l• lrial tllt o1’&QIIIA”‘” Uoa’ \o ce to rwar4 vUh otb.ett trial• ai»ul.4 ‘ie uhr Ille M1ll taq Oo••–‘”• ratheJt tbu coaUau •• a Np&ra\e or,..11a,tea epeaUa« 11.n4er ue•’1•• ol’4•r of the Prea14at. 1 va.n\ed. M.Jt • .1raAe1• M. Shea to take oYer 11rher• Ju\1.oe Jackeoa woul4 lea•• off bu, he retuned to \h4J 11aUe4 Stat•• aa4 llade hl••elf uaftllal,le. U then ••eaecl tor a while tb&t Colonel lfllllaa Donoftll, who at oae Uu va■ · pan of the lu.reaerg gl”Ovp, vould do to, kl la the enl he•• wwtlllBI• I \JMa learaed. \bat Ooloael t.ltol’d ‘-Flor, al•o pan of tae o,aulaa\loa, Idell\ be wllllnc. l talke4 with hi• a maa’ber of Haff aD4 reoowale4 ld.a tor -.ppo1ataut. l\ neat-.te4 tba, he lteoue ,he oblet proaecv.’°J” oa \ehalt of th• Ualte4 It.tea n.bteq,uat to \he tatenaUoaal \1>1&1. la all of th11. tbere ver• entnl lnp• to h.rut,eig, where 1 11:ept tn clo•• \ouh wt th l••Uoe Jaokeoa ••’ tawre plaa1. !he •”•• ha4 lo ‘be won:e4 011, aleo Yltb General l•t••• wllo ooaterN4 wl\h hural aaeahower. We lat•r took up \he tlaal plaa1 vl th General lt4ell ldlll. and he appNTe4. Wath­ lnctoa’ • approftl, lnoluAlag Uat ot the ntt• ••••• •• 1 reoaU, vae alao • nece11a17 beoauae of the nature ot tu Jackeoa orpnlsaUon. • • • – 249 – th. quatloa ha4 to be a.uwz-e4 whether the tub••ttWtnt trial• eho’lll.c1. be tit•nMIUonal 01′ aow. vs.,h lhe approftl of l••Uoe Jaoktoa aaa, aoOOl’UAC to 117 best noolleotloa, vl\h hlt l’eooaeDllaUon, 11 va• c1 .. s.t.a · that no rother tdal• oa aa tatenaUou.1 ••l• vo-14 l,e heltl. Wti.11• tu ‘big ,r1a1 wa• to co fonal’Cl with the ooopera\ioa of tbe tov powra 1, vat ultit.17 n.oh cooperatioa would oonUme — at l•tt 1 t wa• J’i t1t7. I u’fl ee4 General Olq to the –• effeo\. ,.Uuar ciuedloa of i,ollo7 vat vhethe:r \he f’llW.N tnala tbolll.4 f.aoltMle t.Dl1l•11’1all•t• aa war Ol’ild.Mla. 1 Uaoucht •’• ul••• l>J’ acneaet b …. haao•, laglaa4 Ull oVHl’NI. • ……. 1, t1ll’M4 •• , I.bat …. 1.i,,- · tnalt••• wen tne4 ,,. tu v.tw s-.,., 1a4., • .a .. ,1, ot tu poalltoa ot ri..u ·&JMl Jritala. t sbolll.4 MD.Uoa that Colonel Obarle• J’alJ”IIU, • right had. of O.a.-1, ,.,,,. the ,heatn Jwlc• a4TOoate, vo:ked oloael7 with•• in aktag th• ar­ napaeati• tor the tutm-e and. u.da a aoa\ w.l:ualtle coahi.butloa. General Jetta lwJael.t pertoaall.7 parUot.pated., an.a Coloael Cla1:1.4• ). 111.0kelwalt vat al .. , co.-ltad.. a. •• \b• la Obal’I• of tlui •n orlho4ox vaP on.Ma pro?· aec,u.tloa• ater· \be artlol•• of war, apart tna Ille .,b•rc Olaarlel’. Coloael 1’qler felt t:bat lt lie vae te ‘beooM ebiet Vat.W l\a\e• ,. on••• npreeentaUTe he uo\\14 baTe •• rau et a •••rel. I acnel a.al took \he aa\ter up vith o … ral Ol.q. le preferre4 lat X 1111D the noo•MD4a\ toa d.lnot to \he Wu lepartaa,. tu lo penoan.l pn’bl … of hi• owa. · 1 wrote direoU7 to Un.ter S.oretaq Patleraoa aa4 the pro•lioa •• -.4• amla’ble. •• were •Tlag torw.J’d la \he Lepl l’>lreotonte of thtt Ooat1’01 Coe.oil ia Berlia with Lav lo. 10, • comprehens1T• law clrafte4 largel7 b7 Kr • • • – 250 .. Pble,?r to ooTer the nl•• and pnoedure,1 ooa•i•\eat17 vt.,h ,1ie lveaberc Oha.,.tr. fol’ var ori••• •• wtthla \he Artlclea ot We.r. ftda •• to bf the lav i-,’;, •r lone. u4 ve alto toa«h\ Ut approftl for hntaD7 a1 • wbct1••’ h ?abra? the tro@lffOJle •aeaberu!J)1 pro’bl••• a’b-.t whiob t ha4 …. n1 oonterelloea vi th JueUoe Ja.ok8Qa aacl other• at hreniber1. We eoucht lat•• ,o .-ad 1,ay 10 l». \hla reepec\. Mellberahip in the Baai Part7. or pariBa11 orgu1satlon•• wa, d1tferen\ fro• 1n4h1.dul guilt b7 ooad.uot. I vo.i.u• t vut to talk pntn.\l.ov.•11′ abou.t \bl• t•• noolleoltoa, but the OhaJ’hl’ ga. \he cout JUltdioUon to find orpataUoat orllllnal witll ea­ nlq napoat1ibllit7, a• •• lbough\. of orillillllltt7 lllpted ‘- … ben. !hit •• a aerloua pron .. troa the a’6aclpolat of AMl’loan oonoeptlou of or1alnal reapGa■ib11117. What I woill like \o M1’ at tbla U.ae wJ.\bout 101DC \tack futher into the reeol’da 1• tllat l th1a1c thlt pn’bl .. ,., largel7 Lav of March Sth. 1946. later referred \o llON full7. °’11lt in oor.mecUon wt.th .’benhlp •• place4 b7 \bit law 011 an ln41Yldul \a.ta tor 4eo1doa \1 the trt\unale N\ -, ‘UAel” \ht a hnaslfloattoa 1-v. Jleal’lnc• o? t»lal.• oa tlMt Allerloan atu la \bls ooaaeotloa veN larcel.7 left to \he 4autf1• -.u •• proCJM. VMN b41..t.411&l. re-,on•lllllllJ’ … ·- \atlo ….. 1, ooaee ‘baok to • aor• tlearl1 •• I b•CS.n to \allt altout lt \hat I -4• a 4etea1n-4 etfon ‘9 c•• \he ■eaberehlp proltlea la\o the 4enallftoaUoa pl’Olff.ll •• the ul U•\• aol•tl&a. !here ,1se 1a41·dcl•l ooul.4 ha•• aa la .. 41 nd.ul heannc. 7he ooun• la whloh \he sow trial, were to ‘-Ice plaoe wen av.thor- 1se4 u4er Oo11trol Oo’UC11 Lav lo. 10, vhiu •• p-11t la effect vld.le I •• • in 0-.l’l&IIT. ‘1’he 1eleoUon of the Juclc••• hrn,.,…,., •• no\ UD.derlakea befoN – 251 – • X lt?ft. la faot \he lurellber, ,r1a1 lts•lf did. not end u.’11 after l left. !hi·•?. J)1’f’1a1oa ot M1llta17 0oTHU&I I lh1n.k partloipa,ec1 ia lh• ? ·. leo-,??? of J\tflcee, aa4 the War hpart-.nt 1A Walhlacto• •• aoU•• 1a i.i,? i»c ;o’\Wn Judges ,o Co OT81′ U4 J)Nai4• OTe1′ these n\1equent tl’iall •. -?• Obar;e1 !brK7, ltho had a14e4 Jutice Jackto». 111 peraoael aa.tter•, aleo •••iatecl XU.1 \&17 OoTel’Jlllat in ••curi111 Juda••• Be con.nl ted •• fro• ti• to UM and 1 ca•• hi• vha, help I could, but I dtd no, ‘bear a111 of the ltftl’l•• aft•r a:, retun. of teleotinc these cau …. • • , . ·- . , .. :, 1A Mrl7 October. 1941, l •• la touah w1 th Ju.1tla Jaoluoa •ltou• t1- ope11l.ag la Berlin. of \he ••reaberc• ,:na1, aob.94-.lecl tor Ooto’beJ’ 18th. It la aot unal.17 naeal,ered 111a, the court flit■’ ooDY•J:194 ta Berlin, DOI ill hreab•rg. Jack1011 aJMl. o,hln of hit «NlXP ar1’lft4 Ootober 6\h. Be aa4 ov.i- old. t•i•n4 hank: Shea eta,ect with••· (A tiae TOU,Q.g prlft.te followed Jaokaoa around aa a boq,:aard. Be al.so atqe4 in our hcR:lse.) 1 ••’ ..,. the plan• tor the f1r8′ ueUnc ct the Oou.rt ven uaT01clabl7 conta.1ed. a b1 ,. OU ovn croup 1n ler11a 414 a fl.a• .job ot i,11111&11 thine• toceUwr tbeff. .the Oovt 1’1elt ha4 u orcanha111on au we nppl1e4 \hit laitlal.17. ant la part Uitt.r•thr. Wbta Jaok:ana un'”4 Ile veal 1•e4ta,.i7 \o ”- aeettag of t!Mt Chl·et J>roHmtort ·then. la ••••ton al \he Al.11e4 Ooatral hlldlng. Be bt.4 beea 4ela,e4 a da7, lntt at I Neall Jbio. S1d.ue7 A14•raaa• oae of h11 prtactpal 11n, … , •• •• on bud, •• well a• Mr. Shea. !o compllca\e tba pl’O\l•, ,. ·X.O.rt Oldet JusUoe of Jncl8ll4 hat oo• ‘° lerlla am a •octal gatherlJtC ha4 lteen arranged. la bl• honor (where l •’ 87 aev oppoatte IJ’OJI \be Vatted. l1»&4o•• MJ”. J.facaslde). ‘l’he Lord. Chief lu1tlce . ,:apht, we lean.a, be• cauee Jackeon 41cl ao\ appear at U1• ca•hennc, clue to pr.en.re of o\her • • • – 252 – mat\e:r1. Lamia, of ,he Ohle! JueUoe•s unl’ea.tona’ble attitude Jack:toa neYerlh-1.eH we\ ou\ of hl• w.7 to be oourleoua to h1•. After a la\e 41m1er he wen, o’Yel’ \o ,q office and called the Lord Oh1e1 Ju1Uoe. fteN wa• IIO uaea\tle phol.e ta ou.r llou••• ‘1’be n•st 4ay he sav hi• ott a\ t!M .AlJ”-o­ porl, ad all waa well I nppou. ·’th.re •• \he ‘buelaeat ot celtinc tu lndtataent printed.. and the dela.r a.a \-ha So’fiet tnn1laUea, eto. In the aeuUae laokeoa voncecl 1». a •wt at ov bouae. On Oeto\er 8th Jiddl• ua famr, \be Aaertoaa J’udce aJ:14 alteraate, amft, ‘itl \h Jove. Wecul•r u4 YrJ.cht. ln contena.oe, l>e- · h••A J’aokaoa, Aabaalador MurphJ’ alMl •••lt, lackBOa lnUcatea tbe ..fl.can. Ju4ge ought aot to be Pne14en\ of \htt Court 11•••• of Jack1t0a•• owa pn• cloalnaa\ parl in other aepeot1 of the whole ule’ltaktng. We &O”•• aJl4 l, la teotded. that I am to ••• 11d4le ad Parker a, the ahport tm4 cl-1 •••• ,bis vi’11 thea, wbioh I d.o. Biddle read.117 aoq\\leeoe,. On tu 9th the Oo•rt ooave1Mta in the Allied Ooa\:rol hlldblg \UM\e:r the Preddea07 of Sir Jo’berl X..wnaoe, ot Jtaclaxad.. !h. 1ndiotJ1ent wa• pre1enled. Ow- aeal atau. to \he Ooun was IIOI entei. •• wn aaa4 te •bla.lll oout•l tor the a0ft.U4, wh1oh v• 414, VS.th fma&• ‘- pq thaa, u4 tan … po”4lUoa, •to •• – oo•Hl of the obolo. of u. .. • wt1bH lo olloo••· Kr .. :.ot.., Ooloael Mel.-4.oa u4 otbere dlcl ln’t’al.11a’ble voflr ta Ihle and other re.,eoh ln helpia, tu Oo\lr\ «•’ \UlAer va1 at hnraberg, 11:uslwliac ,_ ttnP171AC ot a elem troa our 1taft, Iba ooap•teal Mr. Vllley. the,ach u w.• not ‘h• pH’ll&uat Clerk of the Vv•’b•,c Covt. Bt later becue Olen of the Supnae Oout of Hie tTaUet 8\ale1. At that U• he wtH Deput7 Olel’ic of t• Sllaprae Court and aaae to Jerlu •• pa.rt ot our poup, Oil le&••· • • • One of \he ftl’J’ latereeUnc pereonaU. Uee vbo• l eav at tl••• ta hnabe,c wae Jr. Rna4 •• Wal•h. s. J •• of Oeoraetow Unl••nU:,, who help• Ju•tlo• laOkeoa ln pnpannc a pan ot Ille ••• of the p,oaeoa,t•••· We ••• la \h• Oru.cl Jl,l•l ad he vae onoe at 011.r hou■ebold in h .. 11A. tf •• el,. pl•unt to •ee Ida. lbe Graa4 ll,tel at hftllberc wae a fanta? Uo plan the — pbJ’tiaallT 4eatro7e4 in part, in ,an relabllllate4 1 &Jl4 .· a-.-,henG&l.17 well-m.gh l»Aeaonltabl•. a• •• 10 •oh of the earl7 ocoapatlon. a. Qalt:dau1,, GoxtlMtDI 1( itnar l’>ottdaa aoll’faW \be C(WAriparU ‘- co••naeat of Ge1’11U1″. rnao., allltoqll aot a 1lpato17 of the Potl4aa protocol, •• gl’YH. a .. n• canel out ♦t ,u Jn.Uah u4 Aaerieaa son••• 0.J’Mll7 •• \bu ll’Yl4e4 lato tou toilet, a.ad. Jerlla ln\o tour aff\01’1. ‘Phere wre houud la their eneral aeoloff go•,•e,•ueaW bo41•• of the tour countl’l••• the 014 oou.rihouq where lhe People 1 t Oov.l’I ha4 held forth ad.er It.Iler vat Nbabill\at..t at th• Allied. Ooatrol Alll:borlt7 Ju1141nc. !he rel’la\UUaUoa w.a uouiplltW pn•rt.17 ‘bJ’ .&aeneu ellll•••l’ln« aD4 other tnopa. the ‘O’al tel ”•’•• ••• late Jerlla aDI eo• \Iliac• pt.,alaall7 la orcter to tha\ the Alltecl Ooatrol ••honi7 ooul.4 open.le pn,.rl7. .lt ‘• Ooatrol “8tbor1’f h.114- lnc \1- ffPJ’esenw.U•••· of \he four &1>nruea\a •• to 4eol4e tapOa \he l&w1, erAt••oe• aD4 41N0’1-Yea for Gel’llaDI’ aa a whole \o be Mrrie4 o•t la •oh son• ‘b7 ,u npnaea\all-Y•• there of \he soaal •Hoa. Oa our •14• •• ,i. IIUUa17 Oo•en.or, C’leural llaeahover at ftnt. with Geaeral 01q hput7 Mtllta.17 GoYerur aD4 la llllNdla\e c!.q to U7 chaJge. 11teahover r–.tud 1n 1ramctu,. Olay wa• 1a lerl1a. liHuow:r • • – 254 – oaa• ..,.17 ,.a 4a.t• tor \mt ••Unc of the four Mlli tarr GoTei·non. ooa,tltutt.N U1e Ooll.tnl Ooaoll, to ao\ oa •tter• which had oleartd. Wp ? the• thl”otaeh tb6 J)epv.t1•• – the Oool’41uUnc Oout ”•• — aal the ftnotorat••· . Wt.th Geural Ola, vat Dobert :o. Jlupq •• PoliUoal M’riNJt .. ptiaalp-1, repNS•atattwe of the l>epal’t., of s-.,.. ‘!hen ..,.,.. 41T11lo•• of M111ta17 Gc)’rerDMAt •- the Pol1Ucal J>iT111oa, lluace :Dl.’rition, Procluotlon, lnh•IJ7, Mu.power. Legal and. 10 ·forth, departments nuchl.1 coaparabl• to . tho•• of our eo•er1111eat. In th11 •••• the Lcal Di’ri1ion •• the hpart- · meal 9f h.1’1.oe. Our legal CJ’O’CP ••ect to •••Un ln put, l•’Ylac la the : :,·– soae ti. IO•l orgaa1u’1oa. the Coatrol Ooaoll ooaalatecl oii&tull.J ot General htpt ». •••bower, Mt.r•hal 0-Ncori I. l’t.mko•• Oeaeral lena.1’4 Moatao•l’T aa Oeaeral Jo1e,h Marie Beul loenlg, the four llll1 lal’J’ 1-4.•r• at the u4 et the tighUng. ‘the orcaalsatien thea dropped to Uw Deput1 Mill t.17 Oo•emor leTel, t•raed the Ooordinatln.g OollalttM. lelov tb11 wre the qaw\ripal’­ Ute D1notoratea, .-a.eh•• the J.epl l>1reotorale. Tu Coa\ftl Couoll Mt oalJ’ ft’U7 lu 4&71. ‘lhe· 0oor41•tlnc Ooaitt .. ••• eY•17 ,.,. o• lbffe 4a7s. !be 1>1reotorat•• .. , .,… ofl•aer •• a t’llle. Propoala tor the p•eruat of h1’111Ul1″ el’diaanl7 wora4 11p lbnu.ch a D1reolonte \e the OooJdlna.Unc Oonll\ee u4 it tben apprn..t wat oa the agel4& of the OontYol Oouoll. reach \he Ooalnl 0oa.o1l leTel.. the \taa1o pollo, 4onaent of the Uni \ed. Stat••• la &441 Uoa to •• \bree-power 1oh4aa Prolocol. •• bown •• Joial Chief l\&ff »ineUTe 1097 • (JOS 1097.) ‘l’hit w.a the IO•e&lled. Morgentbau Plan, IA90f&I’ •• aD.7 par\l• • – 255 – cular: d.ooaaeat oould ‘be aa14 to be. Certain other docueu\1 were 1apol’\(lll\, noh •• \he leolaraUoa of,,.. IJth ateulnc control of all Genaq. . . . ‘O,U. t..i Di:rt11oa wu a’W.lY14e4 1ato teoUo•• a tben vere a :L91al Ad:n• JI” opiaioll aeotioa, afttla\l• tor oplaioa, ‘° all of Vat ,.a $tat•• alll\&l’J’ &eTeruct, a Ju41o1al Section with pr111U’)’ re1poaelltllf.t1 for ov part1c1paUoa in the Nconetitll’1on ot the Germaa Jut\toial e71tea, a l>riaoll S.cUon, · recpoaalble tor the ada1n1s\mt1on ot O.i’llan prleona ( I •• fortua.\• to baTe lb. Jaaee T. lJID!lell, theli Direoto? ot the teclenl pri•aa •· lA the Valtel Ste.tH, to bea4 \1p thit 1e0Uon latUaU7) U4. a ‘War Ort•• S.otlon. ‘ftle latter vat eo .. whal of a altnoMr. U had to 4o with Milltal’7 Oo••l”DMllt • • respoaublli t7 la ooameoUoa vi th val” orl•• ouls14• \be lurellbe.rc or&aaisa’1on Ull4er Juttce Jaokaon. Ut ta•• wN coiaeldereble ln1t 414 not 1acal”4• trial.a; the aeott.OA 41d, hoveTer. help hnalterg 111 a aubt,, of -,s. !he pro1’1a1oa• of the l’ote4u Pntocol and of Jct 1097 •re 41nde4. uona t.• Di”ri•1oa• ot M1U.ta17 Oo.,el’UU.t to a4ataieter. Lep.1 Dln•toa •• clT•. n-»on■lbill IT for oeriala proT1a1an,, a• vell •• ‘belq co?••l . a• it vere for ,i:i. other l>lYltSoa• u4 tor the GoYenor u4 ».,ut1 OoYeraor. Juclp Md4• ‘Wlllt aheal M JeJtlia as \he -c,•rhea.4 of the Lepl DS:tilioa. Be cal.lei ae tro• Jerlln in early .A:aeu,.t. (It va1 a deapHat.e laa1- •••• aoaetla•• to «•t • call throach. ) General Olq. in lerllJ1, bad pn- 1otecl IOllt quettiona oa whioh l t •• thought 1 ehoul.4 pa••• Geural Eohol• 1 ,iu… ‘bright, n.v aD4 4•1.u•, •• ■eat for••• Altllovgh I bad been on• \o l•rlla \o ••• J”uauoe laok.1tOll at Pott4aa, \hit vaa -., ftr,, t.1•• at. the UAU-4 s-., •• oftio•• of OIGVI, iA tu old a.nu. Alr J11ai1l17 vbioh a • avua ot workllen were rebabil1taUnc tor us. ‘fhe pnbl … GOAcernad. lhe . • • • Pre.Wea,•• 4.mft of the •••tine of Geraaa •stel’Ul •••eta am ‘h• P’-“llq? ?l\propert7 NIIOftl a,tel”. lla44en, W.aoa u4 ,l pu, the Pa»•r• la •• ‘f♦a of a lav vt. lh a CGffftDC 11t110 tor haeral cia, la tl• tor ·la … ,u.cot the Oeordtaatlna eo..1,,”. l NU1ae4 la lte.1’11a. We tlrd ••red at Ille Oar-.ok lotu ulll. ’11• .beu1e w• ob!>•• to:r ov qa,art••• va• babl\abl• •. ln. ••• aotea 1184• alone a’bout thit tt.ae l tlnd tbe tollowlqa · 1-, book ot ov PIDP•tal• for o. O. ( Coatrol Coue11) aoUoa l• •llout flalahecl 1a H• tlrtt fora, ,he Wehaaohl propert7 law l• …,1., …. … ,,.u …. ,. lanul …… , … ,1.. lla44•· Dt–.. •’ al. 4e a 100d Job ia the UNoUoa of 1ele0Uon of lenu ,.. ….. w offlolal• (Jutt.ee JBata,17 and lUlot.al) f•• ooa•14•rat1oa, u.4 att.r our 41tout1•a• Pbl-..r ud m.aaa 4n.tt a •4eoaneu,1&,1oa• •’-••••• I -•11 .. • la .,,,. of all tbe hu!ioa:p1 th1• vffk w are be&f.mdJtC ‘9 ,el 4ow. lo dot.a& w.r p&llt aloac •• U.ae1 ot., atatf talk the laat Ian.JU.)’ at 11-.,. · More eenH of u-4 ot aeoo11pli1baeal ha■ been created. Ma44ea alll Phl-«•r ht.Te aow taken bol4 of epeoltlo \1:d.ac•. an4 Mat.4• \h11 wet ha• beea e1pectall7 llelptul. •••I ban •••n -.oh JION ot Jerlia: lnlt ‘-he cleep illpN••loa of a bacll.J’ bealea plu• peni1t1. I tear fo1′ tba “4nte1′. 1′ would be a aldake lo le\ · tu people ftffer loo aoh if we cu help 1,. Beal\h coa4l\ion• will ‘be bad. eaouch v1 lhout alntri tton and oold. lfl \h the oloe- 1»& of tbe ,.,…. .. we.I’ pel’llapt ve Ol!IA clo •n \baa , …. \o baYe l>ec plaaaec1. a. huliO.aHoa· tm,na Pan of the .i..,sU1•Uoa polt.07 1, ••’ tonh ta U• Pe\114aa ……. , u4 pan ln ov owa Iola\ Chief• of Statt ctlreou.,.. In c•••ral all ••bera of the last pan1 WN to be kept o’ll\ of Genan lite 1». U7 peel ‘1.oa of NtlpOa•il,111 ,,. !Jna va• a mile \Uld.er\akl.zac. ‘.l’ho•• eo•ered. wre ltl’Okea tow t.nto oateeori••• . !be Potlflaa .&cneae\ 1 taelf pro1’14•• tats ••• onJd.nal• &114 \boM who ••• parUo1pale4 la plaania« ol’ aar,rt-, nt ••t eat•rpri••• 1aftlriac or n..iu-. ia at,ooiti•• or var orlae• •ball ‘be arreeted. amt brought to Judpet. -..s1 led.ere, lDflue:aUal last supporter•, u4 h1p otfiolala • – 257 – e>f Jra,1 orpnisaUoa• a.ad lllaUh.Uone and all o\ber persona a.aac.ro-.a to •• ocCNpaUoa or 1h obJeottTe1 thall ‘be arn•. •ei al’ld 1aten.ect. }>AAUr ti•o•lpban•n, , ofla t hell •la aostU PaTiHr’\J• •v bo•Wl ha. Tlte eb •reao• aoftd.r •f rotho• p un.o’blllllonal ·an4. aell1-pu\11o otfle•• aa4 fro• poa1tloae of nepo1111b111t7 la · iaponu.\ pnT&te u4eriald,DC•• Su.ch penona 1>ia11 ‘be Nplace4 bt p:ereoaa who, b7 \helr pollt101Al ?nd moral qaall\1••• ar. &•…a. capable of aHia,tac la 4neloplng geaulne hlloonUo lnat1tut1ona in Ge?. · . ;l>:l.te0U••• bad. lleea prmouel1 prepare4, aleo, vltJl epeoiflcatioa of ·. ca,-.on•• to ‘be an••’• aa4 lnteme4. !he •••n•t” oalecorltt• pnaeatecl a ••Jtou pn’bl•. A \reaea4•u a,11iber of &rNdt wen -.. •’ DO di epoat Uoa ef \u oa.Ha •• l?t.C, enept a, to war crialDJ.•• ln whiob net tbe erialnala procma appltel. then· vat DO 17ste11 for Ht’lew, ttlepos1 Uon, or coneoUon ot error. Aild • faail1ea wae not «Yen nif\’lln4 \o be notltiec\ of anett■• • I look the mat\er up with Gf#Uffil 019.7 an4 ncce•te4 \ha? renew ‘board.a be “‘ up to n’ri.ev ca••• on en l.nd1Tl4\Ull ‘ba•i•. October 4\11 ten• … ral Olay ca•• u tbt ,o abea4 dpal. We ••• ,o work lo brine \hia pro’bl• bto ltell•I’ poaUloa. laol\al!S.,c ao’1o• to taal11ea vhea al”N•’• wen ….. rmt1oa of ane8′ oa\ecorl•• ta lf.chl ot oeO’Clp&Uon uperience, aa4 r..tew ‘bea-,le to ooneider 1A4b1.4•1 ….. a .. 1’ ar•••’• 1, •• d1:tf1cul.t to ,., tb.e 1’ff1n boal’ll •1’•1• la o,enUoa, b•oaun of poor ooamaloatioaa u4 tnatJj)o?laUoa aJld alto ‘-oaa•• of ooAfuat.oa la ini\laUac 110Mth1111 :aew 1n a cenerall7 4elapl4ate4 eo•ernaea\al e1t•?1oa. JoaNa wn &raiuallJ’ ••’ Up and be,aa to r•leaM … vbo should ne lorcer be kep\ ia cu.1’°47 – old. people, aick people. ant\ \boee 1n no •••• latl.11- enUal or 4.angeroua. ‘!’hue we :procn,11ed ?e,on4 the 1’1.«1di t7 or iaoo11pl♦te- • • – 2513 – !he -whole question of denadfioatlon va.e extremely \roublesome. After I uf been in 0.l’ll&DT lffer&l aoath• I coaclude4 the deaadf1ca.Uoa propaa uet-4 wrrtatoa, coneol14&Uen, an«l ooorcUnatton. la a ktio lav unaer o.a- . .:-·· : ,ra1 eup•nisioa, ta••• of beln.c eame4 ••t tuoucll •aneet• oa\ep1l•• or \7 particular d.1reot1Yes or lays i11a.ecl fro• UM to Uae. I sa««••ted \o General Olay, v1th the eupport of Robert Bovie, with whoa I had, ditetteH4 t» aatteJ’ (he vat on.e ot General Ola1• • atei1tant,. a laV7’•r but not a part ot tl:18 weal l>inalo• – he vas wha, ve aigb.t call a •eaber of the palae, «-rl• an. e:tcelleat ..,. vllo as I write 11 tbe hM4 ot the Plu.alJII. M4 Polic7 Joe.Nl of the :Depatttaat of a-.,e) tlla\. a cnup of •• be autllorlsel lo •’1247 ,he ¥bole qu.e1tton of 4eaasitt?tioa and make reco•UA1atioa1. Geileral 01.q eppointecl me ch&iraa ot the I>e-.e:1t1cat1oa Pollet,’ Boal”4 or.at.a. tor thie p’IU”pOae. Its other ••ere were Bolu,n Mo.rphy, the Pol.Uioal. Aclneer. General Villlu JI. Draper. Jr., the loonoat.c Adrl••I’, .ro,eph •• Doqe, the JiD&l’lcW A4Tiaer. and Wil110n, bead ot Public Satet:r Dirleioa, with .spec.bl l”eepoadblllt7 ln 1e011ri\1′ ma\ter•. lfe eeleote4 u uecn:ttln oouittee uuer •’berl Jowi• to 4o the prinolpel a\atf work. Pbll •- of -, eta.ff, and. ethe••• 1aol114bg hits Oppuhataer, vorked. olo••l1 wit? lrla. fm 11pahDt of 1 t •• that ve reeo..ed a bade lav which S.aol’G4e4 la •• inatt”mlent the whole haallfioaUtin progna au al>torbe4 er •4111e4 all •arnat • cate,ertea au. other 4irftc’1•••· Prlmartl7 U •• 4ee1cne4 to ae\ up proce4u1111 tor 1ath14-1. hearing• on the bat11 of which ?••1fic.t1on1 would be u4e of 1114bid.ul caee• aooordi … to decree ot gu.11 t, w1 th 1t•:nalUe• b1po1t4 aeaor41ngl7. fhere voul.4 \e aa eltmb.&Uoa ef tho•• wbo 414 no\ tall wUbla &Ill’ of the often••• tett.ned.. Oer•n ta1trwuntallUe1 of • goTel”ll1len\ la our sane bad be&l’l created, and. our praposals vere tatea up – 259 – • vi ‘b . \hem, beoa.uee 1 t ,., 0.eral O’lq’ s a\rong opinion the prog:na ehould. ‘be … Ui,tered b7 \he Oermua. We ba4 confu·enoet a\ Stuttcari wt.th repre•• t•U••• ot \be approTe4 hran e«enol••• A.a a ooaaequuce a law va.i. a.­ Ti•.• l.argel1 •• the bade of our report, whloh W reo•l•e4 the paenl appro•al of Oeneral Clar, and n?ai ttecl bJ th• &.l”ll’IIP authol’i Uea •• a Ge1’118U law to be pu\ 1nto effect “i th the approYal of M111 ta17 Go•eruent. • • It beOl!lme known a• lhe La.11 of March 5th, 1946. !hereafter it nalae4, at tar•• 1 kaov, \!Mt bae1e 4aa11f1catloa prooaa ln our 1011•. 1t •• lt7 ao JINA• ., p•i,feol lav, aa4 •• tt.11e vent oa U lad. 1,, ,appor,e7a Uil t•• orUtot. So11• u.14 U w.• loo 1tera u4 \1’114 \o “”” \oo •oh po-4. s. .. eaicl 1, w1 aot d•n eraeu,h. Soae tald it 1r0\llcl ha•• ‘beea b•tkr •• ll&Y♦ lUllted it ,o \he ac,n ••rtoua ca .. , a.a.d. ao, oluU-er tu aulalttallYe prooedur•• v1 th lmn4re4• of tbouaa.nda of ea Ht vh1ob 1:a.olwled ca\•cc,ri•• ot ilOalul •t1•• Jut \he pro&l”U veat torval’d.. I oan.not 1111’••11 Jud«• it. It w.s cal’· ned out priaoi:pal.17 after. I left. I 4.o UdAk that at of the ‘1•• 11 w.1 appro’fed. it vaa abo11.\ •• &Oo4 an approaoh •• oo\114 ha•• be•• mul•naka• · aa4 •n belter ,. ooaium1zac UJl4er l!’M qat• 1t avpene4& Geaenl Olq lHue oolrt1.ace4, cl.urine the perlod. of 111 opeaUon, \hat oel’lala aaae•t1e• abould be graa\ed, relimnc ..,. of tu.r\her i,rooe1at111 t.ulder ,, law. !here were ••Teral au.••Ues. I bell•••• whloh helped to ael.ec \be ada1Dietn.’1ve proNClun•. 1 ebo”1.d .., 1a falru1s lbat betoN \h1a OOllpNMJl.ltiT• lav WU ••• , .. u4 put la etfeot, whloh t bad a. anal d.eal to Ao \fU.h, Lav lo. 8 •• al•• put tnto etfeo\ and. l -.at bear ao•• blaae fol” U. lt wae da1Uo, aacl ene ot tb& eegaenla of 4eaasiftoation which eapbaehecl •7 feeling we ehould • • • – 260 … atop 1u•o1n1lga\ing 1epara\e law• 8lld plaoe 1a etteot a. compl’ehendTe oae, a, we 41d. Lt.w Vo. 8 followed clo1el7 upon tbe lm.e end cq raite4 at home a• a renlt of t.he i-eaadt ot the crea\ 101.dlel’. General Pat\oa, lndioaUnc he wuld ui• lad• beoauee of thelr •ff1o1eat1 it he needed \hell \o «•’ thiia«• 4one, a.ad ea,S.nc he couldn’t ••• nob. cllfterence b•twHll a l’ad. and otheH he d.e•cribed. Soae nob :reJB!lrk vat picked up and ueed by 1ntluential ele- 11en’9 ot publ1o opinion· to 1n4icata Mill b.17 Govermumt va• eof\ 011 the last•• . liiAw ‘lo. 8 veat to the ot>M:r •ztreu and. required the re•ftl troa pot1t1ou of aJl10A• who had ‘been a aaber of \be part7 or aftiltalecl or­ caat•Hoaa. Hr aelf-01’1t101 .. 11 \ha\ vheSl GeMral Olq auecl tor a.ob. a law I 1bould ha’f’e a’f014e4 the pool” 4ratt811&rl.1hip. la alttp.’1011 l add that I espeoted to be able \o have a.other 1bo\ at the clntt I ftra\ aubaUt…t. and to be •r• mature in thinking about it. Bu? Geael”al Olay left for Jnnltfu.rt and put the law 1A etf•ot ‘before 1 aaw hla ap1n. 1 1houlti ha•• p:roteot-,. b111 fl’O■ what I think wa• a ad.stake, although General Olq l beliff• alva,• ‘houcbi he •• rich\ about. 1,. 1 111Ution th11 •• uothe1′ reato• l wa• ,rou’bl.eA al>nt the denal1tla.Uoa program. 1-v Wo. I beoue pret\7 mob. ab90r’be4 ia the bado lfal”Oh Ith law; .and before that Ooloael .Ba,.tea 8111 \h, ai Jtrauturt w1 th Ouel”lll Moock• d4 Ooloael Oppeahei•r, lid a coo4 Job la reaed.Jina •o•• of the 4eteote ot Lav Bo. 8 b7 recul,aUoae framed fo’!’ l \s c,peration la our sone. !he 4e.nalifioaUon law of Maroh fJih, 1946, •• 1’1ret put lato effect at an Aaerloaa son.al pngrea, with the hope that it could be applied. to German, •• a whole through the Control Oouacll. A dmilar plan •• mai tted to the Control Couoil ‘b\1\ va1 ut ad.opted.. !here bat\ been toae deaa.11- fioatton law• enaoted on a four power ba11•• that 11, thnugh the Control • • • – 261 – Couaoil, eel oae of the pl’Obleaa laoid•at to ov Nareh a,11 law •• to Jcllep 1, ?••t•••’ vlth law• wbloll u4 ‘ieea ad.opted. bi’ ,he Ooatrol Ooueil,fo’r ‘ . . all it·O.Nllt.ll7. !MN•• M “riala\7 ‘1’•••• lan wn oantect out Jilli,? fo? •hollilh a4opte4 oa a uifon 1-ait. W• act iaH.•Uo••• for … 1 •• thait,. .11&••1ua, ••Ui:b ‘bitterl7 a,ata1t the lesia, dtd not hea1tate to ••• ?laalt the Aurlaaa• voulcl IIOI •••• if tor aou purpo••• ot their own ,-, t•U&Wt \hta u.1efal. lbe AMriG&U were •r• •laoen alto•t ,_ deaa•ltf;.. ‘ ‘ oan?aproou \bu. \>a. 1u,1aa1, \laolleh vb.en tbe7 JJal.17· wat.i ta. c••• .rt4 of ••—• the SoTle\1 wn •n An•Uc. Ou.r ova •ffon• la ,ran,…-.. tioaucl ••••r eoo .. a10 u•• wn llulpe·red bJ ov tefual. b••••• et ov c1eaa•tfl•tt.oa 41not1Tea, lo ••• people la ..\lo•• of napoa1ibUll7 vt:D ao ?bl vali ••• lteea aoh •n •fflcieat, la eou va71 at lea■t, ,.., .· tboM ••lla’bl• who oolll.4 pa,, th• 4•••1flcat1on \eth.. 1 4oa•t Wu \ht.1 •• tn.e of the 8crrieta. lt 11 pre,,, hard to ta7 altout the J’renoh. I Ju•• aa no, qullftetl \o oo–., ••17 latelligea,11 a’iout hov \hq aotull.7 oa:rri-1 nl \!ht pnpaa. the lncll•h appnaohel •n ual’l.7 nr …… ,… “‘ 1 lttllne thq wen aot •• atnct 111 dben.aa to tu Unolh••• •• w ware. !heJ wi-• aon leal•t la •ala« people it tM7 lllo1lcht \hq ued.el 1-11′ help to get lbiJtia la good rmmtnc orcler la th4tlr aoae. fhe7 were tloWff ,o ta,o•• tblJ p?- 11•• of 4•••1f1oa’1ea • . n.a tl:11• ooapreuaa1•• law ot o,u,e oaae aloq la March, 1946, 1 OOlll.4111 \ •1 \here -• •n pr•••r• lt7 otner COT•rna••• fo1′ the aae eort ot thlac. At \bat potal \he Vallei S\ate, •• trlrlha1′ aA,aaoel in teelt,11& ,i. ·aeecl ot a bet,e:r qat-. !he othel’ ooutri•• wen villln& aon or l••• ,o rock aloJI& Wlder the older 41reoU••• aJl4 WMler \heir owa pol107 of •- • • • – 282 – torc•eat or not, without teel.1ng the aece•dt1 w 414 of a aon o1’de1’17 171t’..-. · it ve ltd a law ol’ 4b.-eoUTe ve Mu«ht to oany lt out ad i:t •• Ibo … : 1, vronc w aoqht to chaJICe 1, • . ; , -. ‘/fun are 41ff•reao•• of oplaion at to lhe efteot of lbe 4Maalf1oa.:. Uoa prograa on the •tftcleao, of Oenaa b411•tr.,. l •• aol 1n a po11Uoa, •• ver• tho•• 4eaU.ag •J’• dlnoUy vtth eoonoalc problem• — lraa1por,, b4w.atq, tarauc. e,o. — to Jud&ea a, 1 Ud.Dk lt quite llkel.7 tu 4-..11.fl.\ loa J>l’9CNUI lo44Ml to reb.rd ett1e1eaq la hl’IIU llf• la the ‘b’ll.8t;M•• . . am id.ualdal anaa. 11 •• a 4e11b•n.•• obe1o• oa \he pan of lbe hi.1-4 Stat••• tA4 l U4 •• ta aa, aeate qU.ffel wllh it. pa’ri.4e4 the p:roc,. •• a41d.DieteN4 “11 ua Oil ari 1DCl1T14ul. k1l1, •• v• ftu.117 wolltti4 1, out. It •• …… 17 troa o•i- •u.adpot.A\, 1 lbe-,ht, to 4eaadf7. Ou -, quee\loa the es\ft.t to whloh we “Weal; l>v.t 1, •• lneoad•t•at vtth t!le pro• -per ANri.cu. approach to pend.t \hoae vbo ha4 ‘brought about all thie t\lf1’•r- 1q ia \be •i-lcl to n.-. po•illoa• ot a1ptt1•aoe ta either the G•naa 1na.,,na1 or poltUul lite. !he nn1-., lo•• of eftlote.q •• ….. in r4tlat1on lo Ille OTer-al.l poltq. !Jae ■au •–• ldpt \e applle4 •• 11:te aout■ too. then llipt b• a’b1• J•n•I• la a –••• who ••n u, penl ,w to b• Ju.1’l•t• ? loac••· ‘••• teleo,e4 aich’ aot \• •• aoot lqal 1ollelar1, or •• u,eJtao.i ,-.,. •• , bu, tbl1 reftl, w.1 an la..,1 table oon••ct:ueaoe of all that bad oo- At , owaerablp of pnpen7 in relatlo11 •• 4.aaslttoattoa, there •• ao ooafl•oal1oa of p,opert, of • penoa ,…,s1tt.ecl uo1pt •• n(llln4 b7 a pa•t1oula1′ law, •• a penal.17 er tol’f•lture. !J»N -·· hovmr, ,_ ….. tlNoUon b7 la.., of ovaenhtp of e4,\’l1paeat ot’ ,u pan.-a1li tary Sad. o1’CU1- • • • – 263 – zatione. Aa to decarteliaUon of 1JM1111t17 there ‘WIBa II different problem. but I &JI ?, tp9aldng of that. vbiob. op•r-atecl under ditfereat lav, froa tho••· C<>Teminc Aeaawi floa Uoa • .. I haTe oailted to J184tion the ph:,e108l d.ettl’\lctlon of certain war pl&nh, used direoUJ 1n ,he war etfoJ”• ·&Ad thel’e was uao a diaantling and t,ranafer to lu1e1a under the repara.Uona :program of certain 1nd,uatdal pla.nts. The Allies did not compensate the owners: the oost viH to be a’beorbed b1 the Gerllall people at a. coe11 ot the war. I aan• t .,. at the .., Juat bow tt wrked. ov.t ?t ,he co11pen.u.t1on to the owmn vaa to ‘be out ot funds in tbe \natur.r of Gerll!llq’ • if at all. au 11 part of the CGAlftCIUe!loee of the war. an4 no\ paid. ‘bJ’ the ooeup,S.ng powra to the ovner,. If the tadlTidual recouped hi• lo•• he 414 •o fro• the Geraall peopl•, not fro• \be Alliee • Pl.aaing for 1Jldus\rial rerlftl oaae to the 1,? Dil••otorate only aeoond-Mnd, at,er having been worked. out in the Dt.reotorate• harlng to do with German lad.1ttttl”7. Su.ch other Dlreotora\e• referred to 111 for approTal or oo … , .,. of the lava or ord1nanoea vithia tMtr aor-• s.a..41ate reepoas1\t l11 ‘1’. tnolu41ng tho•• 4•ltac ‘4th tauUoa. b. •r1ul4ea,ata1 P.J11g1p1,, at Jud1a1aJ. Bet’Qm• ‘lh• fou -pover Leal DlreotoNte tire\ •t at th• Allied Oo».trol Aut:bo r1 \7 iuldlDC in Jerltn .bpat 18, 1946. One of the fl rat i».atnaent• approTed• pu’b11ehe4 1n the first ecUtioa of \he Offieial Oasette of the Control Ooucil for hl’iia.J11. waa Prooluatlon Bo. mental 11’1neiplea of Judicial Reton, • a eort of Jill of 111.&hte tor the German people. It pl”OYidea that all pu•sona are equ.l ‘before the lav. 1’o perso11. no •tter vbateT•r hit nee. na.Uonall ty or rel1c1o:n • ab.all be deprincl ot hie legal rights. No person shall ‘be de• • • – 264 – priTed. of 11:te, libertt or pl’Opert7 vlthout due proceH ot lav. Orillinal nepone1b111 tr ahall be d•t•ralned oal.7 tor otfeuea proY14e4 ‘by lav. Deterat.aat1on b7 &AT court of ·any crlae bf auloo or b1 eo-oalled 80UD4 popular lnatinota (one of the cr1- \♦r1.a. •• ? the •st•) 11 problbl te4. In ..,. orudn-1 proM- . 0:0.,10• .he aa••- •ball baYe the rlghh recop1te4 b7 dNIOOr&Uc law; J1Uel7, th.a tight to a apeeclT aJ1d pu’blio trial ai1d to be lalorud of the nature and oau•• of the aooueation, the right to be ooafron\ect w1 t.h vttneaaaa ap.iA1t hl• and to be.Ye thtt proc••• of obtaining witneHt• in hie fawr, al’.ld the right to h&Te the aed•tuce ot counsel tor his de:ten1e. hceni•• a.nd lamaan punlablunt, or IJ:4’f not pronded b7 law, rill not be inflicted. Sentence• of perQOn■ oo».vtcted und.er the Hitler regiaa on poli ttoa.1, raoial and reli11oua crouade n.st be quaahe4. !he. ••• proclamation al• elimlnattcl the e:draordtnar, B tler coun•, the P.ople 1 • ·hv.na, court. of the ISDAP • e.114 8peo1al oourh. irti.7 were toral.17 aboU.•be4 ara4 their 1″NIUbl1thaent :,rohlbl ,…. ‘!’h. oonoluclt111 paragNlph relate• to the J’G41clar,: Jucl4e1 will be 1nclepentien11 of e.ucut1•• control vhen exercielll& thef.r fucUons arid. obedient oal.7 \o 11be law. Acee•• to .1u41 … cial tunoU0111 will be opea to all wbo aoc9Pt tl•mooratlo priaciples vltbo’1t aocouzit ot raoe, aoolal ol”icin, or nltgloa. The promotion of Jude•• will be ‘baaed ulel7 on aerit, aad legal qoali ticatio11e. U v111 be ••• that the 1.an.page 1n eoae relll)eete -parallel.a cloael7 our Jill of il&hh• but ,her• are eo .. •naUoa• 1n l.uguage adopted 1n aooollll04&Uoll to ob’-1.DJ.DC uut•u• appronl, •• •• NCl\liNCl. !bi• p,oolua\ion went tna ou.r Dt.reotorat. \o the OoorcUuUn, Co11- •1t tee• wher• 1 t •• appl”O’Yed, aiad then ‘° the Ooatrol Oo•cll, vhere U •• also approYed. At a,pnxillatel.J’ the eue tiae there went thJ’eugh tha Lecal Dlreotorate, Ooori.laattnc 0o .. u,ee, aA4 the Ooa\rol Oouoil, l,av llo. l repeal.inc a lone list of last lava. ‘l’h1a •• aoooapa.ated b7 Procl.amaUon No. 2, putUq into etfeet requt.reacta 111posed 011 GeJ’11U1. the7 were qu1te leJ2Ctb¥ u4 he.cl been fonulated so•• ti•• ill ad.ft.nae. ‘-7 11rere not the product ot the Legal Direc\ora\e. • • – 265 – · Leltt Jo. 2 pl’O”fi.ded for the temination and liquidation of Baai orcaizatious. 11a•tnc a nuber ot \ua. fhffe. hat lteo a oo?ete collapse of all Geraa iaat,,..tal.1’1•• ot 10•??•’• All court• bad ceased ? function. Law and or’ie:r vaa mai».ta1ae4 \7 the ocelJp1i? au.tbon tlee .. ‘l’here waa the neeeaci t7 of reconati “‘1Unc a German Judicial qstea. aA4 thi& “”‘-• one ot the priu tuacUone of the lep.l croupe. ‘1’he United Statu 1nt?4ue4 lAto the LecaJ. areo,on.te, and in the prooe•••• vhieh folloved. · 1, v•• appro’Nlfl ‘b7 ‘• Control Oouou. a lav nooaetitattnc a Judloial •••• tor th• teran people as Alatlaet fl’OII llillla17 COIU’ta. It became kaotm •• Law Bo. •• cmtitled •the leerpalsat1on of ‘the Qel’lllan lu41cl.al S,,.tea, • publi,hel in YolWN Bo. 2, loftmer 30• 1941, ed1Uon ot \be Official Ott.sett• ot the Ooatrol Oowlctl for Ge?. ‘the Glt.11e\te itself had been, throue,b. the Lecal D1reotorate, Ooord1nat1AC Ccmml ttee and Oon.trcl Council• l!l&d.e the otf’ieial publicaUon tor the law of the Oontrol Oounc11. 1-v lo. 4 followed to a degree the pattern of the rec,:uar Gel”lla.U court• of the pa•t• ae 41at1not froa the 1peol.al led oovte vhioh bu been aboli.eW. ht we 41d not thea l’eOOllaU tu,e a Sup? Covt tor all of Ge?. !b.1• Jwlioial lav oriatuterl vith •• ad had been the n.’bJeot of oantul oon.e14ea Uon in our •n.e. for tonal open.Uoa, vhe:re Oolouel Fill.le,, an able ailita.17 a->•ernaen, la’-7•r at hukturl vhea we uri”4, ha4 l>or.u the ob1•f bu:lde of lte preparaUon. ‘l’he court• ree9’abllehe4 WN thne in name: uSMtriabtt. J.1’6:uut1, u4 obff.11,i,d,c;h,te, the tlra\ a. oovt of in1Ual JanacUot1oa 1A mi?ur chil ·eel e:ri.S.nal matters, v1 th aoae appeal \o the 1tl61ioau. !he latteit • had or1&1nal Jurltc11otion. a• well in IIOre impol”\aat •Uere, with appeal to • • • – 286 – tbtt o)1r.l1Rdal1Ai’•• with Jv1141oUon o•er a 111&114. • Oolll)arable to a· •’-\♦, ia •• Vat W Sta••• •• fa-, •• ou ou Mk• a ooapariaoa. lo appeal to -. ., … Oou, tor hrua:, •• a ¥bole wa• pro•l4e4 la ‘1111 law •. tt.. four/?Wl’I were AOI re&q tor \bl.a. u,er eslabllehln.c Ud1 171\•• b1 lav applicable to tht GerMll people, oame \he pro’blea of rea\affing the court• and aohall.7 ‘bnnclac \ha 1ato opere.Uon. !bl• loo wa1 a reepoa1l ‘bill t7 ot ou1″ legal peraonnel. lt vaa del.C&t’4 ‘Priaoipall7 \o oua- lteal •• la the f1•14• aftla, ader the -.p•r­ n.lloa ot \he UA1te4 Hat•• Dl.NO\or of 11111\aq co••na•I la the Lancl. l aleht here aote \bat hnenl 01q pu\ late eff ••’ lteton l left 0.1’1111111′ a •1••• tf aoalrol bJ tm Dl:notot of tl’le Lepl Dln•lea of CIIOUS. la leiolt,a. of all l•cal oft1oer• thnuchcnlt Mlll\&17 Go••ru•t la our NA• or el,..,. vhere • !he. ataffiAC of the ja.diolal q1t• ha4 the a■eta\uoe of Pu.’bl1o SatetT aAd other pel’eouel ha.Ting reepoati’bS.U ‘7 u.4.er the 4eaasltloatloa progaa \o pJ”..,.., the ••leeUoa ot … who 414 aot aee11 the nqtaired. 1tu4&1’4.a. ? – . . 7i.uU7••• lo the J\141c1al .,-,,ea l lllpl na up lt7 a,t.ac we a’bol1ahe4 ,.·,:-, c, . ‘. wb&fva• W u4 ).,.a ff J”ffst&l>lieh oa aa’11taotoq u .•••. I 4o aot noal.l aov u:, aoUYe parUolpaUoa l>7 0.NU.t la lerlia la \he feftlllalloa et lh• Ju,loi&l 1,1\ea l bay• outlt.1114. Ooloul Ylaler u4 tho•• voltdac wl th hla at haaktul u4 4Ul”ln, \be ear1ler perio4 of tie •roh tol”W&J’4 of Kill \a17 Goftnaeal “‘- th \he ant.••• ba4 twl1ai-1se4 tbell­ tel.Tet wt th the 014 1r1\ea ia hl’IIIUI’. their werk •• the fo’IUMl.a\loa of oun 1a lle?lla. And ou soul ottlcen were la huh vi th &eZ’IIU■ ln the leol, ja41o1al and goflna-.,a1 tlel4, •• b•oa• ,ne aln to a d.c:n• with ou Berlin ttatf . • – 26’1 – · ·1’he· .covh were &M:tt reeltabli ehed enet17 at the7 had. exiete4. !here wer•,..,.. J,ll’it41otloaal aocU.tioatloae. ‘lb. lav ••not• cod• ot p?-!­ v.n;·\t• •• a i-eorpidsaUon of the court■• htalla of -proCMClun . i;); oar poet tlon. wa• thlll, the Tieton. ua4er the \aaio state :pa-per• •• 4o01111Mt1 nlaUnc lo unoond.1 Uoul 11Urrder. had control o•er th. • .,.._ tac .of 0.ftllllQ’. !b.ere •• u lecal o’b11gatlon oa ,11e1r part to oontom ‘9,: tlw la• of lel’IIU7’. QDeaUoa wa• 1″&1te4 •• to the ••ta• ot the ? C.TMlloa of 1907. lo whloll ”• v.1,-,. Sta••• ba4 a4heN4, vbioh eoalab• nl•• tor u •1’117 ot oooapaUon ln ffl.aUoa to the laba\1\uh of a toNlp oou,17 la Uae ot wal”. 1.aclu4tng. •• aoae ooalencttd, tbe p♦rlo4 follo”1 .. • the ead. ot hoa\111 U••• the War Departaea, ,ought JIT opinion. before 1 took off for O.nm17, ‘but 1 tbo\JCht 1\ no\ a41’1table ? gin u optllioa 1n th• a”b1t1aot at tbat tl••• It aa opln.loll b..,.. aeoeeu.17 l t ■boaJ.4 … ta the oon.tnt ot ,. p&l’U,alllar epplloaUoa. t 414 oonolu4• – u4 tbt.e \… the baal1 “* uoe••l’I’ ot -, owa oonl:ut •• L.,.i J>tnotol’ aa4 M’riae, – that lhl• Goa• •••lea 414 aot appl7 to the -1’9.atloa la 0.l’IIIUl7 •fter tmoon4l\loul “11’naA ♦r; ,-, 1, -· htemtea to applT te an an, &elull7 flptlac ia a toNlP oountl’J’, Aot \o alll’a17 oocupaUoa after the tl«h,Un« ha4 –•• aD4 whea \here ba4 b••• a, in hl’llaJq • eoaple\e crNIMler of a lef•t• –, to1 aa4 a•napUoa of ntl’lorit7 1>7, \tle pnnaeat of the 00-,71-, OOUll’f vhioh ha4 d.ef•te4 hel’. I felt o,hemte vlth reeiteot lo ,11e O•eft Co.o.TeAUon oa 1rtaoaer1 of war. al-,. tattnc tbe poal Uoa t\ •• in • effecl. Prieoner, of var were pioleoaer1 ot wr whether the oouatry ha4 • • • – 268 – unoojU Uonall7 •urrendere4 or 110t• and whether or not the ttchUDC hatl ……. Jhtt GeD.eYa Oo..,.Uoa ot 1907 •• to ‘be looke4 \lo •• a «aide ‘1-‘lllh ao, ·1ti.JtAtag. Altllo,ach Klll\aq Goverueat 1a h? a•na”‘ ao-,lete….. U:ion\7, thl• 414 not ..an lt would exerein 1, bypuUtng out of f>l)eratioa law• 6A4 1nati\’1’1oa• of Ge:raa.n, which v•r• tou4, •• 41•Un,ui1hed froa tho.1• vhlch were a part ot the Ra.Ii •ohine. J oo •, well aatver tu C(lleellon whether •• up•ot-4 \he ,…,14, . w ?4 .., be ia,oo,poratecl la’° a 1a,er Genaa ooa1’1 w.Uoa. ‘bui I au ..,­ tbat w 4•f1a1\el? bop-4 tct ‘brine Genu thlllklq \owan. .1,.u 11,erU•• •• w 1qo,.- tlaea ta ,_ hl\eA Stat••• >th• tt .. of wldoh l W1″1 \e wa, •’ oa• tor \be 1aln4uUon lat6 •• Lepl Dlnoton.ts of an o’f’el”-811 plu for 0.ra81′. Swcl.1•• wre ‘belac •«­ pnnolpell.J’ in tlMJ 01Y1l Utair• l>tnaioa, which eTenhal.1,- had pnnolpal. n1poa1t’blllt7 tor ,a. dratUn.g of a oon1U11lUoa, vlth tu a11hta1u• of \he J.epl, PolUtoal u.4 other Di’t’llloa,. · \th4t Unlte4 Iv.let•• llftll the A••I ollal,..netp■ when the CoAltol , Oouotl •obt.u17 •• ut la •Uoa 111on1, af\el’ the ooaclt■10JI of the Pot•. Coaf•reao•. 11 ,_. tell to•• \o JU’ltt14• owr the ttra\ MeUac of tu L..-,1 Dlreo\oate ln hrlla. Mlp.at 21 1 lMI. fbe obalnaaehlp mtat.a ‘b,1 the aonth. I u.t toz> the t1alted Stat•• Aula, the •l’lier ••tlact a.a …. u … thereafter; ‘bu\ a• u .. veat ‘b7 1114.&• Md.cl•• •at …. onea thaa J •• •• Aaedaaa ,epn … tatl••• l elaov.1.4 a44 tlaat W• •• pa•Ur du ·\o bl• on uaunal qaaltfioa\lou and a.1»11111•• u4 aot allfll>l7 to -, a1t1erpUoa ta on.er•”•••• lie •• aa exoepUoJllll.17 a\le npnaeataU’ff ot lhe . • • • – 269 – United Ste.tee. Mr. Phlecer, of llk• oa.11’b•r. alto ea\ once or ,w1ee before he ret1J.ne4 to ,Jae Vallecl State, in l>eMllltel”, 1948. ,. … •••••••• , Gtatu. ”»••· jzi the earlier ••Unc- of \he Lepl »lnotorat• \he lri U•b bew ao- O’IU’atel1′ \he b1pltoatton1 ot the ol’f’11 llbenle• papere w tatrocluo.a.. l lhlaM the lreaoh understood aleo. althoqh pe:rhap• not to olearl.7. the es• pre••ion. ••• proo•••• 1• p•nl1ar to \he oouon law. A• for the SoTie\s I ••• a pe4 4•1 of q,ualitioatloa. ae 1 bad. ,iwa. lneofal’ at the 11eaeve1 , ,,. iook ….,, oppodtlou to \u kln4 of \bS.114 the Son••• new JllUer ha4 done the wold• van &ppl’OYe4. ».,oact \.bat aac1 in the aowal a4aiala\ra\ion of the pr1ao1p1•• thell•el•••• l n•••• tel, U1e 4eowaeat •eaat tu …. to lhea •• to u,. l 114 feel, hrn,e•er, \hat the7 -,u14 uu a goo4 cleal to the ·Ch.,. people ia the lat\em Zoae • !M?• wen U••• when. 1\ teemed olm.oua, in the lle,bt of the rigldit7 ot \he So•l•t pod Uoa, lbtre •• not a f.,… 1nterpla., of a leg&l. approach be\veen u. It vaa 11111 te4 \7 tuperior a\ltbe:rt.t7. ru, w.• •• api,area\ ia aay\hlnc J ••• .uoud. to tar. hi, • ..,.. eo •• U.ae .,.., oa. fhe7 vel”e WMlel’ MN rial& N•\ricUea, ,i.a “• \houch all ot ue wn u4•• the -,olloiea of ov.r own to•enaat. ,-, W a tnaalaUoa tor clu i,roe••• u4 •o kuw vbat l, aeant to thft111el'”•• bat wbe,her that waa the aaae a• U aeaat to •• l thlmc 4o\lbtfal. ft.e. hnaa people vo1ll.4 ••• a o1 .. nr 0011011p’1oa of 1,. am th••• lave and pnoluaU011• were not to ll’ILOh tor \he Jlu.Hlut •• tor the people 0 f ?l’IIM7 • bel’e wen 11111111\ea of \he ••Uaca but 4eta11• of d.1eov.a•toa• were not olrcul.ated. •ch Mtlon had preteat 1’• own 1eoretarlat. !he HCNtariat • • • – 270 – tor ,be fGlll'”‘1)0Yer group rolatf!ld. with the cbairaanahip. ‘1’he eecretsris.t fol’ the U.11t4 ltat•• tbi.rlnc Augud aotecl for \he whole croup. l>u.t \lat tU.4 aot mean. the group would. haYe the note• our seoretarifll kept tor ourHl•••• the pa;pal’ preparation tor our aeetlnga wa• full and oar•M. !he aiwt.e · · 8l>ookt,” or record. book•• 1)ffp&1’ed. ‘b7 the ate.ff tor the United. Stat.a repr•tentat1Ye in the D1rectorate, pew in mlllben a• the veeke end aontha pa.ased. These contain a coneidenble wealth of matenal. nw enaotmenta ‘b7 the Oontl’Ol Oouao11 vere J)ulltahed 111 the 0tt1o1al Gasett•• which ve created. Jach law or o1’4er va• ‘f)Ubl1ehod ta this aamte!’ t.n Inglish. 1Nuoh. Jbiadu and. Genaa. Ov le,hlaUon waa not for the SoTle\e exoept lndireotl7. !hey would. ban to ad•1n11ur 11 1n ,hetr area. ‘but it waa pnmar117 tor the Gerraa.n people, who bad a 11110h clearer ooacepUon of ‘festem theories and 1>rl.11oipl•• tbaA ,he Son.eh, exae-pt tor aome sobolarl7 SoTiet profeteors who bad made 1peoial stud.le,. 1J’alloe diet not eign the Potadu agreuent. Although ebe bad been ‘brou&hl lato \he qudr1panite co•eraaeat ahe cU.4 net feel lecallr bound ‘b7 1 t. She 414 .,., oooperate la one la,onant reSDeot, \he ••\Un« Up of oea … tnl a4Jd.n1ttratl•• acccie• fer OeJ’11Q7 •• a whole. Yid.a wa• one of the mean• pron4e4 1n the Pottlda.m Protocol ‘b7 vh1oh ve had hope4 ‘1, pi,i uri.lt7 in 0el”ll&D7 in aH•\aln …. aual aepeoh of Genan life. aotwi tbetandiq the (1\1,adripartUe goTeruent. ‘.Pb.a J’rench -wow.cl not pendt thi•. ‘!’bat was the flr1t lllportaat aoa-ooopen.U•e attUw!.e, and it 414 not oo•• fl’Oa the Sonet. ‘fM preseat ( Septeaber, 1954) •Uuation rith respeot to m>c 1• i-emtal•••nt of the freaoh a\Utud.e in GeniaDT 1n 194&. ‘l’he 1reach were reluctant to take any- step v1 thin Ge!’llaJlT vhioh tended toval’d the rebabili ta .. • • • – 271 – tio.t! or l’- stronc oeatnl goTernment. 1’he rMaon the7 are no”‘ u.willlng to Join tn EDO 11 because ot the •me general reluctance, 1n p:reae.nt d.ay ten,, vUh retpeot to a German a1’117. Yet the 14ea of 1mO or1«tnated wt\h th• 1renoh, and I tb1Dk 1t eound. Vh11• it would g,!lin tor the Weit t1’e •treng\h of ‘ie1tern G•l’IWl.7 it would m•eh that stren«th into a Jl’nropean. coopenU•• coJlllll’Uni t7. (Paragraph IV of the tubd1Yidon ot the Pohdam 1rotocol entitled, lf’l’he Po11t1oal and Joonoaic Prino1plet to Govern th• ‘!Natm.et of 0e!”lll&Jl7 in the hi Ual Oon\rol P•riod,” ru.da1 lor the time ‘belnc, no cen.tnl Germaa government tball be ewtablithe4. lotw1\hatan41ng thl•, howeTer, oer’-lu •••ential o•lnl. G.raa.n a41l1n11tratiTe departMnh, heated b7 atale ••aretarl••• ,hall be e1ta’bl1ehed., pa1’Ucularl7 ln the field• of tlnanoe, tranapo:rt. OO.llll\UlloaUone, foreign. trade arad hlduet17. heh deparlaenh will act 011 the direction of the Oeatl”Ol Oouncll.) Wt \h th1• exception, which 1 thought i?orh.nt, th• earlier period of the ocovpat1on witne11td a 9p1rlt of coop•ration on the part ot all in a oomon taek. ‘?here vat frien411aeH on \he part ot Sottet penouel loward Aaencan penouel. I 4o u\ •ean there wae utnen4liae•• on \heir pan toward elU.ter tbe heaah or the Br1t1th. but 1 think the &Ncl will which enated 1n geaeral toval’Cl our o-.m people, ae tar ae v• ooul4 Jud&•• va, (!U11• end.ant in the a,utu4a ot the Sov1•t repre1•n’8Uv•• tn »•rlia to’W&.:rd Aaerloan r«rprft8Gts.t1ves there. 11’his wae not oonfined to l$g&.l per­ aonnal. In faot, I IU.pJ)OH tt a1cb\ have ‘been llON obttou, la other area,. ht the-N wa, a tpiri t of ooopera\ton,. a f’riendlin•••• a eoiaon feeling of join• nee••• 1n thtt war, and o.ne of bopefulneH for th• futur•. I kDOw J>.Ow this gra4uall7 deterit>rated., ‘but I epeak of the ff.J>l1.-1′ r,-ott-war period • I tel t at the t1ae and 1Ull do that 1 t wa• un!ortUDa,e \h4’ J’renoh oppoeed the central administrative agencies. Some thought at the time that • • • lf \? 1″‘”’10h bad not obJeoted t>a Sonatc wul.4 be.Te done so. ht the ta<Jt:ii• ,,, · •• the J’reaea. We bow aow the Son•t polt.07 •• 1 t d.eftlop..t •• •Jppo1ed. to uait1o&lloa et 0.J!’IIU1’. Jue, vi.a ,., polic, aollcUtltd t.;• a .,::?•”°’• 1R a:A7 ••••• Mai-1bal Stalin at PotllAaa ‘Wlllda the r•••· ,.,., . . . . – .,.aklq of \boae nt’l1er· J10ath1 •· bie>.d a&1′”4 to oalral ed.JlinistraU•• acuo1••• 1 \Mak there -… • likelihood the So-net voulcl not ha•• ••’aed . th••• –••i•• it ,1,.e >’reach had golH alon« at lbat Uae. lf in faot tbeJ lalMt- •••- “‘ up aa ooat-,late4 t, wuld ha”t’e beea a tone in the d.tnett.011 of’.? utf:1M.0.ru.a,. fh.tr •’••o• wae a ta.o\or vtaloll temte4 tow.rt p•? i; pet11iitllil thta 411’l sloa. 1, alpt k that w1 U1 all \lie prol>l … oar &oYel’IIIIM, ·llatt vi th f1’&1MNt at tht.t perle4, thi• ou ooult not haYe been pre••• towa.rtt a JION f&Yor- · abl• clec:hlon. lat 1 tel, w uou.14 ••• doa• aon thaa l •• oonscsloua of \o p•nu.d• franc• to aooed• \o Ihle polto7 ot the Pohdaa Jll’Otoool aad. let Ntu…. 1, ,aould ba-.. ‘been left to the Wli&Uff of ‘h• lo..-tet if., all. t.. Ae\ertoraUea of the el t•Uon bet1r•ea tu Son•• aad U1e Ve•••• allt•• •• retleoted el.n •r• qulok17 \haa ta :lerlla. ‘.h\ “14•• of lt ,.,.a \o app•r then. for eDll!)le, w vne ••l’J’ ooa1oln.Uoul7: oan,lM ou\ o’1r obllcaUon• 111l4•? the Pot.au ?• tor 1’eparatloa• -.0 b• t9′,1vered 1a kind. 1lo •••ia• 411Matlb.g pla.u.t, ad •o tortb, and red•c- 1q \he J.ad1le\rial capaol\7 ln oertaia respeot, S.n Ge?. ht at a oer- 1&1• pola\ U beCtUe prel’-1′ ol•r tu hnet •• •’ notpneattng with \!Mtlt’ o’bligaUoas. . ?raU••• 011Ulae4 ta Ar\1131.e IV of the Po,K&II Pt”O\oool aaonc •t? thiac• p,o.,S,ded tbat: • – 273 – X? &441 tton to reparauo, to be talt•n 1>1 the ussa fro• 1 ta owa •••• of ooau.paUon lbe USIJl tball reoein a44itiou117 fl”Ofl ‘h• \, ·Ya.Jl4••t. •n lo••• uonc other Qb.ae 111,eea per out of auob ualtl• .)#roaooap l•l aeteelal 1n4lu11J’Cl1toalr1al, oO&heaip1 Woal eaqUindp ••eaold.\ aln• amat\he fa17ot8,’n pi.aglac 1ea J1••’.\ r1•• a■ 11 UD.AeOetN.17 tor the 0.l’IIU peao• eooao111. ad :? ‘be :re110YM h’o• ,he lea\era Ion•• ot hl’IIIUT la uohuae• for all equlftla\ ftlue of food, coal, potaah, stno, tba\er, olay pl’04uc,•• -petroleu prod.11oh and otb4tr OOM04i tie• •• -,. be acned. upon. ‘ftd.a wa• aot .,. haponti’blltt,- but a good. ? thine• nn diacnitted vhloll’ ven aot within our own Leal I>hi11on. 1 Jtllt 1n 111r eq about what •• going u. We wen 41 IMD.’111,1 la the ‘Weatem ••••• ald.ppll,c plu.t■ a-,., u4 aot cetUnc in :retvn boa the Ja1tem ••• what •• eoatea,plaW ‘bJ Yotl4aa. X \bnpt tht.• ehoult •’°P• !he thee17 ot tlt.e Potaclu eooD011t• proY1e1ou •• that GeraaA1’ tlloul.4 ‘be t:reate4 a• an eooaold.e u1 ,. What •• ao1ac oa voul.4 led. 1o • oae-eicled trea\aeal ot o……,. fro• an eeollOlllo • 1tu4po1nt. 1 thoucht ve allovld be,cla to alow u.p oa tlolng what Potll4aa eat4 • w• abo1114 4o who U •• oond1’1oned on •oaeUd,llC belac tone b1 the Sonet• whleh •• aot being clone. the Sorie\ mad• eoae at,eapte \o OOJll)ly. We 414 c•t 10• oo-1, ‘bu.I 1 t va■ aot ntf1o1•t \o baluo• vha, w were 1-41• ‘° ,-. ft.lat w.• rq ,ho9.pt about 1\, but I watn•t la a poei\loA to la• •• w-11 iato…., •• ot-r1. We 414 becla to alov ,ap oa npara Uoaa. l 4• aot seaa \hi.a ooft.n”e4 •• a :real, of -, eugge1Uon, h\ IU.lita17 GoYenuaot, vbea it ‘beoaa. eoAT1nct4 Pottdaa •• aot ‘beinc •nied. out ‘b7 the Sonet,. One et ’11• tall£1 of ,1ie l,epl Dlreo\on.te va• rm•lon. of aerie.la CJa,-.. au lava applloa’ble to \he ot’rillan populaUoa1 the aamac• lava. for…, ple, and. \he hered.Uan tara lava. Ve 1nl tiated. qv.1 te a oompNbendft 1’e1tud.7. • • • – 274 – I ha”fe already aenUoneA a var orime1 law un4er whteh the pn,graa of \u .Valtecl Sta••• afteJ’ lunal>erg •• lob• carried oa. !b.1• •• coula- .,j,. – ,ot wt.th lhe pa\ten of the •r•’beq Obattel’ n, to ‘be aad.e applloa)le to hNallJ •• a law appl”OTe4 ‘b1 tbe 0000.p?JI& &\l\hori tie• ae 4latlnot fro• aa 1at,maUonal tru.\7. 1’ ba4 tp .. lal ■lcnlftca.noe l>Ha.M of i \1 4etalla vUb reepeo\ to the pualahment of •Mb•ra of lad ol”CUlsat1oa1, l•tt 10ae­ wbai uaco•ez•ed ln the !lureaber, Charter. !he orpntaattone themael:••• were oonrecl b1 the Obari•r• but no, the detail• aa to the artalnal re1poa11blllt7 to b• appU.e4 \o tulr aeal>era. •• alN o’b\aiae4 appn•al la tbe Ocatrel Oouo11 of a \aaio stat … at of pl”laolple• for ,be O.naa prieoa,. ‘l’h:11 vat prlaarn,. ‘h• work ot ou.r •• pneoa, c11Tle1on UJKler Mr. lem:utn. th.ere vat the queat1on too of what to do vt.,h the GeJ’ll&Jl pa,en.t offlee • vhioh b•ca.u \he responslblll ,,. pn•ril7 of ov legal people, but aot ••tirelT to. !he l. CJ.. J’arl>en prol>ln oaa• ‘before oul’ l.egal Dinaton and l>inotol’••• tor a baaio approaob fol’ all of GeJ’11Q7. !Ma co.,.. ,,., 1preal. all oftr hnau, &Ad coul4 •’ \e hla41.e4 •111pl1 fro• a tonal ataDd.:pota•. J 11114• a reTlev vhioh J at.cht •nUon 1lere lb a paper I 4el1Ye”4, aa4 ‘ha aoaewbat l’ffltecl, publ1■he4 ill the mo»en MY Jlpity in loTeabeP 1948. lt 1• a aouwbat u:etob1′ ou’11M of the lecal pml»l••• of \he Genu o•oupaUon.. In \he saae e41 Uoa 1 e a tine al’Uole oa \he lepl •••••• of oOft)>lecl h1’11U1’ ‘7 Mu lllela.atela, a … lter of our 1-,.1 •ta.ff la Ge?. x• ■ aot ta acre ….. , wUh neJ7tbiq he aai4 ‘but U it a ■obolarl1 -papel’. YolWN 111, Jan.arr 31, 194′, ot \he Offlo1al GaaeHe of the Control • • • – 875 – X.epl l>inoton\e — 4ltban4•at and d111olaUon ot \he German aae4 foro♦•, an4 priaoS.P1•• ef the a4aU1•1raUon ot hmaa prieo••• which X•n alr,. .. tt.,11.-4. !be latter vaa apprOTed. ‘b? •• heal Dlreo..,ra\e an4 •• ..,… (, ‘ . . . ‘ ,,; . ‘ . ber 12, 19415 ,,. \1:ut Coatftl OouoU. law ‘lo. 10, •he var crl.Jte• law•• aup\-4 the 20\h of l>eoM\er, 1941. Lav lo. 11 •• a npu.1 ot oenala JUl’OY111oli• Gf GerllU oriatsial law. ·’Nani’ ot 11he earli•r –•”• atop’84 by \he Ooa\rel OouoU o1’1ct••• la tlla 1-pl l>lreotorale. One 4atetl Septealt•r n, 19415, apeotfte4 tu Ooa.tnl Oouoll’ ••• , … ot lecl•laU,ag, • n.lbel’ t-,ortut boutekeepl .. law, whlol’l. llow..,.I’, 414 ut 41NO\l7 att .. , tu Genu people. I.av lo. 12, an..,., to th• boo•• \as, oorpoaUoa tu, ad uoe•• profit• tax law• .,,11oabl• in hr..,-, 414 not origiu.te 1n the J.epl .Dl1’eotont•• ael’ kw lo. 14, an uenclaea\ ot aotor Yahlcle las law. !beee elee.N4 nr Dino ?••• lnlt I belin• oJiel•tel 111 the J’tnanoe Dlreoteat.. Law Jo. lf of 1•\..17 1946 •• a reTlelo:a ot the Oaraaa Marrtace law• Md• l>;r \he X..qa1 Direotorat•• au .ieo Lav lo. l’I, aa ……. , of the t.u.rl’-o• .a lave.. .AU •Id.• •• oa a qaa4rlparU •• be.de, aa14• boa ov ova 1-,.l. •••l•tu” to 011.r at.U ta17 co•enaaat, 1M1114lac a pevtac ffluae ot -,1a1oaa. the fPlal♦aa of tu Lep1 »l•eo’-•• laulll.a ill ou lepl a4’rice HOttea, ••• n• pnaent4 ta at … a,aph toa. 1tJ ftl.• oo••rbc oerWa p•l’lo611 wt.Ill tut.a••• u4 coa1ttt11\e u uuft&l l>raa• of l•l lon. · ,-. ?epl.atloa of vont.ac lloura, of lanar:,, 1941, wat lbntaCh \1- Dlreotora•• “•’ 414 not originate vllh ••• la a alall.Ar oateco17 vu .Lav lo. 18 of Mllroh lHI, \be bollt1DC lav, J.aw •• 81, ot Jlaroh 30, 1941, eaU UeA •a.raan l.a’bor Covt,, • whloh oncba•• la \be JlanpoveJ’ Dl .tnoa, •• I noall, w• olean4 lhnteh the Lepl Dt.nctorale. ‘When I ..,, oleare4 • • tilep?’..’…. . . \a.·••• loae’1u1 thq v•”• u4 ••••’1••• the7 “” ao4lft.4. ?’ ·•· ….. · . . … • y,;:o,i..r• laolwlell Ori•• l’o. a of Jaasaa17 7, 1941• •Oeatlt•ll••• •• Ane am Aluia11ttloa1•1 Of4er lo. 3, 4aW J…,.,q 17, 1941, •1eg1,taUoa et tli. PopulaUoa or Jirpl.07able ••• lecl•tratioa of the Mplo,..a aa1 \h4Jlr Plac … nt in Worl£. • thee• la1t two are oellecl o1’d.era; aoae ar. oallecl 41-­ reoll••• aa4 ••• are called lave. ‘-t 1′ 4edpaUoa 4epende4 “PO• whloll .,.,..r, \lleJ’ tell t.ato a• -,eotfle4 1»7 tu eaao.a,. t>lfftoul7 aa’1o…., 4eflataf. lbe Ooatrol Couao1l’• Mtboie of 1.,S.tlatlac. · · 1 left h? ta Ille Jd.441• of .,. lffl, wbloa I bellne odaot.4••. vi.th the em of Yolw flt of ,11e Otflolal Gaa•tle. !be Noell4 lav 1laW 1a felwae flt •• pa11tcl the 10th ot Mq. a tu oa teltaooo. 1o .. of tbe lav• ln Tolue TU were ao\e4 upoa l>7 t.iu. wpl. J>inotorale while l •• ,u11. 1n. 9efta1:IT. and. 1 lh1alc ao•• afwr l letl. General 01&1′ •• ••17 a,apa\hetlo ‘ct the J,epl Di•tnoa and 11• par? t.a the piowre •• a whole. Altheup • 11111\&17 1111n, • ha4 ba4 -,en••• la other \raaobea of eo••l’AINat. W be 4H1r-4 to wnr tatt Nllttu, •••–•• a. I’ll• of lav vllld.n. ,u oeao-,te of Allel’laa a…•-.. ft.I.• . . aUl-4• ,.,., .. clova, u4 to •• lepl a41’lN ‘mlaoh •• 1ooke4 M f(‘ll\• ‘ •:dea•i ‘ffl.7 tor belp. I lboul.4 like to Matton …. n.1 OtMI’ 1, ••• tA ,bl. ftHOl7 NTiev llaJl7 7ear1 afffr. OU 1• that l \ -. … laonatiDClJ app&Nai ‘-” •• ln..,..i t ,, la tu adaiat.1\ratt.oa ot Ja•ll•• lhro”Ch JU.11 t.U, OeftftUIUI .covt1 whieh .bad tu l’elJtOlltl’bUt 17 of edONillC ,_ lU.11 \al’J” …….. , …..ia’ 10l\l ueaa the 0.l”JaA people• — tor euaple, Yiolalloa• of the Ooavol • Council aD4 Zonal law ‘Pl’Ohibi Uac the carl7’U’C ot fireaa,. J’eul ‘1•• to, – 277 • e——–;iailer of’f•u•• wre vl4el.T ft.rlu.t. a, co•• 011 la ov ow ooa.at17 ‘- a ucne. We •• at ••• 11D tolutloll for 11 a1 7•’• ht we ha4 a tr•• •blul\ lo a\1-,? a I011l’1oa uh?. •• onaW a laoard vldoh 00’1114.•NTJ• ,u ::•ae• la lhe etfon lo oltaia ulfel’lll’7 ot ee,en.aee for like off-.a.••• • l wi …. ,, pl••- u., ,,. Vll’e alal• ,o do ‘”·· and % thlu u •*•”••17′ well. It w.e J,,.1t celtl-, un4•r wq whea I l•f’. Dia■aUefaotton. altn.t the lJ•eawen.oe of 1eat-.01rc cue not eo nob aa l recall trca \be O.raau as boa Olli’ o• perteaael. · la Ootober J look Up wt th Aeaelll4or NupbJ the plipt of 0..,.. prl…….. ot ·..-, aoae of whoa w ba4 h.J’U4 O’Yff \o J’:raaa. alllel’ ti.a ftK boae, a 111-‘ek• I tlai.ak \ecau• th-,,• loa,er ooa1tltv.t• a.., aa& wl’e •t.ltle4 to repalnaUoa •• 1>Fiao.1Mtl’t ot war. ..,.. of t-■ were …., tuz,…t te Geraq fna 1J”IIUe a, U.ttor ca•••• While ap’PnolaUaa Jn.aoe•• feelings and. d.lffiftl.U•• then •• u. ol>ltcaUoa on 01u· part. 1 alao ••Uon-4 1 t \o Geunl Je4ell lat. th tn lnmtlllrt. lfarpby taid ha woul.4 aeacl word to S.ff•’-17 ,,.,..,. 1 nov l I 1-eoaM a MIMr ot uep eouen ‘- •• S,Or•••l’I’ uA l llaft ae Aoot he 414 all Jae .. 1114. J pre••• tlle •\tel’ acala whea l -. ….. Ille le&lll M..-1•1′ et \be »epar•••· 1 W plaN4 1, b•fo,-• hunl OlaJ’ via.a he wa• n,va1-. tor tea 4q• le lhtt U’alte4 Ila\” 1a ia,, Ootola•r 1946. • thou.pt Jn.aoe wo-14 thefteetonh lln 19 \o· 1’8 oltllpUeAt. ? ,o1at wa• \ha\ aotvi thatandiac \he lall ltw.Wl \7 the•• prl toaera of W.l” wen JOU« •• d.ral\el fro• Gel’Ull fu.111•• aDl •• ti\ n.’bJeet• of reprlaal; \liq ver• 1 IIID’lleb-‘ vlUd.a the pn\•alioa •f “1• l’ri1oa•r1 of War Oo11ftll’1oa ‘8 whloll n ha4 a4hen4. J’ll4ce lfa44ea all4 l, a\ Juetio• Jaolttoa• • laTUaUoa. atteat.4 the opu- • 111& at lurea’berg, loTea’ber ao, 1945, tollovln.c Hur oollftllinc of the oour\ • • – 278 – 1n »•r1Ja ae already ae\1oae4. There they wen, tn the dock. 1′ wa• a n•n??(ble AM uS.qa.e b.tatorioal 4nelepaent. ( % Mt vi \h Senator P.,•r •f fto?d?. vbo -· \ldaldng of the d..S.l’lllllllt, of a ….. , …. ,. of’ Je’l’Uia.·) A boar4 111111.ar to our Doazit1oaUon Pollq Board •• ••’ 11)) oa Beau … tutio:A e.n4 Us wl’k va• well ul•r ,,,..,, ma4er \he a\le staff 41ncUoa of Ma3o., »Guld MoLean, when 1 d.apane4 boaevard ta Ma,. ( In la’• J’ll17 1941, ltetor• l IIOTecl ‘pe1″11Uen’17• to Berlla, Bowie, 1lnle1? laJ4•• bl th aJll l •et barrle417 to nYlev tti. •’-‘-•’ ‘M lte ••• b:, te.eral lleeabowr to the hnaa i,-,pl•• pJ’OJIJ)\ecl ,, Geaenl ••–171 • ‘””‘•eA atat … at, Uw.,vght \o be a •t\ ‘-• -,tbd.1’10 u4 trt…ai, a\ the U••• 1 acNt4 Geaenl llsenhowr lhoul4 •ak• a etate•at, ln ‘t’lew of General Moatgoaer7• ••) !he :tlr1t el.oUou amoag the hl’IIIU’l people vere held beton 1 left. General Olq •• usioua to .,.,. forward vlth d.eaooraUo proce•••• ·&114. to pl.aoe MON ns,ou1•111 ‘7 on the tenan people. In tho•• ft ral el••’1•••• la which a Jalp pe:reeatac• et tbo•• eltat’bl• TOt.a. tun. wen Ue..,ittleaUo•• v.a&•r the 4••atft• Uoa , rocma. Poll Ucal . parU•• ,_a lo tM1″·• 1a \he aev 1t’11atlon. !be flTet eleottou were•• a …S.•lpal lem. follow«tl priocnaliftl.7 ‘7 ealargeaent of t-1r 1oope. .fbe hltiall tollovecl. t •a s:aot aun \bei-e were an, eleotloat ta the heaoh soae \efore J left. ‘Ph.en •• alto the reeata\lt•••• of a Oenaa pre••• lnlt u4e• •••,. Tltio.a u4 v1 th a aeleotloa of ell ton to a”I014 1&11 tafl,….. •• p..,.. pJM\a po■■1ltl11tl••• there waa thi■ •oil laterfenaee vttll eu ooaeepUoa of a tn• pn••• \11.t l think rlghllf’ IO at Ille tlae. Wlo ataUoae aln • reopened and \hen wae a gradual n1»1rth of aaUonal llfe la ftrioue va,s, • • -mbut t11¥h?r Teq clote npemeion at fir1t. there were (Cra.clual l”elaa&Uon•• •• we know aov. •• w \e0&119 11Dre ooaflcltml of d.nelOl)ll•nta and. therefore villbl to le\ t.bo .. who were betac elaoted . the O.naa J>MP1• tat• n­ -,oajt’btll t,. l ••1 a44 that la Jpl’ll 1946 before 1 left »erlla la lq • I W a nelt to loM wt.th Geaeral Drape.-. Don JCoLeaa and lleabera of General Jbape.r’ • atatt, la tu General’•· pl.a.A•. lie had aa aud1uoe wl\h the lolJ’ Ja.tbn, a blehligbt ot a, lite•• Hperleaoe■• l think be 11 one of \he great•••• lf aot the pealeat, po•aalt t1 of aod.era Haea. lt •• a woa- · 4ertal trip. I Hlvaed. a \lt earlier lllaa \he hural’• pan7. Alll•• W lntltled l p to Jo• before coalng 1’aoae. I wu\e4 to 4o .. \illt 414 AO\ kaov bow it ooul.4 co•• about uattl thla tnp oaae &lea,• l Jd.114 of ‘b’tmlec1 a rl4e • • • • • • • • I food \his tea and one-halt aoa\ha la larope u al>tor’b1ac ‘but 41tt1- eull ezpeneace. 1 wt.ah 1 bad ha4 ‘beHer qualttioa.Uoa1 for the ulert&klac. the ooaUUoa• w•r• laoNAtltle la -.. nap•o’•• uA at ,, .. , l W lUUe feel.lac ., aeoeaplluaol. I 414 ao, ., … \be lucuce u4 ’14 aol feel oloH \o the people, exeep, a fft fr1•417 ••1t1hl>or1, ara4 •• ooul.4 ao, tell ••,,. well ,he etfeot of vhlt we were dolag. l aa c1d to ••• P•• throuch vi th \he work •• a pu’bl1o Hmoe ‘out l do ao\ teel ••17 prom. of the r•tul’•• I oaae to appnotate the &fll7 ?nou.i la pod Uona of reapoaa1bll1 ‘7 tn MUl w.17 GoTenaen\, –4 -, ow Cl’O’Qp of l•WJ’•r• wn exoellen\, fai tbtal • lal’d wtufclnc aat oospetent. the ‘Ber11a •• on \he vhol• 414 aa able • Jo’b under General OJ.aJ. wbo hia1elf la a rearkabl.J able ••• there were • • • – 280 – ,na, band.1.oaps, eepeciall7 al first. the hand.leap• wen inona1ed. l)y 41ttj;nlt1•• la …,.n!oattoa am tran-,ol’taUoa. pv.t tow the tollo’WiDC aotea la S.,tea’De:r. l94lh ltfhe volk of Mlll ta.17 GoTensea, 11 la llllil7 w,• uuaU•t• olo17. I oauot •” that ti atequa\al7 c••• je&ple, e1tblr here ol” a\ •••• It l• a,n,a ,o the too •oh la a •ncnma• -. vtohS.o ohNM we1’ ae4r e taoroaou t•heto• 1A••t erpIla7t ha o• tt kaohe wgll’edeac\ •4.ul and. •tm4r teool “‘aotudf \e1nctn c toa •• ., • …., b1 d.one, tne of the reetral:ata alUl O’\tl’inc effect• ot 1-1•1-.U•• and public 4eltat•. Good •• ••raacl• to do what a,..S.1 \o be clou, u4 to Ao lt right •• thq ••• s.,. ‘tnll ..,,…,. • . ,,…. , oo ul.’bTd f-la•• t, upta aao l1egt 4&nplalaUro••u. 1 oouelu4 ul aaofU OtVtao o\0va17 ••. 1 volMl•r tf •• Uae ,,., oa \.ht al ’11&\ioa i11pn,Ttlll. !be verit aa a wlaole oeae oloaer io tu people. anl the people luo\’IC}:l eleot1oa1 am othem.•• wn CS.•• cnaler ioe1poastb111•7• . hNU1 ha4 ‘been l>a417 beatea, afl4 a tov-uUoa. co•eftlllen\ ot oae utloa •• a Yer, iaon-14eal W7 to aoooapll•h our purpo•••• but the taot 11 the 4e\erlon.t1on of 1a,erp”l’eDaeatal relaUon1 lte\veea the Sonet an4 o-q.r- 1el’fH •• slower \o aanlf••’ 11Hlt th.er•• when ?• ooafota wen ao olo••• tl’aa oul•14• of 0.ftlU1′. fben wa1 a ooa,1au4 etton to co•»•••• la »•rllll, althovch at the …. U• there wn “”” 1.traina aultea\t.ac \beaael.Ye• elffVh•re. Orahall.J’ the•• -.attet\ed lheaael••• ln Genu,. -.0, u.4. ,? C(Ud.l’lparUte •fton eftanal.17 •• a\amoae4. haeral Olq. atnoe he let, h.11 re1po11e1bil1U•• aa Mllltar7 8oTen.o•• la• m\ten a ‘book oalltr4 h@tlll la hDIU: ci•ine la eoae 4ea1l hl1 1toi’7 of \hle ea:rl1 period a1 well a, af\er I bad. goae. ‘!he rebabl1Uatloa of We.ten. GflW&l11′ la noeta\ 7ean briag1 to ata4 Preeld.•t ffllllU’, ruark to •• that 0.l’ll&DT vn.14 not ‘be a lhNat to-, ttt\7 • • • – 281 – npt4 nba’b1ll tat1on. h&t beea du 111. eoo4 pan to the ta.a, \ha\ Ge,, •• b••– i.- tf IJMt nuaoial bul’llea ot aa •”‘1′, DaT7, all’ tore. aai othlr •—-,•,? , 1Nedoa fNII -\lll’MI will 4’Pell4 upoa tbe pal’t Genaro- :pU,1 la . . , . – . . ‘ . _ _ – ,’ ._. ? u4 •••r lAtenaUoMl 4..-,elopuata. ftd.1 pan 1• now a wte♦ oae ta4•14 UDder Obueello:r .,.,.,., aooura,:e4 b7 the 1tateuaa1h1p la1Uate4 – “””‘ •• l&J’Celi’ )7 toner Pn,t.er lolmllaa of haaoe. lt l 1 1nteret11ng that vhll• in 0ehlall7 la 1945-41 M.eaauer va.• to • aa unkllova name. — Ca leaYS.., Jerlb & fh &U.l Uoul aotee are a4414. I alloul4 a.att.oa – . I, ‘fr. —? of P1 Hehrg!I. vbo ha4 ‘bee11 llw Gatllollo 4l’ltl’ olaplatn at Jnutart. aa4 ,. … oa lo le.-1.ta. He 414 a ft.a• wl’lt, tf’d•tl1′ u4 prteellJ’, 11J14eratud.lng, uA l’eaohlac nl a1-,1 to W. ••• Hula. fte Catbollo popula.Uoa a110C the an, P4t1’toanel at ‘both pla .. • •• •••l4et’a•1e. M7 fini esperleo• vt\a e’ffatag Ila•••• tn »erlla, for an., ul Mll1’-IY Go•ernaent peraouel. So••U•• l wen, to I.he MaH tor the Genana la the ae1chbomooct when w 11″4. !he Cataolio Olm.rob there had. ‘been. b&fll.7 ‘boalle4 or ueUM. All 4eualzaaUoa• wre ulq a ooaoa l:lall that bMt ……. …….. ,., \ef•N I 1en ,.,. h1’haKI, vlln l _, lhl’Otlch ,_ l•W• faall7, bat \Ma a1-la to l’dlltll11ate a taall 0..tlaollo ohapel. -•• Jeff9 wal w1 lh .. thin tor hat1lt.olton. !u boue •• 11″4 la lteleap& to th• lelft■• l helpe4 ‘Ir. Bluen.1h a ltll la the &J’ftDCeaenlt fol’ \bet NOep•toa to II. Oad.1-1 PM71erll11C, the Jtahop of h1>11a, oa 1’1• ?••lll’ll fn• ••• wt\JI the 114 ••• lb-• .,..,,, tu.up ,,…11 •••t•tuoe I u4en-.o4, W pt\ea 11\e Jl.i»p to loae b1 alr, ov Oft people ho141n.c •* fol6 …. r•••• k. Muph7 alto •n• \o •• .. lo••• offloe la•• ktore ov Yl.•lt there. ••• ln.uklia Molovea, of lhal oftic•• a –•r ot ov toretga – 282 – • 1entce, was uceedi21Cl1 generou1 ot his tiae and 0011riea7. le went wtth ua to c,v •-f.•o• wt th \he Roly lather• and tbe aul 4q ba an1 I n1a1a-, .to tu 1at1caa for a ••• le111U’el7 vlett. ‘!he Bol.7 1athe:r ca•• each ot o\Q’. put, …. t think I wa• the oDl.7 Oathollc — a roa17, u4 one for \u wt.f♦ of eaob tlho ‘W&e ai-rled. lfe gaYe •• ?ther tor Charle• when 1n ap841kin, of ,q fQll7 l taid he wa• at aobool w1 th the JeaeiloUne•. Aller I returu4 to the hotel there ,-a 4elivere4 \o •• from \be Sol7 J’atber a co…N.HT• bronWt P+atue vi.th hl■ ltk••••• ·;. ‘ . · . . ,Ji., “”1>n•H4 •• 4Mpl7. l\ la ot n.oh Chai •10lfiCUM to •• , pJ’11ial”11r hoauae 1, 1• the See of,., • .,, ht ” •v too \Ile 1-.,.,.eaal•• … oiMI. fllh.• •• Jdahr1oa1 1″lU41ap ot the pre-o.t1Uan. era,. t dOUl.l U.k♦ to rehn to lo•, aore tbaA to U7 plao• a\ro&A l ha•• •••n. \eon•• of i:h md-ue aa4. re•M11ac algrdf1caaoe to the J’aith. now, an4 •• totlq 11 • but another 4a,r of 10 aoh of \ha pad. When· 1 left :aerua. gla4 to ‘be oomlac bou to III wlt• &114 oh1141’ea kt ..U.taecl \oo a\ \he depariue from friead• and aseoolatee of a di tflcra1:, u4 uall’Gel period. Ge.al Olq w.e “1th S.Or•taq >,a• la Pari • tor a few UT•· file Seore’la17 •• ••r• oa ,ae h1ku ••” ,na,7 ,aep\taU.ou. G-..ral Ola, 1:114. reeo–49’, aal tu Pree14ea• W. ………. ••• at l l•JUl Juel ‘before leaT1JI& lerU,a, \he Wal tor Merl’\. the o … n1 whbet lo pta 1\ oa •• h1aeelt, so thl• •• tou •’ Parie, vllb the Seon\ar, paotow,­ aUeadiq. M1′ ol4 trieacl )ea Gobea •• then ,oo. 1 lll!le n,u.n1nc to beooae heal M:rl.Nr of lh.e S\ate 1-par\aent. Jq wa• tlwl OounMllor. lot aq hove later the plan• laded I.A the rala at La hal’tlia Airport, &a4 thea oua• reuioa vita fuil7• oldl4ra ud Ape,. I •• ala4. the ‘°’1r •f ch1’7 wa• ovett, an4 to be ho••• • – :J83 – Ma44en ail4 1 lad luoh with Ju.t1oe lactuoa at hNll’beJ’g • tev A.q• ‘beton J >.et, 0.t’IIUl’. We ha4 11>ne do\111 tor 11441•’ • \lnbda7 ga\hlltlllf lq .. at’ll, Chief Ju•U•• 8torae Md 41ed am laolteoa •• ‘beiac 11ent10Ml •• .,· ?? hl• ,jg,ooe1tor. l nterNd.. to Ihle when we wre pant.a,. Be e&1c1 he W lffh \ht\ extra butden• of a4Jl1a11\ratiw reapont1bll1Uee of \ha Chief .ru ….. Uoe and that (I do ao, reaeabe:r hit enot vori1) he would. a• eooa r…in an. l•aoo1ate Just.ta.. A 11,ua later. vhea tb.e ou,1n1r8’ occurred. I felt 11 •• not due to d1,appola1Ma\ ia not belag naae4 Oldet lueUoe bu\ ‘­ outrap that &Jll’Oa• w1114 lhlJtk of retlpiac fn• \a Cou? ,,… u ••• I 4o ao, •.a to ncceat that UToM ve\tld haYe tboqlat ot 4olnc wo, n\ there v•?• re,o?•• to,,., •fteot. • I u Ntabde4 of \lw lue da, (or wa• 1 t lul.7) la 1941 vbea laa.oa •• • 4Uorne, o,nenl. a4T1M4 \he daft ,atheNcl •oc•thel’ that the PrHiiea\ •• noaiaat1QC Stoll• to n.ccee4 J!o.chet a• Ohlet Juettoe aD4 J7l’lle• aD4 h1•••lt a, Anoclate Ju1Uoe1. Man, thou«h’ at that tlae that laokaoa lllch\ be aa-4 Ohlet lueUoe. Be ao tov.lt\ lmev of w.oh … u … , la tu».••-‘· ta •1 weal he aat4 u vuted. •• to now –., .. !Mt \lao,ap’ u» Pr••t4eat •• l’lp’ la M111DC Slou. !!le 4•1h of Ohl•f luUoe S\oae ooOV1’94 vlllle l was sUll la o..,. • but flnton was not appohW uUl I ha4 retuna4 ant\ vae ia. State. Seon­ la.17 J7tnee aA-vite4 u• a\ a etatr •etin& ,bat T1a-,n’1 ? w..t betnc •et 4oa \bat 4q. !be Seore\&17 We lef\ \be Ooun a tev ,-are \eton a\ the nqu,, ot Pr-eetd.eat a.o,…-elt ·le help 1a thfl .,. etfon ud bal toae N’ile vol’k ne prior to beooalJtC het14en\ tna••• 11.-,, ••?•’6l7 ot “•’•• !he ?r va• now o••r• the w..aal..kaa• ud 1’81.iu peaoe \1″9&’1ea, vh1oh ba4 • taken a oeat deal of \he Seoreta.17•• penaul etton 1.n Pans, ba4 bea • • • – 284 – aecoUated. l ttu,qht there “’18.a a sugpetion ot pel’l•i•e.nen 1n. tli. S.or..,. ta.17• • aood when he told ue of ‘1n10a • • aoa1aa,1ori. Perbap• be wo\114 -..,. llt.. to r•h.n to the Oov,. •• Obief JuUcse. Perba.pt he bopel lld.• •·hl oorii? Uoup be uld ao “” ,o that etfeot. :( ‘ , . ., .. .,. Jtth., fuU7 in the dhaUon U wa, — the ac•• of,. oldl4, {> · · — · 1 414 aot f••l tat I 1:bould. remal.n a-,- loapr. •• the ,-.. r -• ..14 . aa end l O&Ul.4 haYe ltl’09cht Iha tut.17 •• GeftlU1’. •• t.Jeaeral Cl.,. ….w. ‘but l 41d not thlu 11 vt.•• to \17 to ean,- o• Ill• etua,toa of tl\e oh114na then, OOJIParfl4 w1 ,h I bell’ oppoi-turd Ue• 111 Watld-.toa ta ov t1 .. parooldal 1obo•l•. 1 knew good MJl WN aY&ilalle lo take o”•”-, part ot ,. work ta Ge?. Geaenl Ola, withed M ‘8 tb.7 am I felt l&4 a’bott leaT1ag. I bad. ao(l11ncl a crat n-,u, for h1• penonallJ, •• tt be tboqh\ 1 oowlt Mlp 1 •• Nl•otan, to 4o o\ber,,lff. SeNnl aoalht hfoN ar , …. •• “f S..reta17 Jf-•• ••• of a olear llk7 ••’ a ••uc• to ae o’f’er the kl•tn• la l•JU.a< alklnc • lo NIVII •• l,epl .U.’ri ••r to tiae Ski• Dtp&na.\. Ir. •ctvorth but goae on tlle World Oov, eae aeathe 1’eton. to Mk• a l•IMI a\o?’ ttaor,. I dao14e4 ao, to oo• ‘beteN tla1nlal •• 7ear 1a Gerau,-. t..i?. ·..-.• eo a4T1te4 Otaenl 01.q, who wa• ••JT .io .. to Seon•rr IJ’$t. lfheJl u nell1ed l wolll4 ,;o u a tw aoa\h• in U7 ..,…,, be tall be voulcl be vt.Uia, tor• to p to State allA u’betaovaat to ae au.a \lie DepaJ’taent to hol4 the plaoe opa. !be lipthot wa tba, I left a it \Ue betore the 7ear wat vp to ‘beoo•• Lepl .w.-..1aer ot ‘\b4 State D91>&naeat. 1 · • • • – 285 – had ‘been in coaan1oat1oa w1 th Acn•• about i ,. She •• no\ iuixloue tor •• to ‘*• $bl.a a11lgueat. at \bat’• ,1ie vq ll wrke4 ov.t. ?-•·’1 lynea atke4 •• to N01″CU1se Iha lepl eWt an4 Ill••<· • coGC\ 4eal of la\t. tud.e. 0.•r the 7ear• lalaad.e of la,,,.re ha4 crowa up 1• tb.8 Deparuent •• 1 la ntsponll’btli \lea all4 •1•• espud.c. ‘!he S..ntar., v1abe4 tu lawyer• genu’ll.11,7 to be \rough\ ud.er the Lacal A4nter. l reorpalsecl the •laft rather 0011pNhendTelJ’ l:n11 not 0011pletel7, 1••la« .10• area• for oban&• o•e1· a longer 1>•rioct. of n… !be heNt&J’7 . al90 P•*”• •• ,o a.ieo\ a f&11′ n•b•r of aev ••· Tu o14 ,wt ••• apeJ’iN.-4 u4 ao11pet••• an4 I 4o aot lat.a aq laplloalloa to \he eoa• tar,. 1 •• &n1ele4 …-,1,- in tbe NOll’,ulattoa lt7 Mr. Jolin ••n.• who bu \eea la 11- hputment helplnc llr. Aoh.e90a on ,ou tpeolal wol’k. Mr. h.ento7, thu Aa•l•knt S.Ore•r, 111 obar1• ot a4alala11’atloll, …., • eto.. we alto ••rr helpful. 1. La.11191 n,h ‘• hNA tmm Oa• problea the lecr•l•l7 pl’Ollptl7 ••• u wa• llataoa \elweea the ».- p&1’1Mat la lfaablnc\oa aa4 Ir. Jenazrd. Janeh la J’ev ton, who ba4 lt••• ael.eo\ed ‘• u4ea’t’OI’ to •””” appl’Gftl ‘7 tlM vn1,.a •tioae ot tateraaUoul ooalrol of •’-l• eaera. I W to ai,.nt t’fll te & 11 tUe U• cel».1 ‘baolt Ult forth between •ew Tork an4 Wa•hlag\oa. Mr. Janoh ba4 ht.a ova orpJllaa\ioa la ••w ton. l11olu41nc Mr. leri.inud Jbentad.t u4 Mr-. Johll •nooa, •lo•• a•Nolat••• a.D4 o,!ler peraouel he seleote4. !o help •• oa the pnJeot I ••ovel \be •••l•taao• la lev ton: of Mr. lea17 t. l…, vllo bad ‘beea vltll •• at \he l’.abor Joan u4 •• 8olloUor Geaeftl.. ti. la uceptloul.17 a.bl•• aa4 w.a then 11T1a« on Loac lalud au praotlotac la lew Tork • • • – 286 – · …. fbe proJ•ol ‘b•oue known at tbe Baruch plaa for the QOAtrol ot atoa,ic ·?•> .. ‘ .· . . . . . · . .. •. enefq?,, l\ •• nal.11 the Aoheson-L11tenthal Plan rith ,oae a41float1o?•· tu •;Jliitied. l’i\io•• hact oreat-4 a coall81on to aeek 1n.\emattoaa.l ooa,l’Ql and ,14:r. lai’U.Ch ba4 bee teleelecl b7 \he Predd.ut \o handle our pariiotp? Uoa. !rhe· Uni tecl States haA aeeumed. leadenhip 1n the ettor,. fhe pl’Opoaal. seemed prel\7 bopel••• to me \hen, aore eo than 1, apparentl7 eeemed. to Mr. llaruoh. !he k:e7 was whether tn. SoYiete would ‘b• ¥1111111 to aooept intema.Uonal tnapeoUon within Sc,Tiel tern \017. t telt codldea\ ,,. were tbell a long -,. from a,l’ffl&« to \hla, u4 tba\ a p•\: deal IION wa• ‘being aade n.t of \he · effo n to obtala t. t than the 11kelihoo4 of auoa.•• wal’t’U.ted. 1 do no\ mean ve ahould aot ba”f’e ude the effort; we d.14 o’btain the adherence of •■’ nation• of the w•l<lt but 1 did fHl \1-t the ohancea of auooeH then were illplied.ly held out to be g:reater than thq were a\ \ha\ period ot h1ato17. h.n\ua.117 Mr. Baruch e,epp.a a.aide &D4 al 4•-,ba•l• .,.,ued. more ooaaiatet wUh the aohal eitutlon. •• helped Ir. Janioh •• ve 001114 aa4 to th.e e:nn, he 4.aalJ>ed in \be 1>NPan.Uoa and renew of paper• the t1a1 ted State• 1atl’04-ued lnto \he Ooa- 111 ••loa to a4YU.ce our \1-orl•• aa4 to ••• •••• acr …. nt. My group also d.raf.le4 a eo&11prebea•l•• 1ntenatlonal ,reai7 tor the oolltrol of atom.a ea•l”ff alone the line• ot the lanoh plan. ftd • cll’att •• nenr aade public .81\4 11 1eaevhere in tu •••,ea, fil••· J thiu U wa• the onl.7 clo?, of 1 te kind eftr d.rat\ed. !’be llaNOh Plan, or the Acheso»L111.a tbal flu. was not a pnpo•e4 treat7, but the ttateunt of a poliq e.ad plan. Jut lncnJ:wa. lowl’d. and I — pr1ao1pal1T \bo•• tvo – aotual.17 drev a 4eta1lticl draft tru.t7 to ear-17 out intema.Uoiaal oontnl • • • • – 287 – ‘the l1aiton w1 th the Department in Washington wat no\ by “-1’17 aeN1e left lo • a’Uf’elJ. Hr. Bal’D.Ob. vae 1.n d1not contact with ,he Preddeat ucl the .S.ontaq, and he.cl the coaple,e aoat1d.eace of ‘both. Jut he and the SeoJ’eta17 witW someone troa ,he Departaent like •••lt \o ‘be in clo1e touch with the titution in lew Ton:. An.other aUer the Seos-etaq put 1•e41ate17 ta wi, haacl• vat th. oo•pleUoa of the necoUattoa• tor the he&dC(Uarten age•ent to co••m. the etatu.1 of ,he Ualh4 SaUon• in thi• ooutry. the Oenenl AaHabl1 brul oN&ted an iaternaUonal gl’Oup to negotiate v1 th the Vat tel States ud 1 •• de1tcuted. b7 the S.Oreta.ry to lake charge of tbe necoUatln• for t? United. ·-···· !his pl’C>’Ve4 qUite a tao:. I had the able ataistance ln the Department of Mr. ltaao I. R. Stokes, who ba4 l>een on the work ‘before I became Legal Ad.Titer, aad. ot Kr. Oarl Naro7, aACl at ttaee ot otbe:re. ‘fhere were •DI’ •••Ung1 wUh th• tnterna\lonal croup and with cur and 1\ate ott1ciale of »ew Torie:. the l\epar’laeat of lu.sUc. •• 41’avn tnto oena1a pba••• of the proble•, •• well a, the offlc• et the AUon•J’ General of the State of lev l’on:. ParUoipatln.g aleo w: … repnHntatiftt ot the Seoretar, Oeaffal of the United JaUon•• ‘f)&rUoularl7 the AH11tant Seoretar,- (}enenl., DP. han ICerno, la obar&• ot legal affair•• ad Mr. Abe leller. ,eneral couael for the hon,a17 Guenl. !b• cl.raft vhloh had beea fo1’111lla\ed ‘before 1 \ook char«• tor the Departm ?nt went through NYilion but wae the baetc dcusm .. at. An laportu.t change had to do with 1eourit1 problema. ‘Ph• draft proTtded for tne aeoen to • • … 288 – tM bea4.-r,ert area b7 npreffJltaU•e• of … ,,.,. ooutr1••• aotwl thattt,D.Cl• tac ‘,O’IIP aatcaUon lava. lo ••nalac of the r-,re••’-‘1••• ot ot•• · ‘-i:·-; .. . ..-,1..,,1:•,t lo ‘be llacle l1 \Ila UllUe4 s-.tee. l \JMnacht \hit proper.<t1-\ U’ t:b btiAt-,.t•r• were ln aou otur oouatq ve would. ao, be willlq \c):, ••• \hat aatloa ,. •• upoa w.be lbov.14 r-,N••’ u. ht I d14 lhlllk ,_, lf \M pl’t.’rilege ot •nt17 wa1 ab••ed. ‘b7 aot1oa outa14e the 1oope ot the capaoft? 1Uld•? which oae eatere4, ,hen w should lte pend.ltd to tw.ra the ott .. er out ot the oout17,. ‘Al• onated. qld ‘• a \o-to. . 1 •• taeiateal<:·. “QPO.a Ille pnaol;,l•• lnl.t aot -,.a aA7 part1cnalar M\hoA ot eatoNillC 1,. paTlUA ao11e r••aa\le .. ,w “1114 ‘be agne4.. Af\e1″ ooaat4enl>le 41en.am.a ,u priaol.ple •• aeNlecl tos ,i., 1•• that lf ou vlle …. fne.17, ao.tw1’1\• 1tuUnc \lla\ h• atcht han ‘bMa esoluAM ude1” OU’ gu.er-al lav•, altue4 tlMt reaec.n for vhlch he u4 l>ee.n pea1t\e4 to coae, be oould ‘be 4epone4 • ht the 4epezttatlon coul4 no\ eoea.r utU \he1″e had ‘beea oonftltaUoa, lt · 4ee1Nd, with the Secreta111 of Sta’•• and would •’ ‘be en.UJ>el7 b7 a-.ne of the uu.1. .depor\a’1oa prooelvet. •?-? i.ac aad ooapltoa,e4 uc•’1atto•• \b.e tnft … … n.,,. oo•W• la& ooa,14–‘l• 4•Wl. •• S.a a po•l ttea to• • ‘• l’Ma•ft.4 11• appnwl ‘b7 the -..ntu, ot State. u4 for tlt••• vllo i-epn•••• tu UaUel ••t••• \o rN0—4 ll• appro’flll )7 ,u Seentaq Geul’al. the Oe-.ral. .1•–1, ha4 pn’ri.011111 autlxu1.■-4 1, lo be t1pe4 on ‘b•bl.lf ot the 11».i\ecl •uou \7 the S.ont&J’I’ General, n\JHt to final appn,-.1 l17 tu Oueral •••-‘lr• 8bolll4 the acneaa, ‘be atpeA ae aa uen.\i’N NP’tl … a, u4 pv.\ lalo effe.cit ., the Pret14at, or abo1al.4 it be ooa.114ei-e4 at a \J’at7 u4 auat.t­ tec\ to the Suate fer a\lfl•tlon, or •ho1114 1, ‘be eppl”OTN b7 ‘both ho•••• • of Oongreaat l reoo•ude4 the laHer, and \hh •• ‘1:ae eour•• talcft. l\. – 289 – • Id.chi vel.l be arp.ed the e.rrance.aenh were wUhin ,he authority ot •be Pre•?,”‘• •• an exentl•• acreeaen,. lad that new wouJ.cl have l>ea t’li\JfM3t \o ••• doubt. 1 414 aot •••lt 1el’iou.i1 oouU•r ,ht• al\erMtlu. •6’.· ••ri?u• probl•• l t •••Md. lo • •• wbetur \b.• agre … n\ •bo1lld. ‘b• ftli.;. ldtt-4 to the Senate aloae •• a treaty. or ‘° ‘both bola.ea for appro’f’&l b7 a aaJol’i\7 ot each. l reco•en.4.a \be latter ‘beo&UH of \he relat1oa9hip .of ,he Vnl\e4 State, to tti. VaUe4 latlo.ne. I tbeught. bo\h branohe• of Ooa- 1n1• tbould parUelpal• 1a teluUon of the head.quarter• probl•, wt.th full •?•..a lmowle4&e of the•••• oft.he ……. ,. the lJalt4Ml ••to••• t…, · it •• .-., aooee4, aeecl-4 the tall nppod ot \!Mt Ualte4 Su.\••• uA 11 I. I •• >\o baY• \hat to the ••’•’ poa•ll•l• Illa &J’l’UI••••• of lhte ohan.o\e1′ tho1lld ••• the a,proftl of ‘boU1 boll••• of Ooapeae, e1p.ol&ll7 —••• ol • • \he opporhaltl•• for alN.H of tl:le priYilece of ent17 la\o tbe Uait.i 8’a\e1 oa the J)M’t ot uafl’19Adly peNOn•. the agr-M11Ut was ,.? for sic.nature b7 the kfflltl.•• bnaoh of the co•?—t oa Jue Nill, 194’1. Genenl. Manball, vbo wa• au\llorh.. to tlp oa behalf ot \11. PnU4•t, we.a ot.ac la “•. plane to l’•v ton to? \lie •ltd8′ oeftllO», u4 ••• •• \o Co aluc wl\h }ala, whloh I clt4. 11 vaa -, ve441ag aui’Yel’l&l’J’ u4 ••• -· goiq to … la aw tol’k toe. lt -· el.N tu w441n,c 1uaal’f’e1’tal”1 of ov p1’laelpal a-• .. ••••U•• to lbe Val\14..,. Uo••• h’ba•ld.or Wai-ru. aslla, who va• p’Yiac a noeption, fof’ tJaltecl laUou. person.el pl’laot.pall7, aad we had plaaaN ‘9 eo. Guen.l. •n111111 w.1 a lUU.e put out vl\1′ .. vlaea • .. , . •• al ,u …..,uoa attel’ -. •lcaiac eeruo111 • MJ1.nc 1 ellould m•• let ht.II kaov ••• •• ooaln& up •• u venal’- ••• van\e4 Ml’ lo oou al•nc tn the plu• too. 1 t’.bonqbl.7 4NlJ07e4 the …s.11, “1 u? al■ oa •• plaae I rip vp. Oal.7 \u ,we of ue and. the a..U • • • – 290 – enw were 1n the pll\D.e. l had been re\icea\ to nggeat that he lavi\e ••• ‘but . later \boqhl 1 lbo’lll.d haT• 1., hia now. ·fiieaCJ”eeaent •• aev •ea4J to be tulHd\tecl to Ooncn•• ,m4 the Pf•il? · ·I<“<· , . . . ,· .. -. 4nt> … , u don w1 th a •••eace. It •• takea up first h. the 7omp le• laU,on• Co•1ttee ot the s.u.,e, oTer whlch Senator ‘fud.enberg vat lhp 1n·••141zag. Bather atenelTe hearinp were held, vltb Mr. Stokes, Mr. l!faro,: and Jlftelf dviag the uetlell uplanat10111. or defea•• it one oaa call U \1-t,. Mr. Lodge, vho is JIOW ( Septedel’ 1984) our prin.m.i,al NJ)NaeA.ta\11’8 . a\ l1- v.lted latlou. •• then a aeaber of the ooatttee ana. took • cool< 4eel of taterett la \b.e llnrlBC•• •• did Senatol” Tan4en’beq, loa’ctr a. …. Ml.17. rq old tdo4 of lev Mexieo Sena,or latch. au the oolllll H• cu•nl17. the trou.’bleto•• •••’1on wa• vbe\her ve wen p’ring too •oh fntMlo• of t11’1’1• lt wa a aeri.ou pro’ble.11 an4 l tel4 the co•ittee frankl7 I though\ \here wollld be an inorease in 1aterul na,. ‘but that we would ha.Ye to \1..■tt our 1aceau.U7 lo oope with u. l dld ?, think the altenaUTe was to Ir, to pa•• 11pen ,?Mt pe•eo•• whoa other aaUoat wlahed. to ••• that the Ii* 1AT01Tect. tho,ap .., .. …. ,. -· OM which we had. real.17 …….. vi.a Ille, S.aate W’l8Jll•ul.J’ YOW to 1n’t1. te ti- lJnl ‘9A •uon• to eau.1’1lsh l ta bead?•”• 1A U» V.l te4 s,ate1. !he S…te 0.11111 Uee • I ltell••• wl.tlln.t U7 41-,Nftllent, 1″eoo … Dle4 that the Senate appro•e the am••••• attel” a. rather full ual.71h of the vhole pro\le:m 1:11 lta nport. !be agreeiaeat the ca• betel’• tbt Hou• Coaatttee on J’erelp Altair•• whlu al• took a. ina, 1atere1t la it aa4 .MA n,hei• uteatl•• aa4 liftlJ’ 4l1eud0Aa. ‘l’bere acala the prtaolpal pnblea w.a S.ntemal •••l”lt1. whloh tro1Lble4 aeabert of the aomlttee. (lu1Uoa1 WN ratae4. laol-1.bc the t1\uaUon vhtcb would pnft.11 ahoul4 w \e at wa.-. !he Oollldttee 4•- · • • – 291 – oicletl to a:ppJ’OTe tlut &CJ’••–• vl\hout •DJ’ obu«• la ih texi but lo aoooa­ pan.i. &pproftl b7 a re1ol11t1oa to tu effeot \ltat uUd.nc 1n the •ere-et •• ·1ci be cone,n.ecl to ‘ak• ••7 the richt ot \be tJaited. S\atff to pft>\eot- – . . . ‘ U1 1eou.ri.t7. Thia retctl11Ue.u ..,, \.benaf\a1’ appnYe4 lt7 \be luate aacl \be Ion••· \Jloueh \he Senate had orlcinally died AO 0011p&J”&l>l• O&TM\. 1 did not a4YOO&M \Ma proY1a1on. l eupported. the acre…, •• we bad wl’lcN,. t, 011\ and aa lt ha4 lteen 1lped b7 the hecu.tl••• ht I 1n11t . . eq that la \he P••NI• of ,1 .. t•■ gla4 the lout• &4414 this proTt.tioa.: .l thlak l \ •1-w• \he vllcloa ef \be ft.\llieaioa of \he •Uer to \be tw hou•• of OoMN••• ‘1111 ca” JOS.•• to a ooatribuUoa vhleh otherwl•• Jll&bt aet ..,. ….. ,.,-. (1 u.A•••tud \ha.I later on prolal .. 1 414 arlee in tu State ».tu••••_ •”bou\ au.\hori■lAC •1•• for a fev per••• who olalaed. the rlgh\ ,. •’• tinder the acr•–•• ut la ooueottoa. wtu, tn. Geeral ••••17• \he S.ouri … \7 Couoll, or the ‘fn.llNe.blp Co\\D.011, lntt la oonuoUon vi th one of U. tpeo1?1•ed acenol••• !be Vlli\ed. Stat.• .-?led. ••• or two ot I.ho•• per­ ••• -.”•• of tatona,1u. n«ardlq thel:r po1tl\le n.lwerdYe 1aol.S.U.\toa, ol’ ,otuiial1Uea. ftla o..-,et a prolal• vl\h •• effioe ot ,ia. S.0Nla17 Geual -4 •• lecal daft ot •• U’at.t-4 ••ttou. I thta ti. •°””‘• . we••-• •• ••114. Jlellaue •• plue4 ,rpoa the ••nnt7 pro’filloa la \he riaoluUoD, rather \bu. ea,tPely vpea \he ••ra• ot the a,neaea\ ltnU. l ui•••n4 \he aaHer vu ••tUecl eaU1taotottU,1 \o \he 8″Nta17 ;…? u4 i? oul’ o• eo••na••’· l pture4 troa ,i. pn•• \bat the Seore-..17 haenl• • oftlu bad ao• 41.’letlioa abo,a., ,ht.a proTi?loa ‘beln, a re .. na,u-. •• \1- -.r … at. lna.t \be hor•b.r-7 Geaeral \houeht operaUeaa ‘1114•1″ lt •• • olalae4 ‘bt the Uni hd Sta••• vere not :luoaei ••••• ,rUh the acn•••’ 1\- · • • – 892 – ..11 – Haa:t aa,on• enteriac ••11 4o so 1.11 pod faith for ptu•po••• ap♦o?fted 1A th♦ acr•–•• Oar ,oTenNnt and Iba S.oretaq Gea•nl l>7 aoawJa\ cllf?•nat ro11.te1 amTe4, •• l m:tAer1taact the •lter, at altou, the uae ci•olu1lo•.) ? Geaef&l ••••blT alao wa• J’equlred to appro•• \he aBreelleAt. Co.agreal1onal approftl oaae at alaotl the la.at llia1tte of the eeHion preoediq \he Geaenl. Atteabl7 •••Unc u tu tall ot 19-4’1. l went to the Genenl .1,…,l>l.1 •• tblt a1tena’1Te NJ>l’eeeataUTe of the Uatte4 Stat••• oa• of the •••• aAd ta\ for ,i. Val 184. Slate, ln the 11:dh Coaal Uee. !!Mt …….. , … ‘before Ilda Oo.11111\tee aa4 w.• nten.a \o a aub-ooHt.ttee. tu poalUoa ot th• UAl tt4 Stal•• •• •o•ewha\ Ault we were a aeaiber ot tb Vat tel laUoa• aAd. at ll:w ■ue Hae the other put,- \o ,lle &CN••nt. 11’be nlt- coat It•• tlaall7 apprOTe4. then Uae tall oo•lHe•• then the pleaa17 ••••- 1011 of the Geaenl. ••••\17. And ln 4u oouree the acn•ent oaae lnto •fteo\. lt •• a t’1ek7 btlain•••• tbouct,., ln the lfflb-ooud. ttee of the Sixth OoMtU••• ‘be011111e then apla qU.eeUoat an•• a’bout tn.cto• of ao•••· •• .-uon• 4ealre4 to .Uataate all np•m•loa. 1uUO\llarl.7 … ,.,,..,. ,,-.111e17 I tbo\’llht, tbla •• the po11Uo». ot ,u :anuth r•n•atau … !be So•1•1 wen ralJlel’ «Pd••OH.t and ••-ooatronnlal about ,lw whole••· ,., .• vatohin, 1, ‘but wt? UHl• aoUTe panioll)lltlp. fM Bl’lllah lcal npretent&UTe •• relwnaa, to aoCMcle to •&7 nptnitlon vbalner u4 .wa• qui \e clldvbel abou, the lapUoaUona of the l’eMluUoa l>7 vhioh Coacn•• had gt ••n 1 t • app l’OTal. ta \he •• 1 1bpl7 lla4 to take ‘• pod\loA \at the thlllel Stat•• oeuiu•t 4o ..,thine exo-,, •• Ooacn•• ha4 ntbol”laed.. aJMJ. there u ••· • But 1\ •• a ftl7 trou”bl• … •• au. I thought a rather U1U1eoeesai-1l7 4laacre•- • 293 – • abl• ‘ma.t\er, e1peo1all7 •• the United 8\a\et oa the whole va• laei.Dc ••’17 1••.,.u• 1Ja 1,a hoapltallt7 and a,ttwe Iowan the headquarten la tll.1• oouat17 aa4 -.4 ca. pnt’1’ r.r, noll fai-tbitr tua it alght 4o totq lJ the • • ‘ pr•••• oll•’• ha4 est9’e4 tbeA. We wz-. aa”ble for ••• ‘1•• to :r.ch a 10111.Uoa •• to how ,i. agru? aeat eho\lld \e ‘bro\lCht lato effect. nna11, thi• toNWla wa• adopte41 \be Oeural “-••\17 would appl’O’fe and autlxu1.se \be S.0Nta17 Gneral to alp.· 11114•2- \he •tblJiSlt7 of lb ow l’Melutioa; the Valte4 ftat•• v01ll4 put tJle.’ •P•••al into etfee\ uclei- the autbort,1′ 1aalti ‘b7 \lie l’Jaltei ha.I••• ‘!here would \e aa ••hue• ot note, lt•”‘-• tu Uattecl laUou, aotlnc thrOugh the leereta17 hural, u4 the Uat.\e4 •?•••• Aa’baala4or .lattta •• nt1-rhe4 to eip ti. ••• oa ltebalf of lh• Vat te4 Mat••• fhtt aot• · •••- upl1o1U7 t:ba\ the acn … n, •• being placed la etfeot b7 the t1Dlte4 St.ate, •n1tJeo1• to the pronaioa, of the reaolu\ioa of Oon«n••• fh. ».,artaent bee\ d•• ae the choice of uelag a aote ao vol”4ect. oi- ou wor484 tl’lat lt •• lp,lnu.ut • to the r••ol11.tloa. l pretH1’e4 •mJeo,• aacl tbt• w.e the wl’ll uecl. a. 111u,,1°a ot Ii• !men Pt,trtat ntl• I•• la ’11• hpanaea, tu fnun Dootrlu •• 1atUate4. the .,……,, reoel ncl •• \hat lqlaact wa• ‘U4er tu neoe••l \7 of wl lhlnvl8C l ‘• ‘”°’• ad nppart I.a tneoe. 1bit poae4 a Hl’lo111 \hflat to the l.nl► pnd.ence of Gneoe. Vnl••• the Un1te4 ftale• •• ln a podt1oa to Nplao• the »riUe!l •• ,,. •'”4 0111, \hen l• ao tutltoa 1.n -, a1a4 Oo….t•t 1nfluoa.• we1114 *” talc:•• eyer in Ore.M • – 294 – • ·The matler oa• \o -, aU•n.Uoa :f’11’•t at a daft aeeUng pn11cle4 o••r • • ‘b7 Vmer S•ore\a17 Aoheaoa. ‘l’u preHataUoa wa, u4e -prlnotpall7 ‘IJy >Cr. J,o7 S.ader••• who we.a nepouil,l• tor the partiaalal” 1cletk• 1A Ille Jepe.r\… , oo•erla, \he proll•. then waea• I noh loae of ti•• or cloult alftt vbat ebt,uld ‘be do••• e1peeiall7 when one oo».114.ere the aap1 tad• of the pro’blem. It ,….a. olear to the .Depanaent that elace tor eooDOllie reaeoaa – priaaril7, l 1uppo1e •• ,u ir1Uah were 4ete1’111ne4 ‘° vitbdraw, the Uai te4 Sla\ea uov.14 fill the ft0’4UJ 1 lhillk \here waa no fll•••t. tn.n aeceiaanl:, vat 41■ftltloa of …., a1l4 ••W•. It •• 4eo14ed. lo teooa- · … \o lhe PNtl4•At u., lbe .. ,, … ,. pro-,u, ft.bat l’-4 to Oo»cn•• la a •••tae•• aa4 Ooape11t.oul approftl obtatae4. ‘Phi•• eo tas, •• X bow. •• >the orlct• or \be h’Ulu :Eleotnne. JI •• a orl Uaal and. bolA 4eo1•toa, worib7 of our poai\1011 aA4 reaouroe,. a 4etln1te a\&lld to ud the Oo.1111Wl11t a1h’anc•• ia Jo.rope. l.o1 Headeraoa look a lot of abu•• in. •••• reapeoh in oth1tr a\\erei tia. Jew• 1:a. 1al••’1ae, fo’.’t ffAIIPl•, tl:lovc)lt 1M wet aot ,..,atiw.tt.o lo ,-. pu\1Uea plaa aaul lo a•• •ta•• fo• t’.be lwe. ht oil •hl• Gnet altaUo ?, wba\eftr oae Id.ch• -,. abou\ the o\1-r – u4 l -,.,elt •• la .,.,. tbT v11h the an ,tat. •· he 41cl aa 01t\1u.n4lnc Job fo:r •h• fne wo1>14, •• 414 \he ».p&rlaellt, \he , …. u .• n,, ad ,_ Ooape … in OOUMUoa vltll Ille ? Jloo\liu, followtd. \7 \he gnat ltlue-11 Plu tlll Ua•• alto whtle l 111&1 1:u \he Depart.Ha\. 4. Manu• to IN In lttlA 9m:S the quatloa of atb.erenoe b7 the Uat l.t Stat•• to the aww Wo’l’l4 Ooun vat bnu«h\ ‘befon \he 0ollCl’•H vhil• l w.a L-,al .M.S.teP. lJJadeF S.on’-17′ • • • – 295 – Ao•?• em 1 appeaNd lu,tore \he loNtcn lelaUoas Oo111d.ttee ot ,-. Saa\• la f;VfPor\ of \ht :a..1,,toa lookllll toward au.oh a4:ti.reAoe. Thi•· va• la Jlllt 194&• vhe. ti» Oollllltle♦ •• J)he14.. o••r bf leDator Ya,Dllm•rt• wt-\ll . ‘ •’ . . · ” ; : S..\er Oeuall.J’ naklar lllaortt1 … ,,.,.. S..tor tho•• of Vlah •• cbiali– •• ot \l\e Su.llooaUt••• fM Oo•ttt• faftra,11 N90rte4 \M iflt0l•U••• Bo. l.98, followed ‘b7 a nther tull e.n4 iateretUAC 4e)ate on the noor of the Se•••· S••• ialtl Mia. u,.e OonpeHlonal lecord ot AlJcu’ a. 1946, PP• 10.12& ., ….. , “ftMCI 10,842, 10., .. -1. 10,810. ‘th• ».eolv.Uoa ·? tt.a-4 tu nltJ••• •’••• of \he Jv.netloUoa to-• out.a \7 tu ttm.t., · Ital••• lo 1NMla la f••oe for & p•l’lo4 of fin JMN aJl4 ,1-ree.n.r utll tu apt.ratio• of ala ••tbl atteJ> -.oU.oe •1 ?• ct•• to t•J’ldaa•• lh• 4eolanUon• we» para. a of Article 35 of tu ••••• ot the CRn. lbe -.90111.tlon vt thhel4 Jv,ntd.leUo• oftr 141spu”• Y1\h npri to aatten vbtch are •e■enUa11J vltJala tu do••Uc Jul’ltl4l•Uoa of the l1a1t• hat•••• \o whioh, on \tu. WUattoa of Senaur Coanall,- wen adttd \h• vorla,”a• ••••••eA by ‘1le· V..Ue4 •••••· • Afff:r csoaett•n’bh de.. a u aao••• aau4• –•• o11t.en7 apoaaon& oa ,-. 11.ooJJ ‘bJ’ ,. . IIUllJda, •• 4•t•••· 8n&lol” Mor•• took a 1-4 la o,ppoal ‘1oa to t!d.t &IIIIMIMlll, otur, iMl’\11.a leQ&tc.l’ fho••• ?—•••would. ••• lbltt4 ov 1nn\ ot Jvlltlle,ha \7 exolwUnc 141-,a••• vb.en \he law MM•Ul’J’ to• 4eo1eloA t• not foul la al•Ung \rea’1e1 aat 0011..,.Uone to vldoll tu Val\e4 $\al•• l• a pan1 · .a. ••n lhttl”e ha• ao\ beea prtoi- • .,. ….. , lt7 \he Val tea Ste.tea a• to ti. ap­ pltoaltl• priao1ple• of la\•natio-.l law. • fht.1 propo•l orlclMW Umnach a …,taatl• vhloh lb. loha loater Dal.lea baA tualtW. S.Utor f&D4eab•IS ta Colald ”••· the Soator bad ch•e •• aa opportul t7 to ••”••• 117 new• abo11\ s.,, wht.ob l W do•• la a n.\ur thol”I lnl\ dNDC11 vol”4ecl oppotlog – 296 – • • .. .,.,.. 0a ,ti.e floor Senator Yand•\•rs said, ••• 1.’llll, pp. 10.s@. ,11&,>watl• lb-. hll•• •• ••17 •n••• abou\ *hi ncce•U••• he ba4 ••• • 414′..-t, ,apon later 1a411i17. aoael4e1′ U il!po:Plaa\ to pt ,ma la \lie. f•?• • • ;;>::-_ _ .._ ; . .. .. · of ii ucdaeat, u4 ,., b1 • ta,ere,, •• la aYlq tu nao1•’1•a a4oS>.114 •-•leD.UallJ la 1\1 ettcial ton.. la \h• NOON 1\eelf• .illtl• PP• 10,846•7• Seu.\or Morse ••’ torlb ln large par\ -., auwr to Mr. l)u].le•’ •v«c••\loa. Seonta17 B7raes a-e■t,n.ecl rather a44ul.7 la ee.rly 1947 and •• 1110- …….. \7 0..eral Marsml.1. l ,elUleni rq nsipatloa to haenl. lar•Wl · lMt ·1d.ioate4 a vt.ll1.,. .. to ,..,a a vat.le loacer. l al• eai4 I wieMMl a.ow to look fol’W.14 ‘° 1….-lac &0T•n11a, 1emoe. pei-i.,, •'””‘ Jue. a. · vs.aw••’° •1&7 ara4 I reut.ne4 ulll A:agut. \horouch17 n.1•7111C •• wl’k u4•• bl-. M., ell Jlr,, Worl4 War Aaeooiate, lobert 4. 1.o••”• …. ta a• ‘OM.er Seonla17 whea Kr • .loh9eoa lefl. Mr. 1,o,,.,, aeked 119 ‘° reala •• Oo•••llol”. Ba4 1 Jmowa • wa, to oome ud – wul • k take oath• Ooua­ sell.onlllp l •lch\ ••• l’Nllllae4; bu\ vhea \h••• pn•••’• b•oa• knoVA to • a, plaa• to lean ba4 • •ta.Nil \bat ll ••eae4 ao, faat’ble ‘° 4l••rt Iha. 1, W&I a ple&an, howYeJ’, lo “* vf. \h liowH qata, ., … tia. 7N” ahc• 1918 a\ \’- air •–Uoa al a,. laclwen, fraaoe. lhe: \lae W aew ooa•• hen,.,..,, for •• to obuce oTer to pJ’lft\• llte. ‘ftd.a •• …ae.t fro■ • faallf • ….,.,., ooapancl llOV w1″‘ futMF pllbllo ••nl .. , •Cft\M •• l •• to l•T• ? latter. 4 re•tev of \he propo”4 nw l>et••• Depai-••• •’9.’-‘•• whioh iaelwl.’4 •• •uoul ieeou• S.GU’lt7 leaJt, wa• ud• 41U”iag thla ?riot. the o•an• ,na1 of .uohbltbol, ft-,lae vaa ud.erwa7. I ….. ,., to Ac\111« SeoN\al’J’ .loMeoa that be publlolJ’ pro\eet \M trial, vhin h• 414 la a ••rr &”)04 ,-., … ,. !be qu.e1Uo• ot ooaUauing Mr. W,-roa fqlo1′ •• • • – 297 – perso,:,.al l’f!I)l’eaentati-ve of the President &t the VaU.oan al•o aJ’oae. ‘l’l,• Ad.m1a111t?’!l ti-0A wu JIOTin.g to briag tht• ·’c aa end on legal crouaA,. 1.’he niter oaae to u. 1 was WU1llle to ct Te approTal under the ttatv.t•• to u 1ndefi.n.1te conUauation of the exieUnc altu.Uon. but ttND.&11′ vged. the leg9.lit7 &J¥l dea1a\l111ty of llll:linlaiAtng thft repnaentaHo:n. t&r thl!I UN be.1111, -pointing out 1nl,u• aJ.la \hat wl\bdrawal at that tt.me wuld tdvo enoo, ar•t?geaent ‘° the Oommmtsts in the oloee baloce of pover then J)ffTalllllg’ in ltaly. !he wl th4rawal wa1- d?ls.784. So1H work vs.11 aleo don• durin« thlt period on Ule German. Japaiut•• aad Philippine pl”O\leu b11t I eall not. JU’Olong the no tee b7 1ec:t:ldng out thet r del&lls. ·Sepantel,- tnate4 e.N \be ee••lon• of the hn•ral. AHeabl7 ot the tJat \N. Batton•. General Marslall and Mr. LoT•tt -.d.• a tine tealll. ? renal alter so manr years ot a per&onal aesoo1a’1on w1 th L<rNlt. IU1d the 1l’dt1aUon of one td th General Marahall. led to Nl umeretanding of the J’Maon• for \he outstnnding reputations th.et& m&n he,d acquired 1n the semce of the MUon and ot \he WOJ’ld. 1 vs.• 901″1’7 to lea••· Wh•• l eater.-! the Dopanaeat la l’IIM 1946, Alger Bl•• vae ,1111 ther•. Jib’ recolleeUoa 1• tba.t he retf.gaM ti.. followlag luu.17 19•7. l bad mow him pleau.at11 tor 1011e 7M1’s but bad. aot befol”e ‘bea la the Mlle clepartanent of goYernm•at with hill. At San hanclsco ht! bad been l•cNta17-Gen•al of tll .. Oonfert!’laoe itself, and wa• not a part1oiput ln tM work ot the Allel”iaan delegation. A.t the lftHiOA of the General ··••\ly lll …. Todt in the tall ot 1946 he 111as no\ a member of the delegation \ut a, 1’eoolleotioa t• that he parlletpated in the pre?n.Uons for aad 111 thtt con.duo\ of the vo:rk of the delegation. Aleo d.ue to hb poeition ln th• hp&rtuat I tffl • sure he -• to •o•e degree a partloitw1t 1n the -pla.nnln« ot the ?,n lnmcle- 898 – • co J’urlth1 aeettng 1n. WaebiA&ton. ln. aon• of thi• did 1 aotioe or do I recall the allp.\eet 1nd1oa’1oa ot pre-Co..,.11-. I ha4 nH•er hMr4 01″ 1uepeo,ed Uaat he •• ol” 1-4 been a •••r of the par\7. !ha 1ub••ttU••• •·· deTelopaeat, nordla, WUaker Obaaffr• oaae •• a 0011pl••• Rrprl1e to •• u4 l .speoted. ,bat he woul.4 be able to 411pJ”Ov• ,u ••••Hon, aca,iaa\ hla. 1 wa• aeked ‘b7 bit bro\her Donal.cl to be a cbano\er vttaee• at the fir•\ In.al, and 414 ao. l ••• N1′ tba, fn,11 ,q al••• tollowinc ot the tnal •• \be ted1IIOQ’ d.nelope4 l teel \rut Ju17 ba4 a4eqaa •• baai • tor \tilt ooaolu.tion 11ltl•t•l7 r•obecl. I va, aot nbpo.-ed. to b• a vun .. a at .·\he teoolld. trial u4 41d aot fffl tbat 1 allev.14 IO ul.••• n’bpoeaae4, a1,-.>& I bad 4ou 10 at lhe tint ,rtal. The oaae lt a 111’•\er, to ••• .,. Jwl&., 1• \ba\ 1f Alger••• 414 aot tell the tnth abn., \lie •Uer – it he • • pe .. .1ve4 hlaaelf -· \he ,n.th penapt 1• that he wea\ vnag la the lliddle ot the 1eooad. balf of tbe thirU••• recntte4 1,, 11″”1 lt 4ow ln bl• own Ute, ud w.1 later ‘OllwilU., te faoe up to a.onowleclgaeat of the earliel’ ll11tak••• So tar •• 1 bov, no,binc clerop.tol”‘J’ oaae out, eitber at ‘• trial• or olbel’Yl••• rep..r4tnc hl• oonaet ta the 1eare n’.b•eC111eat to 101? or 1938, ‘laou.ch he r-1•e4 la ,1- eo••–•• tor tea 7ear• \hereafter la ooa\aol vi. th 1U’Gllemllle peopl•. 11 11 proba,le \Aat Ille alatate1, atlAlll- 1.De tu7 oonrnl, “” 014 o••• froa whtoh he ha4 tu.ne4 •WT fUlCl whioh • lrt.e4 to keep ‘buried in the pa1\. m PltESIDDt•a OOMMlffD OJ ?QUU.Iff o:r flll!Mll’P All) OffORfOIJ:ff IV ‘ID AIM.JD JOBtllS In Jul.7, 1948, Prea14eat f1’IIIIU. tan.eel Szen.tlT• Ord.er 1te. 9981, ealltled., 111\allllehiag the helident•, 0oa1,, .. Oil lqu.llt7 of ,.,,mu., u4 • • • – 299 – Oppo1:,ut t7 la the ? S.nloea. • . Pu.rsuaat to l t a OouUt.ee wa• ••’8.bu. a-.W ‘- oan,- 011\ Hie IT••lcleat’ • pollq Iha\ thel’e abo,ald be eqllall 1J ,t ,….,,.., aa4 epportu1t1 tor all pert0aa la ti.. arae4 “”‘•••• vttbout N• “!>·:·? :·, can -. •••• oolo•, nllat,oa or aauo-1 o:rlgt.a. !he o.-t “•• •• \o- ·•• 11.,:,he ailllar, eetabll•hlleal, • and la’M,wa •• tm h’enctent’• Oo•itt•• ,on lqult\t ,of ‘frealaen.t aa4 Opporhai t1 ta the A.J’lie4 S.mc••• h •• a\l\ber- 1184 •to Mk• a ,,,. of esitttnc nl••• proeed.ve, &.D4 praotic••• to ooaftl’ . . . tbAJ •v uA of the Al r foN•• aad. – to aake noo••••Uon• to th• h•dcbta• u4 lu .. o,e’6.l”i•• lo •effeotu\e ? pollq atate4. 1 I W retun94 \o pri-.ate pnoUee ta 19•? u4 ta the tall ot 1M8 vae S.11 Saa.ta le, l’ev Mesloo. •ltPI-‘ ln a tn&l wtta WI ol4 Suta Je law,-,, … aer, laftlTiD& \he riehl et O&tbo11o •1•hr• to ha-eh la tu p’Ubl1• tohoo1• of lew X.xioo, a».4 kiad.nd. pro\leat w1’toh ba4 arteea out there our the cleoa4••• oa ….. ,, pro)l … , plloaetl • ,-., ti. Preat4•• wt•W • lo \…,. o!IIIUaaA of \be Oolllll ttee. u, .• ,. • upl.al.M4 Iba pUpo•• of Uw ,.., allfl Ml4 \?. Jndtea, nallJ VS…. .. to -4. “P IJ» flA••r• l \?\ .1: , . allo1al4 4e the bed l 00\’lld vi.th lt 1 lnlt apla1ae4 1 wvl.4. no\ b• able to ltecta tor •• 11\Ue nll• lMt•••• of other OOlllllt•a••• Ml”. Sll•• talA ti•’ wvl.4 be all right. · ‘be o\her mealter1 tf tlMt Ooaat U••• all appo1nte4 by \he Pl’e•14•al.: w•r•. Mr. I. A. Do.ul:me of CoueoUnt, aa lllAv.ttriallat; lb. l,,eetei- •• &n.acef’1 ex•ou’1•• eeoretaq of the X.Uoul Vrltaa J.eacu. a l’ .. n of 41•tiaotlon who .bad. been a4nter \o Seore\af7 1orr••Ml on Jd.Jl4re4 J)l’oble•; – 300 – • M11. 013arl•• tu.ckma». ot Lner Jn,ura. who. however, •• an tnaaU•e –? be? of \he Oou1tt••1 Ir. Mah\ Pal••• pret14ent •f Oenenl Gable• Oor­ P•-.’1:Mfllr. Jou .iL s,enc1tao1te, pu.Utebei- ot the GJJIMCQ htenlv• •• lttt. lil.llu J. SteTalOJl, pNt14ut of Oberlin Oolltte•• •· Donaim. 41-4 in tu •rJJ ••«•• ot our wo1’k. the other •ea’ben ot \he Cou1 ”••• . … • • cep \ M.r. l,w,t,a:a, ven aoU ••• Ve tirt\ met — ! do aot aow re••be:r ,u tale – for orpa11aUonal p,upo.•••• We eel•ote4 Mr. I. w. XeawrtbJ at e.nftli•• teffetar, •• a fwll; U,M 11ta’11,, wt. 11\ a -11 ol•rie&l 1\att, em4 vlth o a1111tot 1eonkl’J’, Mr. lJla.Raa. vbo, boWYff, 414 JIOI nuta to tu .. . .la l \ecaa \o nal.11• t:t» 41.fttnlt-1•• l … to thNe aoa’flotloaa. Ou •• ,., lt ,, co’Ol.4 …. U()Ollplithed the 0ou1,, .. •• , b• UD.Ut••·· la an,••••’• the vh1te ..–era thould not be oa one 114• aad \he »earo -lter• ea \be 0th.er. Seooa41T,,,. tbc>uld ten.re Ille ooatot of \he ane4 ,emcee to the procraa we aicht 4eoi4• thoul.4 ‘be a4opW, beoau,e a coaa1tt•• ot Ol•lltu• ao\114 DOI well ezpeot U• w1’k • nooeed if the •• nap•a•J.11• pl’blaril.7 fer n&UoMl clefeue wn OJIPO•• to ov pro,…. •• ooa•rr ‘- their experi .t,aacaeal aa to the … .,1.,…,, et •Uual tnu- ltJ. lbl1’417 • w ••’ Mff a procaa. in o»-n.il•• \ef•n ..,. ooaolule4 eu Wl”k mtlMtr tb&a •1 .. 17 llake a i-epor\ aA4 4o aol!ata« a\o11\ l t. !hi• approach voul.4 take U• an4 1 tboucht 1, u.ovl.4 ‘be lai4 \eton ca••hi•hllnpport. Oil• … unp aa4 h•nap ve:r• hel.4 ta tu P•taaoa. Ind.1 n,h1al • aiaa •?•Uoa, •••’ repn••taUna ‘ktor• . o.-s.,,… Ml noor«.a of the :tteariap “e1·• pn1ernd.. ln aUlUon ,o p1″1ft\e peraoaa am o:rcaa-ha• – 301 – t1oa• \here came before ,u Oom1ttee General Omar Jradlq, obairman of the Joint ohiete of •taff; Mr. Louie J’obnaon, Seoreta17 of DetenH, who had n.oc.edtA Mr •. Yorreav.l. upon th• latter•• d•th; Mr. Kenneth Jtt,,all, S.01’etaJ7 ot the J.l”il7; Kr. Johll l,. hll1YU, Seoreta17 ot the 1a.,,, Mr. S\uar\ — —– — ?on, -S.cr-e-ta17 of the Air J’o-ree-r ·and other perDll”.-? b<rtlr otnnan. aaa ·• • unltoraed., hann.c lo 4o with per1onnel pro’blema in the 1ez•”fiee•. Later, tte conferred with Geura.l Collin•• vbo had “become Chtet of Staff of the Ar1flT when General Jl’adle7 moYed. to \he head of the Joint Ohleft of Staff, anA Xr. Gorllon Grq, ..,ho had ‘beooae Seoretar, ot the Anl1. noceed.b.g Mr. Bo7all. 1 aleo bed. a penoul ’41.k wl th Genen.1 Cla, la >ei-lln. in the latter part of 1948, vhere 1 had gone tro• Parle where I vae tor another purpo••• and obtained soae intonation about ,11e at tt\8.t1on in GermaDT &110ng the occupation troop,. We alao vrote to General l11enhotter, who wae then preeld. ent of Colua\1& VniTerdt7, rectue1t1nc his ri4’Yt 111 the light of hi• uperi.a ce. n.t 414 aot NCeiYe a reply ae I recall. Dv.rlng the pe1’lo4 ot the bearla«•, which ‘began ln JanaJ’J’ 1949, I va• Hrioua17 tl’Oublecl •• lo how t.o ‘bring lhe udertaldng lo a eu.coea•hl ooaclualon. Ve bad 1n effect two arid.•• – 1 ref er to the ana, ‘because 1 t preeen\ed the aoat clifficvl t and important pN”bl••• One •• a vhl te anq and the other a Negro &J’ID1. ‘l’he write arm,, the 1111!1.ia one, •• aot •• ,troDg a1 U 1boulct be becauae it 414 no\ contain the good •t•rlal available fro• the legro population. !he •ecro &ffl7 va1 week becaute 4raw ••Urel7 troa a leTel ot capaolt7 and tra1niDC which vae ‘below the &T&ilable talent uionc the l•cre••• !o bring a’bout integration in a anaer whioh wuld be accepted, in view of the bis\01’7 of the eu.1,ject and the concern of • • • – 002 – .a,uq,,.a1).1tlll’J” aen from a monle atand.poiat. -• TH7 trou\letoM. ‘Phea. came. •? tuning potnt. 10 far •• -., owa Ti•w• were ooaoenied, and l bqaa to •• n.oc••• •• eTe».tuall.7 1aeT1table. fldt h.J’alq point •• a. hearlnc at whloh two •n ea.me before ,he O&allittee. Mr. Jto7 lllftnport. a Jiegro War 1-pal’taent ohillan e11plo7ee who had 1184• a apeotal •tud7 of the pereoaael probleu lnTOlYed., and MaJol’ Arm1tronc. a hero Wed Poin\ «racluate vho bad helped Mr. Da..-.aport co11pll• \he •\ erlal for preaentaUon to the Oouai Uee. W1 th 4eta1l.a. oharta aDd accurate lmovl?e \he7 4emona\rated. \he vaateful oonaequuea ot tbia ho ar-, lihalloa aD4 hov 1, Mlle about. !he detail• are ••• tonh ln the nrpor, of our Ooa11U,tee to the Prelideat ot Mat 22, 1950, p\ibllthel b7 tlut l1a1ted State• Gct•etaaeAI Pri11Uag Office \Ul4er the title, 1fi-.ed.oa lo S.ne. 1 !he pre1entaUon of layenport and Ai,11trong aboved. 1R1bataaUally a■ tollowaz ‘l’here are a large n’Ulber ot millta17 occupational epeeialU••• •• ‘beT &N oallecl, la the &l’IIJ. !h••• are ola1•1f1aaUon1 of lal•••• a• lt vere, · neec1:e4 ln a -4•rn •1’111’• AA e-1.latee or clratlN 1, giYea1u. ooO’Dp&tional apeolalt, ola11itioatlon. Atter hi• batio tnum.nc he it aftol’le4 apeo1al tra1aia, ill ant aobool• which ch•• further ,ra1nlnc tor ,he neetl• of the •”‘1’· !he tn.1nln& a panlcultu• aa 1• &h·en 1• 4lreote4 ln goot pal”\ b7 ,he oooupatlonal epeolalt7 1a\o which he nh. After reoei’Ylac \h1e education he 1• •••ten.a. •• nee4e4 b7 the arST aooonling to lll• tn.1ninc. In Aucu•’• 1949, there were n-.rou• oocupatloul. epeclaltle1 vhich were wboll7 UM.ftllable to Jecro•• ngard.l••• of an ln41 ‘f14ual Beere,•• qualit1cat1oa therefor. !here were two hw:Mtred and. tort7-tl’Ye a,eclaltiea vlth autborisa.Uone tor tea or more vbite1 end for ten or lees lfegroe•. In • • • • 303 – n.inety-..ne apeoial ‘1•• there were aut.horhaUon• for ten or leH ••cro•• u.d (ot ••• lmml1’e4 or •re vhl •••· ‘l’here were one ma4N4 ud tortt-tnf’ , ‘ ‘ . ‘ , 1PH?’1,?A•• vi th a’llthorisation• tor ten or more vhi tee an4 no authonsa\lo•• tor ]l•groe•. !be reaeoa for thi1 a1tua’1on vat tba.t in. the 11e,ro• arm.,, “hich was onl7 about t•n perout ot the total a:rll,J’. there wae no need tor men in the wi4e range ot epecial tlee aeed..ed in the white arm,. In 1imple tenae thi1 litutlon. wUhout lUldul.J going 1ato 4etatl, meant thal a lfegro boy vbo cue lato’ the &1’117 w1 th the apt1tu4• for exapl• to beoo•• a ra.4ar operaloJ’. could ao, ob\ain the ooca;paUoul -,eotalt7 leadln« to n.oh a pot1t1oD, or the acboollq 4edped. to perfect h1a la 111, because thH·e •• no place 1n the lecro ariq tor noh a an. !hat meaat not only that the bo1 hiaaelt •• depr1Yed. of equal opportaalt7 lteoau1e of hl1 color and noe alone, but alto tbat the anq •• depriYed of hia taleat and oapab111t7. hrther, the Jfegro &l’Jll7 obta.1iied bi• aot •• a trained. person 1n \he specS.alt7 tor vhloh he bad csapaol \7, . bu\ •• a l>o7 “1 thou\ noh traiat.a«. ‘ftd • •• ao\ onl7 plain 111- equalU1 ot tna•ent and opportuntt7, laooaeiatea, tdth the President’• pollq, tt •• 4•cuietrabl.J’ 1aett101nt 1a the ue of the nation•• mairpov•r• Wha l ‘OJM.leratood. th1• aUattoa l felt ooattd.ea\ fol’ \he tlr1t tt• of being able to acco11pl1ah what the Pree14ent had la Jlllnd. 1 felt \hat “hen thi I e1 ‘1:latlon va• espla1ne4 to pertt0n, vi th final re9;,oaelblll t1 1a the • …,. – \he oilier ••me•• -pr•••n’1n.c a eoawba\ 41ff enat probl .. – the7 would be unahl• to reatt, a progru 4e■lpe4 to elllliaale 1 t. ?re enn.ed oontereno•• Yith S.ontaq Gor4on &rat. General Oolltn.• and other,. to vbo• I expla11le4 1n a, ova w,q vhat I ba•• outlined. Seoreta.17 .Gra., •• surprltel. 1 \hlllk the matter bad ••••r been brought to hlt attention 1Jl • • • – 004 – \hoae \enaa. the anw had been ta71Da the7 were gtTing equality of t1’eateen.t aa4 oppol’waU7, VS.th u di•ortll111aUon a.ca.tad lecro•• b•cauae of oolc,’t• tbat tu le,ro bot •• taken t.a t.t there •• a place for hi.a, allA vat 11..–. · \be aobooliag vhioh va• aftlla’ble tor a plao• vhloh waa &Tallaltl•. la a UAH th1a •• true. lnlt U w11ld not bear ual.711•• lteoau,e ao man, pla.-ea •?• olo•ed to hill. the leeretary was trouble when u unllerstood v.tat •• occurring. ‘-t• wen oonterenoe• al to wt \h Mr. lomiaoa, S.oreta17 of ».ten••• ancl Yl th 011-111 a\ 41tterat ,1…. ht tneofar •• the &l”IIT lhelf •• ooacH2u1d \he bl’ ooaf•r•ac•• after the -nap vhtoh l ba•• tp0ken of Qr• vUh S.ontaq Ora,, at one of vh1oh General Colli•• va• pr•••’•. Geaeral lra.Alq •• pnaen.t at oae ot the •rlter oonfenuea. l took the poltUoa that from a Dd.lltaq etand.polat we vere ••til’lC UDpover, failing to u.UU, •• prop•rl.7 the anila\le unpover ot the Um.ted. Sta$••• ‘1w arguu.n.t to the ooat,a17 primarily •• that the morale of th• &lllJ’ vould veaku it intagraUon wen ordere4. l nooca1ae4 thtt •••.ct ot the pro’bl•, nt took the peal Uoa “1th Kr. GftJ’ all4 Gue?al O.lllna ti., wbatwer nu ot •• , o.bal’ao,er -· la..olYed …. ,. talteA. ,.,. ova Jue… ,•• ,i., tu l’itk •’Q.14 1’• tow:iil to l»e a f•i- u4 aot u aotuali\71 t)lat it the lecro bot• ven &iflA •ciw opport’Cldt7 all.4 talnlq along lla•• ,be7 wen capable et noetnaa. aDd \ook ,w.- pl.&M alengude the •r• –l’OU• white boy• on the bait, of qullfl•Uoa• Ult a\1llt7, aft••’ mMtlac the …. teat,, they wo11l.4 be accepted bt the white \o71 vltbo\\t U1′ etcniftout problea. ‘l’ht.• wa1 • ‘b••’ Ja,4cHa\ Uioqh no one oolll4 pan.at .. .ao pro’bleaa voud al’l•• am l could not aaftlle \o 1>• tnfallt’bl• • • • – 305 – Mr. G:ra.7 414 not 1′:lah ,a make •bi• Judgment ul••• he ob\a1u4 the aott?t•neao• ot the a1lt urr mea. l thin the pod 11011 ot haeral · Celll•• •••\?.,:. •. ..,.. reaen.rt.mg t6 bl•• beeause 1 \ •••aecl to .. ‘•’ h1• aHtill4• -· .,a. I oQ1’lot be more preol•• — was sore ta’f’Oralle to the d.lreoUoa \W Oo•lttee vaa pressing tbu bad ‘bea haeral lrad.lq1 1. And Mr. Gray •• •r• t•wrable U.1an had b.- Secretary Royall, though ve ha.A not bttea a’bl• to think -the problem ‘hroUCh 1t1 th Mr. .Bo,all to \he ealent we vere lat.r abl• to do vi”1l Mr. ()l’&J’. ),-..?,. nre ffrifflJtil the altaUou ta Mr. 3n.7• • ofti•• he ac.,. · .· · tha\ lulal of noh tratat.ac •• t•lal. of e4alt.t7 ot one•\uattr. b\tt aat4, •uter we Ire.in ?. vbat •hould ve to wtU1 ht• tt there•• :ao plaoe for hla uonc ,he Seen troopet• . •v.i1. • I sa14, •70u 4on.•t am hl• there. Jou aaup hi• vher..,..r \her• la need for one “1lo 1:aa• his ,raia1z,c. • a. eaict, 11′:bat M6AI intecnttoa. • •tea,• l aaewftd., •ti., aeaa• 1ate,raUoa. but 1, l t lntegratto• \R,:aghl abov.t la a anneio whloh ‘WOUl4 lte aeaepte4 U4 eauH 70u no aenoue pnl>lea. It 1• 111\4tgraUoa oa a ltaala ;rou. oanaot n1’1•• to put t.ato •ff•••• a• lt , …. to••• I ,,..a the a4ftllta&•• vllh all \he penu1ion I e11.U. !he &l’ltJ aoo.epted the plan. .lttaoW h a MmOIUAlt111 et 19 Septea\eit 1949 of tb• •••Un.a vi th Mr. Grq • tollovt.ng. a• 1 reoall. the one at vhloh General. Colline wa• preaent. 11J ar..,,, puttcnala- a\ the coater-ea”• vllh Mr. Int, wre •\ ll111.te4 \o atllw.17 o:r ….,..,. eoae14era’1&n•• 1tr.ac •• ‘he•• vwe, “’11 11.u1lwle4 aipJlell\■ ••• ,apoa ,aw ob?ioue laJu•U•• ot the laeqwui ‘1’ of • tnat•at to the ind.1:YU:aal.. • • • – a:,g – · ‘!’b• arsq- acread to atar\, on a ••• b7 atap batlt whioh, it oanh4 . . 011t, V01114 mean the aoaplete 1a,cnt1cua cf the aftt7 vUbout retard to .. or °”l;o3’, the Mldnt of one Aae:rtoaa an7. • (?. llobol ‘• i-eoea, loot en the tubJ”‘ -,. lhe 4eu.1l• wn tt•?1·t w•ed out ‘b7 Mr. Da:l’enpona ht “1th me \he7 wre tlaall7 aareel ‘Q’POA la coi:tterences wt.th Colonel Jende,sen, Aal11tant Seoreta17 of the AP/17, after l caa• on the cou.J’I. Bowe”fH’, as 1 be.Ye said, the te1t1mon, ot Mr. ni.Teapen, with the help of MaJor Antll’On&, open.ea the W1′ to the wl11tloa.) l •• appoin \el to the eovt ln the tall ot 1941 and \ook otft.e• l>eo•.­ \ei- l&,: 19 … lt•foN ,_ Wl’k of the 0o •• ,, .. -· “11’• coapl•’·· . ht 11 •• pnpe1ela, to well anA looked. eo tavoa’bl• I •• rttluo\aat n.ot to ftnlu 1,. l loolt the •tter ,ap wt.th the Pre114at and the .&.ttoney Geaezial. ft. Pi-e114ent ••ked u to co11Umu,. I tel t no sertou, q\1.Ullt about doing ao lrec,auee 11tnte ot the Co•l ”••’ • vorit we.a of a lcal oban.oter. It va• punl7 al.en,: poH.a7 l111ea, and •• nearing a aucc•••M conoluaton. !he aeuen ot the Oollllll’-• were Hllarkabl• on the whole in \heir app.,..h to. tlae Wl’L We ves-e al>le to reach uu.tattT vben the an, ……. \o p\\l ?ato operalloa tu ta,ecn.tton plu lt71•1’17 nU1ne4 alk>n. Ill.re Wh olM!’ de\all•. oae lflolTlq the , .. P•”·’ cpv,t.a whtoh w ,,., •• la . efteo, to? l’ecroee, ht there ta not mob potn•• tn Ttev of the report vhioh l• aYaUaltle. la ‘lift dot.JIC more ber• than ntllatng the ••• tnubl► to• a·Uer. •• abon. the whole proJeot •• ct•• great t.apetv.• ‘1 \he ou\’bNak ot the loreu fith\l.na 1n Jue, 191». W.er the pN1nre of 11ece11lt7 the ‘.legro \nope \here •re \hft,WD, tocetMr vi.th t.he whtt• hoop• b the earl7 •tace• of the f1Chlinc, and th1 • t’D.fflecl ou.t ••rT ftCceesful.17. !h11 tended to Allq – 307 – • tear•. i wader1\a1Ml \he ar111″ AOv le 0011ple\el7 integrated. aad. I thiu lheN baa b•• DO licr,.t.floul cUtf1oul\7. 1u.i-tbenore, I ucteretud t-• · …. ,-,. ooaa.-u• of oplaloa among ‘• re■p.011•1ble oftloi&le of lhe •l’ltl’ 1• that ;t.at1C111Uioa •• cnaU7 ,,ruc,:taced. nr ttch’1ng to …. ,. •• wll •• 1apn”4 ov pot:Uton ln \he treataent of our o1t1aea• without recart to nee or oolor. • • ·there wi-e oocaalonal dltfi ao.l. Ue• w1 th1a the Goal Uee d.ue to \he 4•- . . 1&71 a feeliiig thal we ba4 \he Pret14-.t w1 \h u an4 ve tbo’o.14 Ju•\ ‘1-,, 4ow. \he law• QA t.111111 \hat h1• po.lto, \e put .late 1Me4ta\e •tfeot. fhS.1 create& a ptoblea for • •• ohalmaa, h.t the Oolllli ,, .. oa the vhol• c,ooperate4 1J•11.Uh117 and••—• te bold toptur to \be•• ‘W• eeat a a-.rudu to the P:reaiclea\ eocalleaally ud t&l.Jce4 w1 tb Mr. 111•• or Kr. lash of thtt Whl te •••• •ult• Jceapinc tl’••• a4Tlae4. Aa4 there wen oonferenoe1 wl\b the Preel.dent. le •• not l1pa’1ent, eav tba\ we vere ••lag la the ncht 4lreot1oa, and w.1 willing that ve ‘-• the Uu we thouchl •• a.e4.e4. !he .Preal4.eat •• ezcellen\ ltaroucbo•t tbe ••t•Ji• -.a4 •• ••t appl’ffiatlT• ot \bt realte. !her• •• ao .. 1en.tlau\ la the O..S. Hee tba\ when. we tile4 oar repon ” e!aoul.4 .,., la metaoe to poll•• the pro,-a. I t1a1, tMl ,,ro..,­ abea tbl.1. I VO\llcl >Ja•• l>eea obllpcl to al»aacl.o11 \he work •••lf. ‘b•–•, allhoqh 1 w.e willinc to ooaplete it, I 414 no, feel thl\ after Jolnlag the Jw.Ueiaq I aboul.4 daJ’ on for \he polioiac. ln aaq ffeAt, the- Pre11- 4eat 4eol4ed to 4lqlllu.-e \he Oout.\t” tn■ “‘1-ther reepoaat.)11117 lnl\ left the heC\1.UTe Ord.er la efteot, glnnc tbe arae4 eemcee aa oppo”1U11t1 to can, out the prolft8• e,ne4 ,apou • • • – 308 – PeJ’bt.pa I vaa eo11eth111g ot a ‘brake on ,he Comi Uee during \he earlier montht beca••• l 414 not then ••• bow to aeet the ooncllUon• wblch ••emed to ••• to be ··•–“-al to ftOOeH. Te, I \ell.-red the Ori.er IOUlll la prlaciple and allltarll7. ‘1’he b18’017 ot flchUn« b7 legro troop• when eegrega … ted fros \he vh1 le •• an uea17 one on the whole. ‘l’be ■to1″J’ of t? BaUl• of the hlge va• 41tf•reat. !here, umer the presnre ot emerpno71 Begroe• vho were aff.ilabl•• whatever their pN’fioue ,udgnme.nts, vere thl’own 1nt.o th$ fro.at llut lo fight aloac 1’11. th \he vht te bo7a. ••1 fou,ht well. ‘fu7 wen t11h\lng with the ottutr •• a,aer than •ecrtcattd u4 fichtlag ae people who bad \o fight aloae. the noord. wa, not ueua.117 goo4 la tbe latter el\uaUoa. !here were U••• whea aembere ot the Oo•lttee thcna,:ht we ahould. pu\ t.he prlaoiple1 lato etfeot •• a ooJIIIIIJ:ld ‘With the baoking ot the Pree14ent. We co\lld have 4one that, but 1 wae 4eten1nad to use •••rr poa•l’ble •••• of getting the •1’111’ \o aoe.-pt our reoo•eada\ioae. tooki.a, ‘b&Ok oa U 110v, U it uawlq the &1’111′ d&J’114 so 1aeffio1•t in tbia reapeot eo long, sl2d wae\.a. to mob of the manpower of tru, Val tM. Sta,e• e••l’ 10 long a period of Hae, w1 th iDJu.■t1oe to both vht t. an4 lecro. I11 ao• –..r \he arm, ••….S. \o be ‘1’71.n« \o ,ro,eot tu foner b7 not aoco1’41n« equall t7 of treatment aa4 opportwdt7 to the lat,er. A.a a .,ter of taot ‘1J1Ul 1ntcraUoa lbe vhf. te bo7• bad. ‘bom.e a larger share of thtt burdo \ban tm7 should be.Te. 111 that respect thq too bad ‘been 1 treate4 unequall7. ‘l’he leci-o bll4 not borne the ehar. he was willing and auiou• to \ear. .lad the 00’1Dtq •• ,u loser. !he lecro•• realised \h1•. !heir leaders, and othel”I vho expnued th&aselna, real.1secl treat111tu1t 011 an equal ‘bade would inorea•• the burden, • reeponaibil1t7 and \he suffering of the ••«ro, but thq “1.comed thi• ae u • • • – 309 – 1noi4en\ to equallt7 ot \reataent. fbe7 realised ‘\oo that ‘by puHtq the 1n-0&1M ot_ -.Ultutlon of Mlll)over oa a -.1, of eq\lal ,na-..nt few?.. croe1_ ia 1AM lllCb.t aotaally ‘be la the •NT, tor eo .. u .. aia ltNHt. lJa … oa’ll•• lheJ’ eouu•, … , 1\aada141 011 a.a eqUal ‘baet•• tllovJ.ch tho•• 1:• •VO’lt14 b•,.? ?Ylu r•8J,)011alld,lt,7. h.\ \hq v•ro aot tat.Ntted. in n•l>•r■; \het -nn’ 1atereeted la applloa\loa to thea ot •• aaae 1taadari.• applte4 ,’ to .-.n. ,’!.,.·_._ – · ‘. Iii fatrua• l -.., ..,. I baY• penou.11se4 thte Oollld ‘”• 1to17 •n tl’atl · 1botil4 1-• 4ou, oat. Uiq •oh that could. ll• a14 abo’ll, oU»l”■, .-.. l•lar,17 Mr. X•awerth,-, out” aoellent enoaUTe 1Hft’8.J’J’, anc1 other •••n of the 1\att. J’urtbeftlOre, \he wort ot the 0.11111 H•• baa beea \olcl oai, ll”Oa \he atanApoint of tile •1’117• \eon.ee the pro’bl• then•• ao:re tUtfloull au. the Coaai u .. •, coatl’llnllloa •• cna•••· . A.t• \o the air forae, S.0NU.J7 S,.S.nctoa oaae fonral’t qa.loltl7 after the Prea14.u.t•s lnov.’1•• 0n.e1′ with a pl’OCff.JD w,.loh left Tel7 little foi- u• to do. We atoo4 al14• while lt •• put la.to etfec\. 11 ata.ted. ta ou report ve -.4• a tev ncce1Uoa• a• ,1 .. veat oa, 1,u, tu alr ton• oNa\ed. • aenn• , .. ,1-. l ud♦rttaJlll ,u whole aat\er •• vone4 o•t P”‘” Nll ta’–•• tone. l •btwl.4 ellP.U•• u 4ef•NA•• to \Ile po1S.Uon et \b •l’llf ,..,, tut•’•••• llllala •n Ufttnlt pn’bl•. J.aqer -b-•n were la’Y0’1Te4, ud the ,taactud.1 ot eatft.11.oe ven hlchea- la \be alr force • . •? •• 11011ewllat 4lttlCNlt, but apia aot •• aoh •• a• •• UST• J’a’7 pat lat. efteot a N&t0n&bl7 •\ltfao\oq paper pollc,. !he 0oa1,, … lutlt••• •””•r, \hat u.17•• plaA IIN4e4 IOU ad.d.lUea■• tu•? fl’Qlt- 1 .. alto 414 .aot 111TOln •• latch a peneatac• of •earo•• •• the ani,. ll•- • • • 310 – tod.CM\l.171 ••’ of the lecro•• 1a the aa.,- had. b••n and wen in tb.4J 1te”9.J’d•• btaach, ao\ la the c•n•nl eenio••• fhOoaid\tee made recollUllda\lon■ \o the aav •• tollov■t tbiat tt Mk• ii 1tteauou• effol’t ln 11, eal.1•Unc a4Tet-Ut1DI to -,baelH 1 \a •–• la polio,, so \had th• •ecro•• wotlld. not be t•rtal — a1 lugel1′ 1:hq. bd. been — of lan41Dc 01111 la the •’••rd.•• liftlAohJ that the Da’f7 r?,: cal.I ‘°’ .ill,U•• ,emoe a . … of hero NHffe oftloe1’a to help in a . ‘ . · ·• . ‘ ‘ • .,., ,eon1,1na pl’O&ru. m4 that as effort l>e -4• to ?•’ •n lean•• bl eobo?l uue. the so•oalle4 Jfollo-,, pno,aa of \n.im.a, offioen la ooU•P•. vhtoh ’61 talllq l>ehld ao tar•• ••n•• veF• ooncei•ae4. •• alao re•a­ aend-4 a ollul• vhloh vo,ald penS.t ehlet atevarla to J”eeel•• u,. 11’114• ot ,. . ‘ cbltf peltJ offloe:r. lie touact \bat 1n tlut ■tewat”d.1• bnnoh ot Uie •’YT• – nen thoqh a •ecro beoaae obl.d t\ft’l&rd. he waa aot «t. Ta the nu of ohlet pttt7 officer. Inner, olhea- branch of the a&<f7, oae who becaae a ohlet a,eward ‘beoame • ohief peU7 o:tflcel’. loWTel”, the •”7• ao tar aa w ooul.4 a•o•r”ain at \ha\ Uae — aol t . tbiJIJt we vel’• natonabl7 aooua\e – \ecan a r-1 lategnUon polt.07. I· 4o ao\ · ••• tnforuUon a■ to whelMJ> the a&TT la up ‘9 46\e vlth · \ll• •• ••• all’ to:roe a, tld.a ,i… It bad ‘been uea4 of IM afllJ’ oa p•llo,, lteae.u1e 1 l earlier pul lato •fftot an lat .. raUoa pollo7 :reaaoaa’bl.J’ taU•tao\ort \o the OomallMe. •• aent a teu lnto the ttel.4 to Co to •eT•l’al MT)” lnttallaU.oae \o ••• lf theJ vere 10lnc abea4 wtth the prognaa adeptecl • ..a. neeiTed aa of that u .. taYOrabl• repona. fhla w.• al•• t:ro.e •f the &11′ foroe. ht there•• a.ot the …. 4egne of late1’1)la7 betveea the OolllliUea and. napoadble J•nouel la the • .,,. an4 alr tore.•• • vi\b. \he an.,, beoauae \here 414. no\ teem to be ,he neoea11t:,. We u1• the – 311 – • aucoeat of the air :fo:ree and the n&TJ in ptn•auad.1.ng the amt. Arnry would. answer that it• problem was more 0011plioated. But the aooeplalloe of 1nte-­ grat1on b7 the nil’ force and naTJ. alld 1’9 wol’lc1ng out to the clegree thd 111 opere.Uon, a44-4 veicht h our arga.aumts with the al”ST. • • 1 understand 11he go”Hl”l\lle!lt ?HK the program ln U• o1’er••• propa- . ca? , ca,apaign to help off ••t Co’amm” h• p::-opapma .,.aca1 ( a,,.’ … racial poli07 ·. wlt? the United States. ‘lbe:re were aolle wggeaUont •d• 4urin« the volte . l;’, …_ . :.• . ‘.. “?{::½f, . • of \he ·-OoamS. ttee that soJaethinc be t&1d 1n ou:r repoJtt about \he de1t1rab:l l1t1 of doing awq v1 th •ecregaUon •• a aeana ot offeetUllC OolUNllie\ propap.ma. )tlt I ‘\bough\ that while no toubt our aucee11 would. b&Ye \hi• 1nd.1reot ad?-C•• that thoul.d aot ‘be given aa s. naeon tor our prog:rua. We were pnoffdiag on the baa1• of pdaotplea ot our ova, aa4. U we.a a littl• \Ult•ir to the -woJk. to p\lt it 1n ter:u of a couateao\1on to Ooa1W1- i•t propacanda, although that: wa• aa lncldental adT&atage. l think lntegr&\lon cf” the alr.. fo·ree aJ:Xl the· &1’117, ul4 to the degree 1 t bas occu.rred 1D the na”7, baa ll’ld.inotl.y moved ft>l”w1u•d integration 1n general. 1′ •• the fin\ big brMk u4 1 t euooeecled.. Our Ooait\tla wa• wUlln« to la7 add.• eocial probl••· Xt •••ed. bet\er to boll. to \he 11aapower pnbl• as w did — equal.1’1 of tr•tment and. oppol'”1a1 t7 of th.e aea r;;.,._ and wo&eD ln the ,emcee – aad to •’–7 •WAT fro• ,be ,uaUon. of eta.ace,. · claba and. the like, leaving tll11 to take care. of’ U••lf. ·-lfbile the Ooultt.e wa1 ee\ up •111 \be naUoaal 111111&17 ettabllahment. • 1 t was c1v111an. We vere r-.apontible to \he Pr-esltlent, a,ot to the Secretar, ot Deteau. 7he o:nl.7 one wbo aou14 C1Ye the Ooait’-• ol’4er• vas lbe Prea1d.ent. ‘fhta cave ua prettige aa4 1n4ependencei it va, cllaoendnc oa the part of the President to set it vp that way • • • • – 312 – the Oommi Hee papen l am 911.re ven lett w1 th the Def en•• l>epartaent. 1nclwt1nc a oop7 of the tranaon:pt ot the hearing•. I also have a cop7 of the heal”lnet. and other paper• which aacnuralated in -, owa offlce. So• et the eriUoal oonterenoes vere without U7 reool’d.. (Roat of the papen l aoO’U’llla,ed a• Obe.1raA ha.Te ■tnoe been ••nt to the ll’ruaa L1bl’&1’7. at lnclependeao•• M11eouri, e.tter oorrespondence betwea Pnai.4at frwun and rqeelt.) Lt. Dual• ». lelsoa, V. s.1., vbo va• a. tine help to the OolllliU,ee, ha• wnueo a.a iaten1Unc book, •the la.tecraUon of lhe •ecro iato lhe u. s. lav• – 1». whloh he refer• to tu Oolllll Uee. .Mr. Lee ltohol•• 1A : ?; bi I ltJreaktuough on. the Color hoa\1 Aon llkeviae. !he pr••• rel•••• of the Wbtte Sou•• ot l(q 23, 1910, and. letter• ot Prell4eat ‘l’J’\IIIIU to •• of UPDOl!J.!IOlf OJI ‘I’D ‘OBl!ID ST!HS I! THI IBID.AL ASSMLT OJ !II Ull’l’Jl> BA!lONS !he 0.•nl •••-bl1 of the UnUed lfatlona met in the United. Stat.ea la the tall ot 19″8. the Aaeeabl7 !11.d tlrti ooaYened in Lond.on the preo.Ung vl,iter ant bad a4JoU1le4 • lw ?ode ln Cc\ober. 1be ••v Tork ••Ung aoool’d1ngl7 w.a the aeoond. part ot ,u J’lrtt S.w1io11. et the General ••••’bl,-. l wen\ to the eea■1oa a• ad.Tiler to the Aaerican de1egat1oa, and alao beou• our repreeentatlYe on the Slxth (Legal) Oolllllttff. ‘1’he headquner• of the delecatton were then at the PennqlYa».la iotel. where 4elepUon ueUngs were held almost dally- ‘before we 45,ll)eraed to attend the Aseeabl7 oo•ittee, euboomlttN, or plena17 ••••lone. i’heae – 313 – eeealone vtn at tbe hmporal7 h-4qu.rt•r• of the AHem’bl7 at Lai:• Sucoeee. Plenar,· ••H1oa■ ven Mld. a, nuhtq Kea4o1fS • . A• H(dN4 \7 ,he Par\iclpaUon Ao\ ot 1945 Prettclea, fl’UU.• war dale ot lebn&J7 5, 1947. traaut,ted. ,o Coll&Ntt h1• tlr,, ammal repor\ on the aottnUe• ot •h• t1a1ted •uoa• aD4 \he paniolpaUoa therela of \he tJnUe4 Stat••· !ht.a repor, reYien tJM work of th11 ••••ion. (Departaen, of Slal• Publioatlon 2735, t7. s. Oo•• ,. Printing Otfioe.) the nport liata \he ,e1.uoa •• tollcnr•• ••· Wane I. .lueUa, S..tor !o• Ooa-1 11, Seaator •rtbtr I. Tanctenbva, Mn. hankU.a D. 11oo .. n1t? an4 lepreaeatatl’Y e Sol Jlooa. !heN wel’e fOU’ altema\eat llepnaea•UTe •tea, lepreaeataUn S.len Oabacu DoucJ,aa, loa. Joe Joa\er Dall••• u4 ••· A4lal I. Stnenaoa. !he repor\ ad.4a, ‘the hleca.Uon ••• ••■1•te4 1A Jew • York b7 Mr. JenJaat.11 Y. Cohen. Iii-. Obarl•• fator, and Mr. John o. :ao11, aening aa senior adTlteJ’■; l>,1 a pr1a.c1pal a4TiHr, Mr. hrvard v. Su.lifer; uA ‘by a4Ti.ten aad •••htuts 41’awn. fro• the Depart10en.t of State an4 other • agenclea of Goffl’IUIU,. • Mr • .Speak of Belciu •• PreaU.eat of ltd.• AHeeJ.7. Preelclea\ fl’Uall acl4r••·- lhe …… )l.r vlth -·· tlpl\7. Be aa14. 1!b Abnaaa peopl• look u,en \he UaUe4 J’aUeaa ut aa a ,-,ora17 ezpedteat ‘but •• a per-. 11Ueat paruert.blp – a partnen.blp aoq the ‘PMJ>l•• of Ille world. for their oo•oa peao. aacl oomoa vell-‘belac •••• lfa7 God AJ.lllgh\71 in. Ii• 1at1alte vh4o• a.n4 MNJ, p14• ua and ••bln 111 •• “• •eek to \r1n, p•o• e’Nr­ laaU.1l,& lo the vol’l.4. Vl th Ila help w aball su.coeed. 1 the 1offl«a llateten were ••’1nc la hv Torte 4•rtac -pan of \be eetdon aad each also head.eel bl• ooutq•t clelegation to the AH .. bl7, .J7r1>.••• ••• JidaU:U aJMi Moloto..-. Bere 1a4ee4 wen the natloa• ptb4tred • – 314 – Y1t.bl.a u aternaUonal orpaisaUoa tor peace w.er a Charter biiulin, tllu to l)ia\ JJlll’PO••· Our Senate had ra’1fied ‘h• 01-ner oTet’Wh411.JdDC17. fhl• vae a tar or, fro• the da11 of WU toa. !he L…,i Ooaa1\\ee ba4 a falrl7 ao’1ve ••••ton, wtt.h the tJaU-4 S\atea taking a goo4 deal ot 111.Utau..-e. Ve 1n\roducl4 N10luUona: l. !o turther the pron.slona ot ArUcle 13, para. l(a) of the Obarkr, \o ••taltliab a ouait\ee of 17 Ha’ben to etud.7 method• bJ wbloh the Geneml Aa .. mbl.7 •mvld eaoouN&e the procnea1Te de’Y•lop•at ot 1atena\lonal. law u4 1,, •••hal oo41f1oaUoa. and to report to the 0.aeal A11mlr at lt• next replar Hta1ou; a. In the uae geaeral area, lo afttn the pl”iaclple• of hatematlonal law reooplae4 lt7 the 0.1:larter ot \he •neerg !rtlnanal an4 the “2,dpent of the frllranal • ,rt. th direction• to the a’boT• aeaUoaed. • oom1\tee to tna\ aa a 118.tter of pn•ry b1porta.nce tlplane tor the tonm.lation, S.n the oon.tu:t of a general cod1t1ca.Uon of offeaoea against the peao• and eeOUJ’i t7 of muklnd, or of an lnterna.Uol1al. Oriatnal Oode, of the prino1pl•• reoocrdsed” ln the Xunaberg Oharter aad Jadpeat. (3) eaboq- 1DC repl&Uoat tor \lie aepUa\toa of treaUee an4 t•t•n.aalloaal acree• … ,. la &OOOl’UAOe with ••ttol• 102 of tbe Ohar\er. I 1Dt\late4 \he•• tu.ltJeo\t but Ohina JoiaU1 tpOneored w1 th the Ua1 te4 Sta••• ti. l’Holuttoa on Ood:.itioa.Uoa of htenatloul Law. • ln the Ii.pl OouUtee we aatlTel.7 npporte4 alao the reaoluttoii ooadtnl.a« gemoicl• •• a orlae wad.er taternaUonal law. fhl1 r••oluUoa w.a \’lllaldao\\917 a4opte4 b7 the General ••••abl7 l>eoeJlil>el’ 11, 1941. • nr, tJ”Oubleac .. probl•• •••11D84 to • beaaa• kaowa oa the aceDlla of t.be Genenl .t.11u’bl7 at the •Tnatmait of Iadlana 1n the Union ot South .Uri ea.• India. 9Peak:1ng through Mrs. Pe.di t, acn1ght oon4euatlon of • • • – 315 – alleged. 4i1orl.atnatory treatment of lndle.n1 reaideht in the Union of Sou.th Africa. fteld •?•hall Smuts repreeea’\ed. Sou\h .Africa. A JttritcUotioul problP •• 1n.-oln4i \bat is, whetbe.r \be .,ueeUon wa1 ••••ea’1all7 Yi thin the d.o■eetto .jurie4loUon • of South Atrloa az,d. therefore, under Art. 2. pan. ?, not eu’bJec\ to United ••tone intenent1021. Goeal Smta •• of the TieY 1\ wa.a domeaUc, strongly npported by Sir Bt.rley Shavcro11 of the , Uni tecl llncdoa; ‘but General Smh was willing to have the question n.bmi tt-. to \he lat•n&Uow Oov\ of JuaUce to? an adT1ur7 oplllio11. for tlle Uni• ted State, l wpponed nch a refereaoe. l ‘Ifill lea.Te w1 th \he•• ao\ee a oop7 of r, l\a\eme•t to the Plenary s. .. 1oa on behalf of tbe Vatted Stal••• I tel 11 the Court pro’bablT would. “1•• 1n ,.. et the h1 •tol’J’ ot the atter, that 1 t waa aot •••eatiallJ’ cloae1Uo. ‘1’hen South Africa, haTing coaaealed to a requ.eet tor ,uoh u op1Dion, YOuld 1 thoucht accept the Jurisd.1cUoa of the United •uou am be under etronc moral obligation to follow lh reco•endatioaa. Jut India aenaed a Ttotor., tor oondonaUoa, and pr•••ed bard u4 eucce11t\lll7 tor 11, platng a tvo-thil”d• Tote tor a reaol.\lUoa offer• orlclna.117 b7 lreaoe aad. Mezioo. •n. Pan.41 t –4le4 her oaae wi\k •tll, pla,ill« tor an •2Pre••lo11 of the clollin&Jlt ,eaUaea\ o? the ••ber1blp again.et raoial 4leori.alnaUon. ‘Phe atai,.,..1b1p ot General Salta, looki»c a, it aeeaed to •• \o a ‘better ohanoe for help tc the lmlaaiaotull7 nbJeet to the d.ilorlalnator7 tna.\ae.n.t, •• aot followed. fbe prt>”bl•• kept ncuntng at each n.b1eqv.ent •••don. Aooordl.ng to BIi inform­ ation the aoUon of the 1946 General Aa1Mbl7 onl7 ade 1 t aon d1ff1? t to reach a soluUon ta South Atrloa. l oyerheard Geneal Sn.ta ceu, 1a7 to Mrs .. Pancllt after \be TOte, ‘Jov, If’ claughter. vhat will you dot• Genen.l Sands himeelf we not long to reuin 1n power. but had ov neva beea followed at that time I fNl greater progress would baYe been advanced., • • • – 316 – boUl ta ••thocl ot procellure ud 1n. au.\1tant1•• WQJ• In South Africa, \ban ‘ , , ha• j?-.l’ell. .b the :report of the Pnelclen.t •tat••• p. 13a : 1lfhe t1aite4 9’8.tee DelepUoa ‘belte..a. • • • that, tt tu Cout : a4•1•e4 Ua\ an lntenaUonal o\11gaUoa u1■te4. the Chaeral ••–.’17 •1114 IMt la • noh •’roacer po11Uoa to enrt 11• latl\te’n ce aplaet tu allege4 411<1rlld.aa’1011 ta South Atrioa; and _ · • ••• daoe So•th Urtoa que•Uoned \he Junld.icUon of Uie Onitecl l’e.Uon• and •• willing ,o baTe the •tter 1ubat.tte4 to lhe Oovt. 11 •• •Utled. to that oon114enUoa •••• A.Itel’ a draatio «•bat•, the General A•t•bl7 reJeoted 1h11 ‘Yiev • • • • !lat, lU! h•tlQA a, the ltletal A11nll1 the fre114•t aoat••• • •• altematl’f’t npnaeataUft ot ‘1Mt Valtti4 Su.t•• to tu 194’1 •••toa o t the Geunl A1uabl7, thoqh 1 hl4 let\ tu ,Qo,.en.aent Hnloe la -,u,t \o re–. pli.ftt• praouoe. MJ’- au..t.or •••olat••• laator Da11beT u4 Kr. luta.1 Poole. ven v1111ng, ae •• ., aatociate Phil Leq, \hoqh 1t …. , ‘°”9one11e11t tor about ho a:uitha f>f actu.&117 bqt.uln.g pra.oUce. ‘1’he allernaU•• repnaeatat1••• aha.ft the vorilc “1th \lie NpNfflLlaUN, ♦• -_lb. c1.icauo-. •• ••’ tor\h t.a ,,. lepon 1>7 the Pnat.4.al -.. \!Iii Co111M••• to? tu 7eu 1147, l)epar-.111 of Stat• h\11oaltoa a>K, 4Mcnbea 11- ul..,.Uea •• tollo.-, •the honW.1’f ot fta\e, horc• O. •nhaU, ••n• •• Obalraa of lbt DelecaU•, an4 ia Ida a’beac• lfanu a. ••’1• pnl14e4 •• halor ..,nHAlat1••• ‘-7, \ocetlaer ‘4th Ber•? ‘• Jobuoa, Iba. huklla ». -. …. 1,, aJl4 Joa loiter Dall••• ot lew ten. ooa1Uwtei the a..,n•a\a\1Ye• oa lhe Dtlep\ioa. the Alienate 8-pre1eatallTe1 were Charle• la .. , to,. J.egal AA’ti. eez- et \be l>tpartaeal of Slate; VtUal’4 X.. !borp, 4aa1atanl Seoretar, of Sta\e tor eooAOlllo attain; l’nute J. &qre; A4la1 ? S\eTellSOAe of Ill:LAOi I; ar.ad MaJor John B. J:tllldrinc, former – 317 – • Aeeietant !eore\aq of S’\at8 for oocupie4 ana1, who vt18 appoilltetl &tte1′ illM•• neceatl\atecl \he n.S.cna.ttoa of KlH Vtrctnta o. Cll4eNlffft.• • • · !bi• ••••toa waa •n 1nteretU»c la aoM napeo\s thaA the pn’dou• ou.’ .Ap.1.n ·l ea, -priaoipall7 la ,11e 81.:nll (Lepl) Coal Hee, ‘b•t al•o ta ,he ftr•t (Pol1t1oal) 0o•1\t.e oa the ren.J’rlDS I.a.dtu-louth Uriou. proltlea. In the general de’bA.te at the earl7 •’-c•• of the Heaton Tt.ahlaaq laun@ed hi• “war-aongerinc” attack upon the U.1 ted. State•• a ataz-Utaa ul. l».ored1\l• 41aplq of Sonet 1ntena\1onal t.aaturt.t7. !b. Uatte4 Ital•• •• 11leAt 1A reepo•••• apealdac atflnaUTelJ’ aa the anat iteua through hat-ral Mareball. Man:ball, b7 the-,, pnt1d.e4 onl’ our delcattoa … , … inc• 110re ftlttl,arl7 Uaa bad e1 the? IJ’n••• or .loM1on lat•:r, u4 alwqe wt th pruden.o• an4 etteoUTeru,e,. -‘nil DO ou la-, Un.ltM •uoa• upenence had cnater preeUge lntenatlo.Dally than be, a1 m4en.oe4 bJ’ the acclaim vhioh peeled bl• appe1u•aaoe1, UDleH poa1ibl7 Mrs. Booanell• ‘both •• widov of the Pretident and la her ow rtcht. Thi• -· \u MHlOll tha\ aclop\e4 ,_ 1.aleatlne Pari1Uoa B.Ml11Uoa, noo … n41nc tu ..,, •••• of hn.el, •• it i.eoaae knovn, vl\la latel’•Uoaaltaa\ lon of tlle lolt Jlaoe,. A\ a … ,tac la »ev Toril oall.., l>7 hae-1 Mareball tro• aaoq tu delep\ea a.114 a tev o\b••• &• to the poaUlea a.J”ioa tholll.cl tu• oa \tat• lapor’-A\ •H••• l ta..-oNCl nppon of JNl.l”U.• Uoa and \be oreaUon of the aev State. l tho,agh\, aDd. 1’111 \hi.Dk, \hat \he lev1 ihov.14 aov laft a aepara\e atate of their own ta J>al.e1Uae. Ia \he progreta of tu athr tbJroll&h th• At•••11. ho’Wffel”, 1 ha.cl ae 11gaS.tieaat par\, tho,aah there wl’e oooatle-1 4ta01lttlona ln \he 4elep\loa. Geural R1114nn,: wa• 4••1pate4 1>7 the Uaite4 l\a,ew to bear the priaolpal. lnuden • • • – 3l8 – this Atleembly also orettted the Special Balkan (Greeoe) Oolllli “”• pa••• the reeolution on the ID4epemenee of lorea, looldq towal’d tree eleo\1on• –1 the Yithdra-1. of tor•tca \roopa, created. the htena (Llt’1.e A11eabl7} Oomitt••• and dealt a,a1n, IION ao4erately, wi\h \be Spaaiah problem in relation to the Uni t.,i laUo••• the Uni hd Su.tea oppoeect the pron.don 1n ihe proposed Spanish reaolu.Uoa vbioh would ha.Te reaffirmed. the resolution of 1946. ‘!’he p?•leion vas defeated ln ple.aaq ,e .. ion. (1 npreaeated the United. State a ba the J’t.ra\ Ooaal t’\ee and in the Plenar, S.■don oa \hie 1 ,.,. of the aceada and apoJre on the aul>Jeo, la the 11•1’07 . 8e111on.) · lt fell to me e.p.1A to represen\ the United. State, la the aatt.r of . · tn. •’l’reatmenl of Indian• in the UaioA ot Souta Afriea. • lJnd.er ti. 1941 letolut1on both GoYernments rendered. reporh to the 19,7 A1adibl7 •bovine no progreu toward a. wlution. tmu ia ‘1111’ nev JuaUt71nc the ‘Oat tecl State• podtion of 1948 when., along WS.th i’1el4 Karaball s..,,, we had toqht a l”eference to ,he 06v\. hdia in 1947 off•NMl a reeoluUoa reafttmac that of 1946, -.n•tlnc recn, th• Uaion Gct·rel”IUl4Nl, Mi refuted •• 1..,1 … at tt, and requesHa, the \vo conruen•• to tater a roud-tal>le ooatenu.. “1th 1ak1atan parU,oipa\lag. !he regn\ cl.au•• •• YOluataJ1.l7 c1elete4. S.e the Preaidea\ • t 1947 report to Oo11ere11 at pp. 41-a. But ae•t of ar aaa1,n,unt• ver• acain ht ,he Lep.l 0o-1,,… !here we ao•ed alone the Oo41t1cat1on ot IntensaUeul Lav lty tt. Ol’eation of an ‘ la\ernaUonal Law Oomhllon to \e co11po1ed ef ftf\eea person.a of i-eoopise4 ooapetenoe la tatenaUoul law, repreteatb.g tu ob.let pown of ot-.1111&Uoa and the l>aeics lecal •1-‘•• of the wrld.. noaiaated ‘by uaber goTH’ltaenh e.r.id ♦l.oted b7 the A1eellbl7 • • • • – 319 – ‘. in,.. •••••blt dh·•c\ed the new 0oulH1on when e9’a’bl1ahecl to pnpe.re a d?'(‘4NlaraUoa on tbll •rtpta am 4u’1e• of Stat•••• epoaaortd by P.,., u4 :’- ••• forward. wS. \h th4l foraula\loa of ,he pnaatpl•• of the lurea’b•1′ Ohal’hr ·..a Jdpent, 1aol’D4.la« a •Co4e of ottuoe• aplnet tu p•o• a-. 41pit7 of u.akind. • “Genocide’ oonUaued 1 ta f orvard. march, the Asuabl7 rep1t1111 the looU,aio aJl4 Sooial Oou.aoll $o ooat11111e work on a oonTen.\ion, and to repoJ”t ,o \bt fht. rd A11elibl7. la ul II••• •H•1’• the 11a1,e4 Stat•••• aou … , tald»a the 1a1,1a .. · U’f’e lll ••• A •’-‘”‘ ‘beton the Sixth Coul “” tun.ed out lo be 4:raaatio; thla wa• tu propo•l ot ?tacow’Yia regaNlng war onalnala, t,at ton aD4 qula … llqa, which 1.f adopted wu.14 haT• ooaeUtu\ed a tlad.1q that certat• aeanr 1taw1, lnolUCU.ag the Vatted Stlat••• were not tultllllq their o’blipUona. ?. Son.et aoUvely eatered the fra7 1n atb.ckiq the United Stat••• ti» O’ai \e4 l1qd.oa, an4, to a l••• Acree, fraaoe. !he ooml … to17 pro-­ potal waa clef•tecl la Ould.llN after a ‘hr, ll•el.1 ,,…. !he repor, of ,he Qoaltlee n■ appro’f’flll. \u Prea14.ea\ • • 1947 .,o:r, lo 0oacNH naattalq 11 at PP• 80•81 • • , a44NH to tlie i-leDU7 ··••lea la tnlppOl’t of ,be Oo•lU•• pol1’1oa 11 r9.Pro4uoe4 at pp. 313 •’ ••ll• of the ,.,.. Report of \be Pnaldent. We would oot foroe a peraoa ‘back te the ooun\17 of hl• u.Uonall ‘7 lUll••• a abDWUIC were aa4e he va• a V&1’ orialaal or q,uiellltC retunable und.r• the etanaan.a acne4 upon at •• April ••Unc of tae 7onlp. Nln1■-er1. (See, alao. the lleaoluUon of the .latembl7 of 1946 o• the a\Ject.) We voul.4 aot retun,. ‘thea allply becau1e th., were 41eplaced peraona. The debate bat – 320 – • oftn,••• p♦ntae.u\ to the tu.tare pn’bln of retan11a, penon• to Sonh 1or.->..,.,a,1 \helr·•••• • • · ?:;·.!,.,.cau,•r• .tcNta••• nf•rred lo ta ,11e .. •••• eonnM .,.:> 1 J . . Oollldl\ee1 atler Aetalled. ooutaenllon ‘7 a 8a.\oe1111ttlff. !be leor••l’I’ · .ha”nl. lli bl• report ,o lbe .. aeral Aaa•’bl7 bat ntei-N4 to the dcalite 4ft the ? …. , the prmou• lu.e ae, 194?. Be w oallet atleauoa to ,. . . ‘ 10-., le•luUoa of Ooacn••• vi ,1& 1peolal nfenaoe lo t. I• p1’0Tl•loa ,. . . •••uc .\he ••nl”l’7 of \ba lJal’• 8ta\e11 (Seo. I ol the lolat …. 1.’lt•• ot …,, •• 1947. ,.,110 Law 367, 80th. Oenc •• lat h•••) ftd• •• Mir . il•••JIII ta the la.’-al ”-•• the Acs-•–I •• aol •hu«el aa4 •• … , .. 11nal1 ·appn,yt4 ‘7 the Gueal Aateal,11 la a ntol’O.Uoa vblu. •••n•• .· lhe leonlaq 9-enl to ltrlJac U la\o foJ’Oe ln lbe follovlnc MIIMl’l •’bl• acre•••’ t!ill.1 ‘be \J’Oqhl talo etteol ‘bJ’ aa u:o!aaDge of •••• l>elw• the S.ontar, Geaeral, 41117 a11.\hori1e4 pvnaal to a11′.e N apIOplllroptlo:rlaa otef teuh• w.O.H.•enl• o t.ft.e..e.-r, o17f o\hef ,11_-.t Vaite4 le&Sta •l••u• o4Au1•· J’Ml … .. fllena.t panual to appnpna,e aolloa of ,, Oonan••• • … ··o.. .. ,., •• all’,. aplalae4, ••• foJJlll \!a\ •••ea4ol’ ••Ila .. ,.a ,. …. Val, …. -., •• la )l’llllf.DC Ille ap …. , lato .,, .. , n.\Jfft ,. -… JIO•ll•• of tu lolat le•l•tloa (.lo\) of 0o….-, nten’4 ta. luovcb •• llstlt. Ooaal\te• alao -• tile ntol’Cltloa a4opUa, a 11111″4 .. ,, ••• n. … .. ·1947 J.ataltlJ’ alto ••talalllhel• lalll-117 tllnqh 11he :,JtOo••••• of ,_ lld1′ 0oat. “”· a Dal ff4 ., ….. Da7, tedoatha Ootoltel’ 24. At t1,-, 1,.. “• ,., amd:nnar, •t ,. tlcalac of tlw Obutei-, •• Hl•oW. Oo.,..,I’ M •• \he a.,. oa vt&la \he Charter oaa• late operation lt,- 4epo9′., of 1ii. ntuai te aa)e1′ of ntttloatlo••• l prefenel \he Oo\eber elate • • • – 321 – bee&\lH achool• would l>• 111 ••H1on ‘.b.fm la ,u U’n1te4 State, &ad 1a J18A7 otlwr oou.trl••• ,boqh ao\ oa June 26. So moh of \he tu\u:re atcht te,.na. upo• the ohiluea of toaar. It Vatted. kUoa• Dq could ‘be -.4e oM ,;ti · tpecJlal etuq aa4 ezpolllloa ln \he •ll>•l• 11 -,u1,c1 be a voad•ml thlae. \fl th the elotua\ help of Mr • .AaaJo of Jra11l ta the Coaa1 Uee dtaeutioa OW.1-•r 24 •• tlJ’Mll.11 eeleolticl. Wben ta lev Tork tor Ible ••••1on MiH rranoe1 Peridna oal.184 on the •pbon• ho• Watl\bc\oa to aaJc tf l w1114 ‘8k• the Obatnanebtp et \he Pre•l”” c1 .. ,,,1o,-3.ty Jo.alt llleA lo ‘N et\a\llaW. tor \he••••••’ -,lol’M? lo,al.lt pnpu. Ila•• I ue4ecl to 4noi• araelf to \he law ottto• .,,,t \he J.a••’bll’ n4e4. l 4eo11n.ed, beli•’flac the voik wul.4 take too •oh U•. • MJ1’1ou4 Kr. S.lll lla:bard.aoa •• po11l\ly ‘beooainc Ytce-Cllalnan. l told Mi•• Perldae I lhaach\ he vo1114 llalc• a cooct Obalrmaa aa4 Ud.e 1• •• oocurJ”ed.. I d.lcl later, bowftr, \ake \he Oba.ll’ll!lnahip of \he Bou,t ot •r• Ulll.\ecl Juntcllo’1011, the Pereouel hoal’i ty lwdev Board ot the Atoms. o hl’Q a…t111oa. ta. Pre■i4ea, acala ( I •• ttn, oalleA a• to ,. a’t’allalttll ty lt7 Kr. J>eaa.· ••• ot the 11a,e ».ipart•at) aeat•tett ae •• Altel’D&U’N lepnaeata? U•• to the 1949 General ••••111,17 to ••’ ta Bew Tork ln $ep\ea1aer. Mr a1toola\e1 la prao’1••• S..tor Dtneher, llr. Pool• aJl4 .., •n 1…Ua•• a11oo1a•• lb-. Pbll J.”71 .,.1a aoqdeeoe4a •• at it wne4 °”‘• 1 •• ..,, to retara to paotlce esaept to lf1al■ll .,, u4 •? oftl’1 ‘° otni-•• \e• oaaae 1a Ootober, whll• at the Gea•ral Alleabl.J’, thtl J>n114•t appoiaW ae to the Oovt. Mr part ot the .la■eal>l7 vork va• completed ao 1 coul.4 rehm • • • – 322 – to Wa1h1n«ton in. Ume to arrange to take the oath l>eoember 15, 1949, ui,d.er reaeta appolataen, a• desired by the Prel14eat. Judge :Baselon u4 Jmf..ge WaeMDCton wre -,peb.ted. at the ••• u .. \u, were able •rlier to tu• otfloe. At this Atteabl7 rq pr1no1pal talk• v.n not le,al lnlt l tema asaigned. to the Yovth (‘l’Nstea1h1p) Coaittee, concerned vlth t,he noa-telfgovemt.nc and dependent terrl tones. 1 also handled tor the UnUed States · the lotean qu.eeUon ln the J’lr1t (Pol1Uoal) Oouittee, Ull, agala, the ladiaa-South Atrica.n problea, aac1. helped oil the Spam.ah que1tloa. Ia the delegation … u.,. l , .. 1, 1 4llctU,11tlecl aa4 left the aeeHnc• Vhea the Pale1t1ne lHue oa•• u.p 1n aq ton ‘ieoaaae of prhate reprcu,ea\aUoa vbioh had intenened elnoe the laat •• .. lon. !bie repreeeatatloa be.A tend.1\8.\ed aoae aoaths before and l bad Woned Mr. Bu.ek wen he 1nq1d.Nd of -., aTa11- abil1t7 tbat 1 would be dlaqulltlecl on Ude aul>ject and could aot p&rUcipate. 1 oarefllll7 retrained fro• doing eo. !he won: of the Seulon 11 cl1••••ed ln general outline, theqh la a oban&ed ton, la tu Jileport of the Pnelcl.at to the Coner••• fer the 7ear 1949, l1a1 te4 “•’•• JlarUctpatton in the 11a1 \el lation•• l>epal”t•at of State Pullcatloa 371&. rel••• MaT 19!0. The 4elecatloa ooa111tect of: llepreHataUTea. S.Oreta.17 of l•te J>ee.n 0 • .lcti.lOD 1 Cbalnu, Warren i. .lueun. Philip o. Je11up, bs. J’ranklin ». iooHYelt. John lheriuu1 Oooper, aD4 .AJ.terna’1Te lepreaentatlvea >eaJaaln V. Ooh.ea, Charle• Yalq, Wilson 11. OoJap’\on, Joha o. llckeraon, Kr■• •1’h ». lobd.e, Joba o. Bo••• (Vpoa 4epai-ture fro• the DelegaUon ot the S.ore\aq, J.mbatudor AuUn a1flJHd tht Ohairmuship, Ml”. Cohen bec&JM a l9n1eatattve and Xr. Bo•• u Altel”ll&UTe llepreaenu \1 •••) – 323 – • I should state here Iba’ in all rq Aaaubl7 work there vere able • • ••-1•• .. t• aM. able atatf 1, •• well a• the v1’ol• Dt.partaet ln Waebla,’8a, at uoeaeaq, n:pporU»c tJ» 4-1.ep.Uon• tn S.-v tone. llr. lne1t A. Gnas had noon4e4 .. •• 1,epl Mnae1′ la 1947. follow.a b1 Mr. M.riu :n. ••”· In lew York l ueuall.7 bacl the flu help of Mr. ‘°” Maktoa on lcal pl’Obld1, alao at aue1•ou1 Uae1 ot Kr. Carl MaN7 and at l••• frequent ti•• ot Mr. Bald.enan, Mia• Jn,vn and o\b.el’I. At the 1949 aeHion there was Mr. lenJula Gerig on the cllftlftl I tJ”U•eHhip 1 , .. ,. And the pol1 Ucal quaUoa• alWaJt aa•hffe4, ao0ol’41oc to Iha aa\un of lh• qustloa, \he oapa?l• 1-lp ot \he poll \teal d.tt1en. 1 t.eqa1N4 acai•• a• whea Lepl .Advl .. i-1 a , … , reapeot tor the tai••• of \he oar••r ■ea la the Depal”beal. ? que1lioa• before tile JJouth Oolllll ”•• were not • .,. tor the trailed. Stat••• though not of n.oh direct and iaed:late conoem to th11 001&11t17 •• . to the ooloa1al pown. We w:re amd.oua to fur\!Mtr the prino1ple• of \he Obarhr and our ow tr&dl t1oa1 of li’berl7 and lnd.epend.enae among ,he a1Ulo•• of dependent peoples. At the aame Uae w vlahecl \o aT014 ohuc• whloh voul.4 be \oo apU a.al clltftoal’ for ou alll•• vbo bad. aon taataia\ e napoatl ‘blU. 17. fo keep ? proper \alaao• vhll• •nag 1A \he lieht AtnoUoa vltlaout at the …. H•• uoeed.iac Olarler :U,111\aUone, pn,Ytcl 41ftt-.ll. !he u waUoa vae ooapl:lcated by the oona\u\ reacU.aett of th• Soriet bloc lo Melt propacanda a4ftAlea•• aaoaa the Ulaller 11aUona. !he … ,en.blp of the Couit\ee llaelt, with of oov•• the aoa-colon.lal ooa1U'”- UJ1& a •Jori 17, ooul.4 al.wa,t out’f’O\e \he ooloJIS.al power,. Ou creel r-.x 1A lhe Phillppla•• ttoo4 UI la pod ,,..a. 11 … , 414 :not preftll\ at one pout an unoalle4 tor attaok \7 the tkraWu r-.preeeataUTe oa ov Puerto ii.can reaponeibil1U••• After o•u·ntcht ocm.alal.tatlon with \he ».- • • • – 324 – pal’\$1 alld t\atf, l ad.e e. d.e,ail eel npl1. and ad.ed b7 •&71nc that Utata• 1 t••lf vat ……. lf-COYH”UDC1 vhtoh lAfuri&ied. the Ukraintu. •? s” Pal’\ Ut ot •• lepol”t of the Pre•14Mt, pp •. 145-118 p?tl,r- ,- · …. ., n1.n.:r. ‘,?’.’, , Oueral Carlo• loalo va• PNaldeat ot Wt Geaenl A11abl7, alMl ol.01$17 follove4 the wol’k cf th• lfn.ateeahlp Ooaittee. l noelved. a oor- 4lal letter fro• bla at tb,e close of the S.1tlon. Re had followed. v1 th .,.tal latenat 11- t••lHo•• of \bet t7aUe4 Statea tn the 0o•1tt•. ·th. 8-eral llal• ••. aoelleat Prut.teat. equal to •••rr oooa11… le . •• ·••n a ooulaMllt tl’1a4 of tu Valt:e4 Ital••• le o911e4 .. ‘- lhe ,…,., ,wtca to pn1ld.• O’ftl” the Gu.eral . .la1eaibl.7 tor \rlat pedo4t• a MUJ’leou• ,..,ve ‘° ,_ VJdte4 hat••· o.r. NOOJd. ta the P:blU:ppl••·· which hat on appl’Oprlata o?aion• eYOlted. hie -1.oqueht defense of \he United States, hat O”Mtly a44″4 to 0’11” etamlq allDllC the AOa-eelf-goYanta, peoples. It •• 90ae\M.ag of a nlie:t to leaYe the 1ounh 0oaat ttee ud. to ••• latf the. a4 lloo. 7ollltoal Oollld. I tee to l’ll)l’et?\ \lie Uni l.«1. Stake ••• thit· lo? 1 t• ea tlae acQM. !he qv.ea,1.a •• ‘be ooaUna.Uoa of \1- 11.,.,.. Jail••• Ooaia•loa la laNA. ••taltll•W ul.er \u Geu:ral .a., … ,1, •to1•tloa ot t>eo••• 12, 1941, a\ \he Put• Nlaloa. 0a \he ‘bad• of the Qoa … a1,,1oa•s “‘1)01°t <••• .,,■1. la leper\ of the Pn,tde1’t lo Iba Ooqn••• pp. z.&-37) U1e pl1.ao1pal Aellale ta ,u Oolllld.t,u wa• oa a reaol•tloa 1aho- 4ue4 b7 \ha 1Jn1 W ”-‘••• lu1trall&t Cblna al4. ,u Pbllipplna lepv.?1101 tor Ooat1a•’1oa of Illa Oollllltaloa, v.Ltll the an haotioa■ ot ol>aemnc u4 NfOr’lng ur, cleYelepaeat1 \1-\ alp\ lea4 \o oa- olhervl.1• 1&TelN atlUa17 ooatllct in. Iona, et oeten. ‘the Sonat 1nlroduce4 a reaoluUoa ealllnc – 325 – • tor tlua terlllnatioa of ,he Qomld.uion. *On October 3, 1949. the .A4 Hoc PoliUoal C.111\l.tt•• by a YOte of 44 ,o 6, wllh & ab•\entlon,. a4op,.t \be Joli• .,, . ..,1u,1oa. amt nJeo,e4 b7 l4eaUaal •ot• the Sonel reeoluttoa. • • • ( Ib1.4, f.• 3’1) In plenal’7 HH1oa the General Aaaellbl7, Ootober 21, 1949, yc,ted. 48 to 6, vlth 3 a.’batenUoat, for the Joint resoluUon. am! 42 to 6, vi th S ab,\entlone, ace.inst ,be Sc,Tiet. l IIJ)Oke on the reaolutlon on be .. · half of the United. Ste.tea in the plenary eett1on. I\ was the t.TnUed liTationa OoaiHloa thua eoaUnecl which vat on the ground. u4 alerted the world to the Oouutet attack aol’OII tbe 38th parallel ta Aug\18′, 19150. I we ffl’7 bapp7 that during flld.e, -, ls.et npreauta\1on at \he Geaeral Ata .. 1>17, to llaDI’ of the faall.7 wre la ».v torit al 41ffer•I ‘1•••• l>wce a.mt ioea oaa• and •w the ••••bl.J’ tuaeUontJtg. 1 wate4 Ma.17 Acne•· to see the lJnihd Batio11e open.Ung and we bad a nice little nsit. v1th Joe Jr. going to ••••ions wl th “‘• krller Aue and Sarah oame tor Uae beau.Utu). ball &iYea l>7 General lomlo ae Pree14ent of the A•••bl.J. Acn•• and 1 vent too, though Anne and. San.h bad their owa eacorle. Jene• S\ephwe va• of co•r•• llYlll« la lev Tork u4 oooaaloMllt oau to a Hetloa an4 •we voul4 ••• oae uo’\her •’ oUaer tblee. Obal’l•• wa• al Sotre »aae. A week or tea 4&71 before Deoeaer l& I rel\ll”D.ed. to Wa1hlngton to tin.1th anuglnc affair• vi th-, aaeoot.at•• eo a, to take lbe oath a• Jud.&• Deoeaber 115. 1949. Chief JueUc• Tin.eon Jd:nd.17 conaented \o adllin- 1 ttez the oath. Good tn•nd• ha4 preaen.led •• 114 th a haa410•• robe at .Lar17 lupp’ • ho••• vbioh \ouched. •• w17 111ch. GertftA• o•»ou.ell. Margaret aD4 !oa Lane. -, tla\er Sarah aACl Julian and hl• wit• Jrancea 1iteN preeeat. there were kindlf greeUngt1 aJMl r•uibrance• fro• all t.11 Bome am troa Acne• 1n 1iev Tork. Charles oame on from lotre Dame tor the eTeat, eo • • • .. 326 – all of the taaU,7 were to,ether, .Agnes, 0.bal’lee • .Amie, Se.ra? and Mar, .?et. W1Ut \he Obiet JueUce to.- the ewean,c ia oaaa fro• the Ooul. when t? earl?i- ,-.. ,1 ba4 argu.ed •o 11110111 Juttle•• »le.ck. Ju:non, Clark aacl ?ln-. a., •1)1,a 1 appndatecl a CN&i ual. fbeuc-. the 9erio4 oo•erecl ‘b7 th••• aotea really •• aov, •h• ao\ea ha•• 110t ‘bffa t7Ped in 1h11 form un\11 l•ter; to 1 take ad.ftn \ag& of t.he aitu.,ton to acid a fw wort• al>out OlU” ohlld.i’eAI t1i'””‘°3t1 1912. after he gnt.••’4 ia .Tue Macaa aa. Laue at liotre »••• O)arl•• (Dea •••> eatere4 the OJter of St. leneclic,t. ln , .. ,,. 19131 att•r .PIA•Uac a\ fl’la1’1’ 1n Jue. 1952, .. •rn.ed. loUJb l • ..be•? In .-,u.111 1953, after graAatlnc tbl\ Jue at Tr1n1t,-1 Saru ant.•”‘ the Order of lo\re Due de la.ml’ • Ma.J7 Acn•• 1• coa\1au1ng her oollege prog:reH at friatt7. Acu• e.? l are ver, bleHe4 1a our ohilclren, and 1 la her, through the mere, of God • • • • INDEX Abbott fmd.ly 71 Acheson, Dean 145, 285, 294, 29S, 296, 317. 322 Achilles, ‘fbeodere 132, 134, 139 Adau, Ken 72 Adcock, General•- 260 Menauer, ltbnrad 281 Adkins, Justice 76 Alderman, Sidney 2S1 Alexander• Buth Laughlin 55• 237 Majo, -• 321 .Armst>:’0118, Major — 225, 302, 306 Arnall, Elli.a 239 Arnold, ’11lunilD 213 Aspey, t.awence 19 5, 196 Astor, Led 140, Atlee, ci .. t 245 Austin, Warren 289, 313, 316, 320, 322 laker, Daniel W. 12 Bakos, Joe 72 Barker, Laughlin 237 Barker, l.uth 72, 119 Barker, William J. 52, SS, 57, 61, 63, 237 Barker, William J. family .54, 71 Bamabaa, fr. — 71 Baruch, Jem.ud 285, 286. 287 Bazelon, J’udae -• 322 Jell, Gol4ea 113 Ben.deteen, Col. •• 306 Benjaad.11,. Emip 23 Bennett, .Jame• v. 2.5.5, 274 Benny, — 121 Berge, Wendell 123, 158, 195, 213 hne • Beate 281 Betts, Edward c. 136, 242, 243, 244, 248, 249 Beutler, ffoyd 57 Bitt.ult 313 Fahy … 327 Biddle, Francia 89, 119, 144, 14S, 150, 151, 168, 182, 195, 216,224, 236, 252, 283 Bieismeier, Harold 127, 133, 140, 32 Biggs, SOlicitor Gen’l — 79 • • • F?hy – 328 Black, llugo 162, 167, 168, 173, 174, 178, 184, 211, 326 Bliss, Aloa&o o. 44 Blooalt Sol 235, 313 Borah, Seri.U-41 Bowie, Robert 258, 278 BOl111D8ll. — 225 Bradle,, caar 301, 304, 305 11:’andegee, Sen. — 43 lb:andei&, Louis D. 47, 196, 211 Bratton, Sam G. 64 Bridges, Barry 183, 184, 185, 186 Bro•, Mias — 323 Brown, B.obert o. 57 Buffington, Joseph 95, 96 Burlew, E. K. 84 JSw:Ds, Sir Alen 129, 133, 134, 137• 138, 140 Burtner, — 121 15ux’ton, Juatic• •• 211, 326 iuacbe, Sir Grattan 140 Butler, Justice ….. 2U Jyntes, James F. 144, 198, 216, 243, 277, 282, 283, 284, 285, 296, 313, 317 cahill, John ‘l’. 192,205 cardozo 76, 211 carmody, John M. 89 Carusi,, Ugo 159, 160 Cather, Willa S4 Chamber•, Whittaker 298 Chavez, David .56 CJ:urve.. Dem:li• 56, 64 Clla¥•• Miguel 71 <2mrchil1, Winstoa 32, 130 1 131, 133, 136,140,245 Qmrcb.111, Mrs. Winston 32, 33, 140 Clark, S.. 213 Clark, Tom. 188,194,208, 213, 237, 238, 326 Clay, Lucius D. 240,242, 248,249,253,254, 2.55, 257,258,259 260, 266, 276, 279, 280, 282. 284, 301 Cohen, Benjallin 135, 139, 282, 313, 322, 129 Collier, John 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70,· 86 Collins, General 301, 303, 304, 305 Compton. Wilson M. 322 Connally, Tom 77, 235, 290, 295, 313 Connolly, John 15, 146 • • • Connery, William 90 Cooper, John Paul 7 Cooper, John Sherman 322 Corcoran, Tom 119 Correa, 162 Covington, 198 Cox, Justice 76, 199 Cramer,_ 160-164 Cranbome, Lord 133, 140 Cromelin, Paul B. 14 Cummings, Homer 79, 120 Cummings, Walter 153, 156 Cutting, Bronson 64, 69 Daeger, Archbishop Albert Thomas 54, 55, 72 Daly,_ 38 Danaher, John A. 116-117, 316,321 Darlington, Joseph J. 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 37, 38, 43 Davenport,Roy 302,306 Davis, J. Warren 95 Davis, John W. 47, 49, 102 Davis, William 198 Day, Justice 107 Day, Luther 107 Dempsey, John J. (Jack) 85 Demuth, Richard M. 154, 156 Dennis, William C. 47, 49, 52 Denny,_ 142 De Witt, General 17 6, 177, 181 Dickman, 252 Dodge, Joseph M. 258 Doheny, Edward L. 44 Donahue, H. A. 299 Donovan, William 248 Dorias, 10 Douglas, Charles A. 12 Douglas, Helen G. 313 Douglas, William 0. 143, 162, 174, 178,188,210,211 Draper, General 279 Draper, William H. Jr. 258 Duggan, Miss 71 Dulles, John Foster 42, 225, 235, 295, 296, 313, 316 Dunn, James C. 132, 139, 244 Durham,_ 300 Fahy – 329 • • • Eaaby•Sllith, J. 12 laton,.a.arle• A • .235 1 _313 Deratadt, rmu.aad zas Ecboh, Genen10.2JJ lekut, <herlie 72 Btlilll, AatbOD7 140, 313 Mwarde • c.:i uu•der 29 Fahy … 330 liHDhowr, Dwight I). 66. 240, 242, 248, 253, 254, 278, 301 BUadlower, Milton 178 IUiaon, … 24 81-, Philip 1.53, 1.56, 241, 256, 258 a.raoa. Th<wa· a,, to. 116 Bllllma ,. Glean t. 66 lade, Nha – .w. 178, 179, 111, 186 Innis ….. n ,. 123, 150 lrclahl • •• 118 batt, B•rbat v. 227 hl\T fald.ly 1.-6, 6-10, 16•19• 21• 301_?• 38, SO, 51, 57• 71, ?, 73, 86, 87, 88, 118 1 119, 127, lZB, 135, 138, 139, 191, 213• 215,237,238, 241,279,282, 284 1 285,289, 290, 32.S. 326 himan, <2lar1«J 249 ralbo, — 196, 197. 198, 201 rall, Albert a. 44 raebuat, Hildnd 117, 150, 1.54, 233 rar111er. auy, 118 l’eller• A. B. 99 reUu, a. .287 nu-a,s, – us. 166, 1,1 ftnle,,, ColoMl 266, 278 a.us-. Adrl.all m ftte, Katbertae 244 ‘ ftt….-rice, a. •• 231 hley, Edward H. 73 ?tal, J’Mta 216, 299, 301 ‘8rta•, Abe .207, 22.$ roe,.. ….. n, 36 l’owler, — 121 f.ank, Jel:OIM 79 J!nnk, Joba •• 167 l’rakel, 0al!IDlltl I.. 205 l’raakfurter, reltx 153, 174, 186, 188, 191, 193,195,206, 211 Freund, Pn1 153, 157. 213 Frq, J’obn “· 74 J’tlcha. &altm 154 • • • Gmi■IIOtla familY” 30 Gardner, W.bff 144, 153, 1.56, 157 Qtrriaon, L1oyt1 (lWUi) 89 Genevieve (Sister) 71 Gerhardt, Fr. — 281 Gerig• Benjaain 323 C.rtrudet Suiter 30 Cildersie..e. Virginia 317 Gill, – 1 Gladsteua, Ricbm-d 185 Glavis, Louis 83, 84 Goluasky, S. A. 231 ., 233 Gould, .Juat1ce Ashley H. 12 Granger, Lester B. 299 … ,., Gordon 301. 303, 304, 305 ?r, Judge •• 237 Crose, 11:’aeat A. 117, 213, 323 Fahy … 331 &ackworth. Green a. 139,218, 219, 225, 226, 231, 284 Haldtmlan. -· 323 Hale, Dirve 25, 27, 36 Haley, LOrd 140 Halleek, Charles 11.5 Halliday, Malcolm 117 Hancock, Jobat 285 Blmd, Augustus 195, 196 Band, Leamed 195, 196 Bamul• ll. B. 6S Raffia, C,,aapton 191 Jlarria1 i. .144 Harrie• hof. 6 Bart. a..,. H. 99 Hastie, Williaa a. 189 Hatch, sm. 72, 146, 290 Hawe, Alexnder 117 BayDe, Be– P. 39 Healey, Arthur 115 ltendaraon, •• 127 Bendenoo, Joseph w. 107 Henc!eraoa, Lo7 294 11c,111eas1r, • 11, 11em1 •• .,., – 170 lleraog, Paul 89 H.ick•rsoa, J’ohn D. 132, 139, 322 Hilldring, John B. 316, 317 • • • Biunebuah. h”.– 281 llirabayashi., •• 178, 179 Hiss, Alger 297, 298 Hiss, Donald 298 Hitler, Adolph 1.28, 131, 133• 136,245, 24’, 269 ll81ti!11h:Jl !: li Hobo, Hiaa — 14 Bollaes, o. w. 49, 211 Boo4, John 14 Hoover, J. Edgar 123, 151, 177 llooTer • Herl>ett 37 Hopkins, Ban.,- 128 Horgan, Pal 5.5, 71 Borak.y, dlarlee 1,,.. 99, 144, 251 Howard, Jolin 285, 286 Bsi.e, c. a. 45 Hudson, – 256 Fahy – 332 Bughea, Charles Evans 41• 91 1 98, 101, 10.3, 107, 108, 142, 166, 194,222, 223, 283 Bughea, Charles iw4!na 1 Jr-. 192, 193, 194, 211 Bugles, Villi.am J. 102 Kull, Cordell 126, 139, 219 Bunter, •• 165 Huret, Willard 161 Hutcheson, .JoMpb c., Judge 104 Ickes, Baold 61, 70, 73, 741 78, 79, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89 Ickea, Jfl:8. u. 70, 85 lngrabaa, llea’q 117, 154, 207, 285, 286 Jffboa, Boofft •• 93, 101, 106, 107, 113,119,126, 127, 132, 136, 144, 162, 166, 172, 174, 178, 188, 191, 194, 204, 206, 211,243, 244, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252,253,255, 277,283 Jenkiaa, Mias – 6 J’enkins, — 23 Jerome, J’r. — 71 Jeaaup, Jbilip 218, 222, 223, 22s. 22.6, 322 Johnson, Bencbel 129, 139• 316 Jobuon. Bugb 74, 75, 79 Joimeo11, Lottie 301, 304 Jonas, •- 7 Jones, 6 • • • t,?t,,..,..! Kane•Alteith 217 Keeler, Hr. 53 Kelly, Dam T. 66 Kelly, Dea T. family 66, 71, 72 ,. 119 Kemp, Jae••• 189 Kennedy• ..,•aador 128 lemlorth7, 1. w. 300, 309 ltel.’DO, Iva 287 lqaerling, Leon 90 ‘llmha 11, ….. 165 JUag, IU.aa carol 185 U.t, ?. 1. 39 l’napp, Laree• A. 117, 325 Koenig, JOMpb K. B.. 254 ltDN11Ut8U; •• 149, 178, 181, 186 Dylov. s • •• 231 t.-i:..rt, ViltOD J. 49, SO Lalll7, Arcbbiahop Je,m laptiate 54 L•cH.a, J.,.s M. 184 Lane faaily 30, 52, 71, 119, 214 ,. 325, 326 l.aM1 C..ater 153,156.170 takq, John L. 48 Laughlin, Judge 52, SS, 56 Laughlin family 71 Lawrence, Sir Robert 252 Lawrence, w. a. 172 Law, lolitlaa J,, 48 Luby, 1’11111111111. 44 LeiaerMO• William 82 Lft7, lld.1 90, 116, 316, 311 lJ.1ientba1 1 David 73 Littell, llo1.wm M. 207,216,117 Lihlaov, Maia 209, 210 Loqe, B. C. 290 Lopes, Francisco 71 Linton, •• 14 Lodge, Remy Cabot (Sen.) 41, 42 Lothian, Lord …. 126 La¥•tt, Robert A. 23, 27, 36,296, 297 Lowenate1a, •• 256 J.Dckman, 01arles 300 :raby – 333 • • • HcCloy, Johll J. 236. 237, 238, 239• 241• 243,244 Mcflowll 53 Hcao.o, lraaklia 281 llclhth, J. Howard 139 …., Justice 211 lie?, Frederic .47, 49 HcLean, Don 278, 279 McLeadon, Col.•• 252 llchugbton, 8-eral ad Jira. 140 Mcleynolds, Justice 104, 211 Fahy • 334 ….. Jd.e, •• 251 Hadclea, J. warren 89, 91, 100, 102, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116 128 ,. 146,240,241.242, 2.55, 256,268,277,283 ….. , J’obn w. 8 llapuder, C.lvut “• to, 100, 153 llllbouJ’, Jff•:tah 205 llaktoa, John 323 Mal.kt., Sir Will1- 140, 231 Ha11et-1revoat, Marcel 117 X.lony, Gen• 1 Harry J. 32, 12 7, 133 • 140 Karey, earl 287, 290 1 323 Hargold, Nathaa 70,. 23;’ 74, 77, 79, 85, 86 ??•ball, George c. 36 ., 121, 122, 289• 296, 297, 316, 317 – Mnhlll, ‘1’bul!’good 189 -.a-,, Vincent 133 Medina, Judge 160 1 1.62 lliteka’t 1.Hnard lS4 ….. Frank 53 -,er Eugene 241 ‘ –•l•it, Clade a. 249 . Miller• Ila than L. 191 , IUllilda, Sea. 29.5 . 11:llliA, Ban-y 89 Minor, J),:. 52 Hinton, Justice Shemen 239, 240, 326 i Molotov 313 Hoatao-r,-, Bernard 254 Nontgo11e17, Gener•l 278 lfoqeatbeu, Henry, .Jr. 238 Horgaa, Dr. Artbur 73 Hone, David J,.. 116 <None, Wayne 29 S, 296 ,lioJ’ne, Lord U3 -Marshall, Howard 74, 79 • • • Fay … 335 Murdock, Abe 115 aarphy, Ambaaaador lobert D. 252 ,. 2S4. 258, 277, 281 Murphy, Justice Frank 84, 174, 178• 190, 191, 193, 194, 198,201,206,211 Nurre,, L, w. 133 Jlyera, Noman 74, 79 Hash, •• 307 lleale fmd.ly 12, 13 lleale, Hattie 13 ttelson, Denais l). 312 Nichol.a, Lee· 306, 312 ■il•, l>a’vid 299 w 307 Roel. f. l.qle 14 IOJ:dfeldt, •• 71 Borton• Mary . 112 llott.er,. U.rlq 224 o•ea11qha. rr. so o•Donne11, Pr. autrlea 9 O*Dormell, Ger?rude 119, 325 O’Donnell fatly 214 O’Donogbue, Daniel w., Sr. 12 O’Hara, Jolm ‘I. 9 o’Meara, Dee – 9 Oppenheimer, lrita 258, 260 ?borne, Cen1 1 286 0 $he.a,,_ A. 47, 48, 49, otb, Lt. •• 23 Pal.Jler,•• 71 Palaer, l>ld.pt 300 Pandit, Mlle. ll4, 315 Parker,•• 2J2 Patterson, Sec’y 182, 201, 249 lat.too, George Gelt•t 260 Pavlo•ky, •• 225 Pearson,-• 127, U3 Pepper, Ct..• 178 Pepper, George Wbutcaa 44, 169 Pe1:kina, Jrancea 321 l’bl.eger, — 116, 240, 241, 242, 2SO, 256, 269 Pine, ..Judge 200 Pink,•• 209,210, 211 • • • Pius XII 279, 282 Poole, Bufus G. 116, 316. 321 Powell, 1bomaa a.ed 100 PreaS1181l, Lee 185 Preyserling, cardinal 281 Ptlerifoy, — 285 Ransome, Leoa 189 Raum, Arnold 144, 150, 153, 156, 157, 1.58, 213 R•ed, …. 211 Reed, Earl 102, 141 Fahy .. 336 Reed, Sunley 99, 102 ., 142, 144, 153, 162, 174, 194 Bheinstetn, Max 274 ?. Clara ·6 Bhodea, Eugene Malllove 71 llicbardtion t S.th 321 llichbarg, Donald 79 Riley, J>1ck. 71, 72 Biley, Lew.ls 72 B.obe:rts , Justice Owen J. 108, 162, 163, 168, 174, 186, 188 , 191, 193, 201. 204, 205, 211 Rockne, Knute 10 Rockwell, Alvin lS4, 116, 156, 213, 241 Rogers, Paul v. 14 llbluie, Ruth B. 322 Bolla, R. -• 72 Romero, Celestille 71 Romulo, CUlos 324, 325 Roosevelt, r. D• 16, 37, 42, 61, 68, 69, 70, 74, 75, 78, 79, 83, 84, 86, 100, 101, 109, 113, 114, 120, 121. 124, 125, : μ6, 127, 128, 132, 138, 139, 145, 146, 147, 150, 157, 159, 111, 11,, 111, 11,, 180, 181, 198 , 210, 211, 214, 21s, 216 223, 224,234,237, 238, 283 Roosevelt, Mrs. F. D. 151, 313, 316, 317, 322 Root, Elihu 41, 226 Rosenman, samu.el 154, 238 Ro••· .Jobn c. 313, 322 Ilotnaa• Victor 188 Rusk, Dean 321, 322 Routhon, B.ep. 115 Bowe, Jaaes 177, 252 Royall, Keaneth 301, 305 Ruffin, Dr. Sterling .51 Rutledge, Justice 172, 174, 178, 188,198,201, 202, 211 • • • sa1ant. l>iek 153, 1.54 s.ttifer. Durward v. 313 Saufcmt, Justice 212 aapo.a. l>avid A. 99 s.,r., ft’aeis 1. 316 1’.ahy … 337 Schl’Mideratan, Willial 170• 171. 172, 173, 174. 175, 180 Sc•••• Pnllder 281 Scott, Cyril K. 72 Screw, •· 187, 188, 189, 190 Sears, Judge 183, 184 say. capt. 11 . -. Hr. and Mr:a. J• 72 ?•s,Htu-tley 31$ Shea, ITalcia M. UJ. 1.10, 213,248,251 SMperd, Chief .Juetlce 12 lil?• St8D1.,- 153 Sta., .Adrair.l 29 sia,ter:,. Harry 70 Sid.ti\, .. 196 Smith? Bedell 248,277 Smith, Blackwll 79 Saitb, Bdw1o s. 89 Smith, l’r,mk a. 14, 16 Smith, Bayda 260, 278 Qa:ltb, Howard 109, 115 Sad.th, L. M. C. (Ba) 123 1 1.50 Sad.th. Manin 144. 153, 156 s.su, J• 315, 318 S.,th• lloaaipor 87 ,-…, Al 117 Spuk, •• 313 Stalin, Joaef 272 Staples, lliaa … 72 Stark, .Adad.ral 150 Sta•••• Harold 235 Stepgatacke, J’oba H. 300 Stepha, •• 157, 158 1 1S9, 160 Stephens, Harold 79, 81, 237 Stepiuc, Archbishop 296 Stem. &obert 154. 165, 213 st••••• Adlai hs. 313, 316 Stevenscm, Phil 71 StweuO’l’l, Wil11- ‘I. 300 Sttmson, Henry L. 126• 177, 181, 182, 216 Stocke, •- 28, 36 • • • Stokes. Iuae H. L . 287, 290 stoae. tln’laa -,. 104, 162,174, 178,. 179• 197, 24)1, 202,206,211,212, 222. 283 SU111wm, ,lobn L. 301 SUlli•an, Rd.lip t. 199 Sullivaa, William c. 11, 43, 44, 4S, 51 Sutherland, — 2ll Sulaer, .Aloysiua 1.5 Swaa, Judge 19J Swansoa, ? B. 74 s,a:lagtoa, Stuart 301 1 309 1’aNI” • Lea?er 24 1 27. 36 ‘raft, loNrt 112 Yaft, VUU. Bowrd 41, 112, 205, 2U …. …. 123 ‘1417lor, )fJlon 281, 296 ‘fa71or. T•Uon 73. 241,249 !b.caa•, a. .. 11.bert 112, 295 ‘l’horp, Willard L. 316 ?, H. A. Ul, 127, 139. 150 Trnick, Hua …. 6 ? ….. 140 Fahy – 331 184. 186, 191, 194, Truman, Barry .90, 200. 216,224,235,236,238,239,243,247, v.a. no. 2s3, 286,287,290,294,298,299, 300, 306, ,01, 309• J11, 312• 3U, 316, Jlt, 321, 312 “1117, Ohc• 159 .,., cebeu de SJ …. .. . 46 ·- …. 1, Gerhard 118, ………. Arthur •• 42; 235,236, uo. 295, 296, 313 Yadevant«r, — 98, 211 Vf.naon, Fred 198, zoa, 211,283,284, 325. 326 Yiahinaky, •• 317 j. ……. ….. 223 …… Sen. Robert 79, 89, 90, 124 W.leh, ar. ldllund A. 2$3 val.ah, Fr. Matthew 9 wan, — 4.5, 46, 47, 41, 49, so Verd, Dr. -• 72 WUbtogton, Judge 322 • • • Wetson. Norris 94 ?. 1. (“Pa”) 151 lfatta, Bo’bert 95, 103, 107• 116 Wecbeler, -• 252 W.11-, Sl1rarler 111 Wiekenham, Gerl 1 1 243 Wfflkie, Wendell 111. 172 Will:l.ason, Mary 6 Willey, •• 252 Wilson, •• 165 W11aoa, -• 2.58 Fahy – 339 Wi1son, Woodrow 15, 16. 35, 39, 40. 41, 42, 217 1 234 Wilson, Mt-a. ? (Ula tou Auo11) 16, 38 Willllat, .Allibesaador 128, 129 1 133, US, 139, 140 Witt, llatbe 117 WODa, T. T. 45 • 4’ Wood, 1r … 1e1t 168 Woolae.,, ,1ctor ts Wrall1l, ftoNBCe 117 Wright. — 252 ¥rtaht:, Daniel 12 WrtBbt. Graham 8 Vrtght, Hoses 7, 8 Wright, Seaborn 7, 8 WU? •• 45 W,17, lUaa •- 6 ll)ruaski, Outrln 89 1 99,, 102 l’akw, …. 201, JOI I08t, , 16J YOUQ&, J,… w. 78 254 • * * ,. • COPY In reply refer to Eu 811.34,44/798 DEPARTME?’T OF STATE WASHINGTON My dear Mr. Attorney General: April 21, 1941 With reference to the appointment by the President or Mr. Charles Fahy, Assistant Solicitor General, as a member of a commission to proceed to London to work out the technical details of the formal leases in connection with the acquisition of United States military bases on certain British territory in the Western Hemisphere, I take pleasure in enclosing a cow of a telegram addressed to the American Embassy at London expressing on behalf of the President and myself deep appreciation to Mr. Fahy and the other members of the Commission for the splendid work which they rendered in negotiating the Agreement, which was signed on March 71, 1941. The Honorable Robert H. Jackson, Attorney General. _!_ / ‘/ I also • • – 2 – I also take pleasure in enclosing a copy of a telegram fron the American .Ambassador at London in regard to the difficulties encountered and successfully overcome by Mr. Fahy and the other members of the Commission in connection with the negotiations. Sincerely yours, /s/ CORDELL HULL Enclosures: 1. 2. To American Embassy London, no. 1041, March 27, 1941. From American Embassy London, no. 1207, Marc? 27, 1941. ·, .· • • Secretary of State, Washington. 1207, 27th. PLAIN London Dated March 27, 1941 Rec’d 1:05 p.m. For the President and the Secretary of State. The Base Lease Agreement has been signed. I think it contains everything we need to use these bases effectively. The rights and powers it conveys are far-reaching, pro­ bably more far-reaching than any the Briti sh Government has ever given anyone over British territory before. They are not used to giving such concessions and on certain points they have fought every inch of the way. While they have intended all along to give us everything we really needed -they could do no less and had no desire to do less — it was a real struggle for them to break habits of three hundred years. The Prime Minister has been generous throughout. Certain powers, notably those in Article 11, are so sweeping that the British would never have granted them except as a natural consequence of the original agreement and the spirit which it embodies. It is .. • • JM-2-:.1arch 27th, No. 1207 from London. It is important that the agreement be carried out in that spirit. The colonies have been lightly touched by the war, their point of view is local and their way of life will be greatly changed by the bases. In the main the chnnges will benefit them but it may take them some time to find it out. In the negotiations both sides have tried to avoid anything which would wall off the bases from the local communities. Our people and theirs are to live together without even a fence, much less a frontier, between them. The character of the men in command of the bases is of tremendous importance, especially in the beginning. If they are the right kind and ready to carry out our part of the agreement in a friendly and understanding spirit they can do much to inaugurate ninety-nine years of good neighborliness. ?kllony, Fahy and Biesemeier have fought hard and won everyone’s respect and friendship. You sent a fine team and they have done a grand job. So did Achilles in assisting them. WINANT. CSB . . • • COPY:SJC:SS CO:,v!PlillED: EH DES .AMJi}.ffiASSY LONDON 1041 TELF.GRI.M SENT March 27, 1941 4 p.m • FOR FAHY, MALONY AND BIESEMEIER FRCM THE ACTING SECRETARY. The President joins with me in expressing to you deep appreciation for the splendid work which you have done in negotiating the Agreement which has just been signed. All or us are proud of you and send you heartiest congratulations on the conclusion or this Agreement. WELLES Acting • • • Supreme Court of the United States Washington, D. C. Chambers of Robert H. Jackson Mr. Charles Fahy Room 553, Hotel Pennsylvania New York, New York ?..Y dear Charlie: November 23, 1946. I see no harm in the second paragraph of your resolution but the first paragraph, which reaffirms both the Charter and the judgment of the Tribunal, runs into the difficulty that the two are not the same. I have not wanted to be critical of the judgment, nor have I had the time to give to its proper analysis; but it is apparent that the application by the Tribunal cut down very materially the intent of the Charter. The only person who has caught this is Mr. Stimson .. · An article which he is publishing in the coming issue of FOREIGN AFFAIRS I have seen, and I am sure he would not object to my quoting from it to you confidentially. He says: “The charge of crimes against humanity was limited by the Tribunal to include only activities pursued in connection with the crime of war. The Tribunal eliminated from its jurisdiction the question of the criminal accountability of those responsible for wholesale persecution before the outbreak of the war in 1939. With this decision I do not here venture to quarrel, but its effect appears to me to involve a reduction of the meaning of crimes against humanity to a point where they become practically synonymous with war crimes. If there is a weakness in the Tribunal’s findings, r·believe it lies in its very limited construction of the legal concept of conspiracy. That only eight of the 22 defendants should have been found guilty on the count of Qonspiracy to commit the various crimes involved in the in?tctment seems to me surprising. I believe that t,1e Tribunal would have been justified in a broader construction of the law of conspiracy, and under such a construction it might well have found a different verdict in a case like that of Schacht?- 11 • – • – 2 – I note that Shawcross has run into great difficulty with his resolution, which seemed as innocuous as this. It is that sort of thing that I fear I do not see how your second paragraph could be objected to. Perhaps the first one is harmless. Anyway, you are on the ground and I shall be content with whatever you do. With all good wishes, I am . \ • I I I ? Sincerely yours, /S/ Bob . . • • • Dear Bob: Room 553, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, New York, November 21, 1946. Thank you very much for sending me a copy of your letter of November 16 to Secretary Byrnes and Senator Austin. The.United States had intended to make no specific proposal regarding the London Agreement at this meeting of the General Assembly. We had, however, secured a place on the agenda for an item looking toward fulfillment of the Assembly 1 s obligation under Article 13 of the Charter to encourage the progressive development of international ·1aw and its codification. The United States proposal in this regard, joined in by China, is now before Committee VI. A copy is enclosed. As you will see it is for the study of methods as the first step, and makes no reference to any particular subject matter. . . When the correspondence between the President and Francis Biddle was made public, while the Assembly was in session, it seemed desirable to do something more, especially as the President expressed the hope 11 that the United Nations, in line with your proposal, will reaffirm the principles of the Nuremberg charter in the context of a general codification of offenses against the peace and security of mankind. 11 The fu?erican Delegation at my request has accordingly approved the enclosed additional resolution. It is now also before Committee VI. This resolution :.s in general terms and no effort will be made at this session of the General Assembly to do more. I think the resolution will be adopted without much controversy; and if that occurs some advance will have been made. Of course our position is that the principles of the Charter are now a part of international law. It was for this reason that we had not intended any special reference ?o the Nuremberg principles in our original proposal contained in the resolution first above referred to. If the fifty-four nations adopt the second resolution, this would seem to furnish an appropriate occasion for the The Honorable Justice Robert H. Jackson./ United States Supreme·96urt Washington, D. C. ·;, State • • • — 2 – State Department to notify the other signatory governments of termination under Article 7 of the London Agreement. Any misconstruction of our ter?tnation would be obviated, especially since the resolution of the General Assembly would have been passed on the initiative of the United States. The alternative is to notify the governments that we do not intend to participate in any further international trials, which leaves our status under the Agreement rather anomalous. Please let me know what you think of this suggested course. Enclosure: A/C.6/69 and A/C.6/54 CC: Secretary of State Byrnes, Senator Austin. I V ? ?- Yours sincerely,_ Charles Fahy .. • • THE PRESIDENT’S COMMITTEE ON EQUALITY OF TREATMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN THE ARMED SERVICES 19 September 1949 MEMORANDUM FOR THE FAHY COMMITTEE Subject: Meeting With Secretary Gray, 16 September 1949 On Tuesday, September 13, Mr. Fahy and I had lunch with Mr. Carl Bendetsen (recently appointed assistant to Secretary Gray), and General Byers, deputy to General Brooks in Personnel and Administration. At this time, Mr. Bendetsen proposed that a meeting be held with Secretary Gray on Thursday before Mr. Gray left for Germany. This was later changed to Friday in order to accommodate the schedule of Mr. Palmer and Mr. Fahy. Present at the meeting on Friday morning were Mr. Fahy, Mr. Palmer and Mr. Kenworthy, representing the Committee; and Secretary Gray, Vice Chief of Staff Haislip, Mr. Bendetsen and Mr. King, both assistants to Mr. Gray, and Colonel MacFadyen from General Brooks’s office, representing the Army. •· Mr. Gray began by saying that the Army was prepared to accept the Committee’s recommendations on opening up all MOS and Army Service Schools to qualified men, regardless of race. There was then considerable discussion of what the Committee meant by the assignment of men following schooling without regard to race. Mr. Fahy and Mr. Palmer made it clear that the Committee, while not seeking the immediate dissolution of segregated units, meant that qualified Negro graduates of the schools would not be limited to assignment in Negro or overhead units, and that if there were vacancies in white units for such specialists, the Army shouldmt refuse to assign qualified Negroes to them on the grounds of race. Secretary Gray accepted this meaning, and agreed to the Committee’s principle. There followed a lengthy discussion of the Committee’s recommendation for substituting a GCT for a racial quota. The Army’s position is thatit has no objection to such a quota system insofar as it would operate to abolish the Negro quota or to control the numbers of low score men. Its objection is that it would lop off roughly 20 percent of the present Army strength, both white and Negro, and the Army could not replace these losses with volunteers who had a GCT rating 80 and above, since the current percentage of high score men is less than during wartime. , ,, ?’ • • – 2 – Mr. Fahy and Mr. Palmer conceded that this is a real difficulty, and suggested that the Army, rather than turn down the Committee’s proposal on the GCT quota and stand flat on the retainment of a racial quota, approach the Committee with a plan and figures of its own; and that both sides sit down together to work out the problem. Mr. Fahy proposed to Secretary Gray that when he sent up the Army’s plan to Secretary Johnson, he state that the Army is prepared to meet the Committee’s recommendations on MOS, schools and assignment, and that the subject of the quota is still under study and consideration. Secretary Gray agreed. Our expectation is that the Army’s response will be sent up shortly if it has not .lready reached Secretary Johnson. Meanwhile we are expecting the Army to send its statisticians around with a plan and figures on the quota. It is Mr. Fahy’s suggestion that, unless the members wish a meeting immediately, a meeting should be held as soon as the Army plan has been sent up to Mr. Johnson. Will the members let the office know their wishes on the meeting. The staff would also welcome any suggestions on the quota problem. •· ! ‘l 1.. /s/ E. w. Kenworthy Executive Secretary ,.- ADV A;:,•?:S :C-CLJ.<2-:::: c:cCK _T=x::c i>?GjT?Sf :u::;1rr–iRY Press Release :?o. 711 October 20, 19•±9 ST,\ TD/J?IJT BY THE HOllTORJ-1.BLE CHArJJ,;s FAHY’ UNrrED STA TES ALTSc’½.Ni’,.TI; REPRESi<J’TTATIVE, IN PLENARY SESSIC!N CN KOREA Oct ober 20, 1949 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — Hr. Prcsi1cnt, TL;; Concnl hssci:,bly is fulfilling its highest function when it spC-aks or acts en buhnlf of trD indof;Ondmcc of pcM.plcs nnd of go vcrni11m tso This is the pre [:cn-tt c.:-.se, th0 co.so of Korea. The l.d Hoc Political Conunitte;e, as the first action of this Sus sicn on an important politi cal rr.attcr, <:)Verwhclmingly resolved thc:-t the.. Uni ted N?ticns Connii.ssion on Korea should ccnt inuc” The United St::;tC:s urges that the Gem.;ral ,\sscr.tbly now affirm the action of the Cor.J,ii. ttc1.., 0 .,_:. It ia approxirat.ely tvo ycDTs since tro General Assembly adopte d its Ruso:iuti-:n of No-.runbcr 14., 1947, dosii:!]1Cd to bring about the crc:aticn of a Gov-:m:;-i’–‘Lt in Korea ropres-.nt:;.ng the pccple of that cou::try, who were pror:i scd libi::rdicn end fr0edan n.s a. conscq1.Hnc0 cf tl1c dofo2.t of Japan. In tho }l’:lr t of Kr::r01. scuth o:’ th8 Jdth P’.l.r2.L.el, under Un:itc.;d No.ticns co scrvatie:n, a fro0 election w?.s hcldo Tho Govcrn::?cnt of the R.:roublic of Kcrca was estn.blishedo A1::ori ccr, occuμ-:ti o.c1 f0r cos wore withdr,:i,vm ., The lawful chn.r acter of the new Govarnmcnt W.J.s o.clmov,ledged by thl: Third Ga10rnl 11.ssernbly, at Paris, and that Gov3rnrc.u1t h:i.s e:iuce bee:n recognized by more thnn twenty }£ember States of the Unit cd N,’.i. t icn s .. • :-Jo f’reo elect ion w:.s :ixormi t kd nr:r th of tho 38th Pr,rnllel,. Tho re onethird of tile peo plc nr.d mc-h-..lf of the arcc>. of the c ountry are behind a barrier erected by c. puppet GOVcrnr.:ent, supported by the S0viet Union. The represwta tiveE of the United Nations are cxcludud 2nd the authori ty o f tho General AssG1Tibly is floutE>d. ;\ vnst prop2.ganda can’pa i6n is waged agcdns t the representative gov?rn­ m..:nt chosE:n freuy by tho pE::ople in the area opened to United Nc,tions ?bservation scuth of t he 38th ParFlllel. Tr.e United Nat ions Corr.r.ri.ssi?m en Korea,. established at tho Third · Session of the Groera.l I.ssembly, has rode a cemprehensi.vo report. It points cut the thr6ilt of conflict, cf explosive incidmts, of the oont.inuation l’f socitl, econcnic an d political barriers, cf lnck of unificaticno There is danger of a cruel civil war growing out of the bellicose mani.f estat ions of t hcse who dorain,:.te n?rth Korea. The· present_ R0solution was adopted by the Ad Hoc Political Coramittue to c ont:inuo a Ur,ited N1.tims Comrrii.ss:li.cn in Korea in aid of :maintaining p;: ace and furthsring too unificc.ticn and in dep:::ndence of Kt’rea. So long as th0re ex:i.sts in Kcn,a the s pi.ri t of incitcmept t o armed comb e.t, and s o 10:ig o.s upon occ ,1.sion such conflict in fact occur s, the purpose of the General 1\ssur,bly to bring about tho unificaticn c’.lnd coli.lf)lde indGμmdence of Kcrea under a single nati on:11 goverm.cnt , s:c:t up U.’1der the scrutiny of the 1.ssembly1s Cor,unis sion, is endrngered, ,”‘.s is tlso the safety Md well-being of the R0publi c cf Kore.:-., and . , that of c11l it s inh.:.bitant s. It is for, this rm.sen that the Cc1.mrl.tte0 R..::;soluticn provides that the now Conr.iiss ion shall ?b serve an d report any dcvelopr.1mts v,hich raight 182.d to or c.-the; rwise involve Llilitm- y conflict in Korea. It is our view that a Cor..miss io n c.mpow1..,rei to act in this .field will serve as 2.n importru1t stabilizing and deterrent influence, and tha.t in the• evEJnt confl ict should occur, the· United Nati ons wruld have at h1.nd t cstiraony from a duly cort stitut ed ngen cy ,!.L .. . ,,, ?– .,-?. I e:- /’ i rer;arding its mture and origin, nr.d regnrding the responsibility for its oc cur ren cc • Tnorn rer::ai ns “lso the import:,.nt tn.sk of working toward the rcalizatim of unity and :ind0p0ndence for all KorcP..:. Ti1e Comrnittcu Rt-solutio n provides tlO,”JlS v,hcreby, in c?.se tm threat c,f rr.ilitary con flict should be suspended or mitig?tcd, the C01Jrni3sio n m.1.y assist in the esk.b lishment of a. single mtionn.l governmmt 0ver m undivided country. The Ccnr.rl.ssion is t o seek t o facilito.te the rer.nva.l of b3.rricrs to friendly int…rc:1ursc in Korea, and to make its good offices 2.v<’tilable and be prcp:i.red t or ssist, whenever in it s juJemont a. favorable opportunity· arises, in bringing n.brut the unification o f Koroo. in accordance \Iii th the principL:,s ond.orscd by the GePeral Assembly. Its nuthorit y to utilize the services ?.nd 1:},0 d offices of porsons wr.t:ther o r not rcpresmtatives on the Coumission, is dusi;;ncd to 6ivc it the broadest pcs sible fnci.lities in carrying. eut these i’uncticns. We believe th:’J.t 1. Coranissio n hr.v:i.ng these powers will be c.ble tr, contribute 3U.bstantially, in a. wanner .”‘.ppro:;:.;rir.? te in the lieht of prcs111t con- . diticns in Korvr., to the finc1.l solut:.icn of the problro of th? ind6pa..’1dence of that country, through the establishmen t of [I. nntional goV13;!’11l?l<..;nt acting by, nn.d on behalf of, the will of n u.’1.i ted ;.’Cop le. ‘,!e accordingly suprort t he Cor:-J . .ittc.:,: r0solution, Md of cou-sc sh,’.111 vote ag?inst th!,3 Soviet draft resolution which was rcje cte,d in Comr:rl.tt.:io by m cver,?hclm:ing vo te. 1i1;3 stroncly reco1 ?1InEnd the Co;:iri1ittoe resolution to the favor··,_ble cmsideration of ether dele­ gations as a:i e:xpression o f the purpose of ?.h,::Gonerol Assembly to prcJil(‘)te the indcl)dndence of a lcng-suffer:irig ani valiant people whoo we should aid to achievE; what s0 m.:.1.ny of t5 enjoy – fr?edcr.i. end inde?ence o .. . I • • • • IMMEDIATE RELEASE MAY 22 1 1950 STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT I have just received the report or the President’s Committee on Equality or Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services. For the past two years, this Committee has been working quietly to find ways and means to bring about true equality or opportunity for everyone in military service. I have followed its work closely, and I know that it has probed deeply into the problem, which is not a simple one, and has been careful to keep uppermost the need for military efficiency. As the Committee explored personnel practices in the Armed Services, the members of the staff worked in the closest possible consultation with the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. In fact, the consultation was so close and continuous that the Committee’s recommendations grew naturally out or the joint discussions. The Services have accepted all of the Committee’s recom.?endations. It is, therefore, with a great deal or confidence that I . . learn from the Committee that the present programs or the three Services are designed to accomplish the objectives of the President; and that as these programs are carried out, there uill be, within the reasonably near future, equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Armed Services, with a consequent improvement in military efficiency. I attach the highest importance to this Cor.imittee’s assign­ ment. In the Committee’s own words, equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Serv.ices is right, it is just_, and it will strengthen the nation. That is true throughout our entire national life. As more and more of our people have shared the.opportunity to enjoy the good things of life, and have developed confidence in the willingness of their fellow Americans to extend equal treatment to them, our country has grown great and strong. Today, the free people or the world are looking to us for the moral leadership that will unite them in a common purpose. The free nations or the world ar? counting on our strength to sustain them as they mobilize their energies to resist Communist imperialism. We have accepted these responsibilities gladly and freely. We shall meet them with the sure knowledge that we can move forward ·• ‘\ • • • STATE.\illNT BY THE PRESIDENT, MAY 22 1 1950 Page 2 • in the solution of our own problems in accordance with the noblest of our national ideals – the belief that all men are created equal. Judge Fahy and the members of his Committee have been unsparing in the time and energy they have devoted to their mission. EveI””J A.?erican who believes sincerely in the language of the Constitution and the .Declaration of Independence owes them a debt of gratitude. This Report is submitted as the United St£tes Senate is considering a motion to take up a Fair Employment Practices Bill. The work of the President’s Committee on Equality or Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services shows what can be accomplished by a Commission in this admittedly difficult field. I hope the Senate will take this Report into consideration as it debates the merits or FEPC, and that, as I urged in my state of the Union Message in January, it will permit this important measure to come to a vote • • • • \ \ ‘,_ THE WHITE Housg July 61 1950. F?hy: On July 26, 194?, Executive Order No. 9981 created t;.- ? 2r·csitlent1 s Co::i-ni ttce on Ec:u:”;li ty of Treatment and 0:.-,01•t\_mity in the Arr-,, cd 3ervicos, and on Dcptei,iber 18, 19,·i’:::, you, o.:; Ch£lir:1t:..n, and six ot.’-ier mc:::bc:-n vere desig• n; t;.? tc ;;,:r·.ro on this Co:mni ttec. On May 22 1 1950 1 yo1:1 p:r::.>>i,r.t·.·d yo’J.r Report to r:tCJ, ti!’tc I ha.vc read with much int•::T(i:;t and s::.tis.fnction of the proJro:;? th;0.t hris been r.t:;de in the J.. r?”ced Service? under your Cor;iini ttce• n gui<lanco. I note tb:::.t the substance of the lloport is that tL,.! :;r-;:::s,mt yrogruris of the three Services aro designed tc r:u.:cc:?;:,lish the objectives of the President; ?nd that ‘·” :·,- · .. – (:> . ..,.,,. -.,;, ,..,.. ,. ,. ?ri:. C ., , . .,.., ‘-d o· ..?h 0re ., •ill’ b”‘ “” …,’l,.,1n , … _ ;,,. .. ;C?””J- 1:-·…\.1?.:.•t.-;.., .. ..:, a ¥ t. …… &. .:..’- ,, W””-\.;i rt ?, YiJ..l.rJ.! t; .. ,:: :r:?;..:.::o:n.tibly near fu turc > cqu?li ty of trca:t:1ent and o:., .o:i:-‘;;u.ni ty in the Ar,’.’ied 5crv1ce?, with a consequent i::· ::n·over:.•’Jnt in nili tar:r efficiency • Th? necez:;ary proc·ra, 0 ?s having be<m adopted ., I fc,..:l :;:i:,t. t1H: Ar:::cd Sc::rv::..(;i::..: should now have an oouortuni ·;:1 t• · 1.,·0r}: o? t in det:::.11 the :?rocBdures ‘Which wili com- ?.L· ·,’-,· . .,..}, ,…, ,??.-… )” “‘o c., …. e· f'” J. “‘ 1 • ., in· it1•,tr.,d by t”‘e Co•,?u-? tt=-e iJ i_,t,.,? \.1-..1,\.; -v-, . .;i ,’i’ ‘–• .. v… -.,1 ,&. u \;.- “‘” ? -? !1.a.. t;;;: • li.c,::;ordingly, I U!n x·clievinG the Cor:i::ii ttc0 of its as signr’r.ent ,,3 of tcday ., while I ,:r,, nt the sarr,o tine., lei1Ving in effect Executive Order No. 9981. At sono later date, it ::2.y prove desirable to cx:1::1.ine the effectuation or your Co:1′ li ttfic 1 s rcco,-:;.:;cndations .:, which can be done under Executive Order No; 9981. You and the I!lenbers of your Co:rrni ttce have perfcrned an outst,md1ng service to your cotu1try. Tho care ant:: skill with which you approached this probleri have hel:;cd tho Services take 1, ,portant steps townrd the realization of our nr,tionnl ide.:ils. At this significant mo,-cnt in our l’:ution’ 3 hi:.;tory, we are able to draw closer tc;;eth(;r our pl”1nc1ples and our practices for the more er:·ecti ve defense of the cause of fro?dom. Ver·:l sincorely your:;, / s/ Harry s. Trtmum The .Honorable C:H?rles li’uhy Chnirnan, The Pre:!dent1 s Committee on Equnll t? of Trcat::tent and O,P.-:ortunity in the Ar,::r;,.J. Services 1.. 1Tazh:tngton 251 D. c. • ., THE WHITE HOUSE Washington September 21 1 1950 My dear Judge Fahy: Last May, the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services-presented a report to me, and I read with much interest and satisfaction of the progress toward equal opportunity that is being made in the Armed Services. I am glad that the Services are taking these forward steps, and I am appreciative o f the guidance the Committee furnished. I watched the Committee’s operations closely, and I wa s deeply impressed with its search for ways and means to bring about equality of treatment and opportunity throughout the three Services. Since the Report was submitted, the Armed Services have been called upon by the United Nations to defend the right of small nations to be free from aggression, and they have made a demonstration of improved military efficiency. The people of our country have shown that they are united in their willingness to accept this grave responsibility, and are enthusiastic in their devotion to the integrity of the United Nations. We Americans will always be eager to develop in our own lives the same ideals of human dignity and individual freedom we are so vigorously defending on behalf of the United Nations. The country is grateful for the work of this Connnittee, and I am particularly appreciative of your faithful service as Chairman. Very sincerely yours, /s/ Harry Truman Hono.rable Charles Fahy, Judge, United States Court o f Appeals for the District of Col)llilbia, Washington 1, D. C. ·, ….. • • • • October 16, 1957 Daar ?Ir. President: In accordance •with our recent correspondc ??ce there is going forw·aJ•’d to you today by RaihJay Express Agency a box containing a consider ?ble quantity of papers which accumulated in r:;y hands as Chnirman or your Cor.unittee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the f1rmcd Services. These arc in addition to the fil0s which accumulated at the offices or the t-:;tuff of the Com:.1ittce 1n the Pentagon.- I hnve initiated some inquiries about the poss1- bili ty or the latte1″‘ also being lodged 1n the archives building which you have established 1n Independence and hope that eventually this can be done. I ru:i mighty glad t.hat you are willing to receive the pi ·ars which I am sendir!6. I hope you are in good health and are cnj oying this lovely season of the year •. My kind personal regards and best wishes to you 1n al+ things. Yours s1nce;-ely ,· ?? The Honorable Harry s. ‘l’rur’..an Independence r.!issour1 .. • ./-. • HARRY S. TaUMAN Independence, Missouri February 3, 1958 Dear Judc;e: Your contribution to the Library came 1n good shape and those papers will be placed 1n the files where they will improve the historical background of 1r:hat was done. I am as sorry as I can be that we have been so slow in acknowledging their receipt. I talked to Dr. B?coks about them this morning and he tcld me they have been received and that they Were stored in my private locked file room but that they eventually would be indexed and placed where they wculd do the most gocd. Hcnorable Charles Fahy 5500 Chevy Chase Parkway Washington 15, D. c. Sincerely yours, /s/ Harry S. ?uman ..J •.. • • • :’-r:-./:? v. !’e11::.1::. Gre:,rhouncl Lines, ,?– y• ?- -…r ?acific If rr ,–J_ ‘_, . ?:’_:-:·?.::. Cruz Fruit Packing Co. v. ?-? ?——. – ,.,;…i. •’., v. 1?acka::r nadio Corp., 301:- Inc. ‘ :1 ,._rr .,.-..,;”‘ l·.:..u?., .. .:.,’ .,._ -, l,:. ;.::,, • 303 303 303 ‘T t1 o s. 2Gl y. (‘ \. . ..,. 272 ” (‘ J’ ,–, VO ….. “-,•.J.:J Co:1soliclated Edison Co. of l’rY v. NLP…’3, 305 U. S. 197 ::,’ccrna tional Brotherhood of Elcc. ‘ifor!?s., et tl. v. NLPJ3, 305 u. s. 197 ::Co1·cl Irotor Co. v. NLrrn, 305 u • .S. 364- .. ? . .,, v. Fa..’1.stcel 1 Ictallurrical Corp., 30G U. NL:?.n v. Denjamin li’ainblatt, 306 U. S. 601 1:1:·_?; v. ?;e-s:-,port Ne?·1s Shipbuilding & Dry Dock, 308 U. S. 241 ?rr.:?-? v. ?r;idford D:;reing Ass 1 n, ct al., 308 U. S. 318 dj:1erica11 Federation of La?or v·. ITLf?B, 308 U. S. 401 r!i?.J v. Intcrna tio::ccl ?:?0·::” crhoocl of Electrical :forkers, 308 u. S. 4-13 :’L:?;:; v. ‘:.’l:e Falk Co?·:)., 30:J U. S. 453 lS?0 Terr ; – lssistunt Solicitc? General I?. J. IIcirtZ Co. v. l?L??, 311 U. S. 511!– :::’J?C v. Prn·Jence Securitic s ?\.dvisorT Groun. -:i., 1 n • • • 19/.-2 Terr:1 – S0l:i.cit0r General ‘.i7 ckard, Sec. of .\l!r. v. ::loscoe C. Filbun1, 317 U. S. 111 – , ? (,,;4,,0l:J¥”-‘­ \.rl3.r1s ·v. lfcCann, 317 U.S. 26? :-::-H)ch L. Johnson v. U. s., ?c1m Dairies v. r’.il’.c Control3 1C8 oUm,m .S, .3 1188 9 U.S . 261 .. Paci fie Coast Dairy, Inc. v. Dept. of Agr. et al., 318 U. S. 285 :’,j:oatliuGJonbi:1.1a ::Jroand casting Con. vv.. United States, 319 U. S. 190 11 n 319 U. S. 190 ;?enneth Dender v. ?vickard, 319 U. S. 731 ::riraba:rashai v. U. S., 320 U. S. 81 _ ?-t<,vi,(,j- Yl’lailsrl!ii amv. SUch.Snei.d, en32na0nU v• ..S U.. 1S15. , 320 U. .. s. 118 19/3 Ter,1 – Solicitor CBneral ?UJ.ic kS . Fva.l bJo ovse.p Uh .H . Dotterueich, 320 U. S. 277 s?, State of California, e3t2 0a ul.. vs.. U54.9S . et al., 320 u. City of Oakland, etc. v. U.S. et al., 320 U.S. 577S . 577 YRaotktnesn vbe.r Ugn, iteted aSlt.a vte.s U, .3 21 U.S. 414 s., Tennessee Coal, Iron & 321 U.S. 414 321 rm Co. v. Muscoda Local #123, etc., u. s. 590 U. S. v. James P. Mitchell, 322 u. s. 78 65 u. s. u. s. van. d BHaelslatra d:,M ac3h2i2n Ue .CSo.. v. 322 u. s. 174 County of Allegheny, !Cfaarrltz Wel. vBa.um Ungiartetnd eSrt, at3e2s2, U.3S22 .U .66 S5 . 680 ls,:-?- Tern – Solicitor General :ZXFre pda rTtoey osEnabduo,r o 3K2o3r eUm.Sats.u 28v3. United States, 323 U.S. 214 UCo. rnS .P vr.od uCcommts odv.or Fe .P aTr.k C, .,3 243 2U4 .U S. S. 3. 876 26 ?”‘-“‘ HCr. amCelra uvde. SUncrietewds S, etat-taels,. v32.5 U U. . S. 1 -? :-.mbassador, Inc., et al. v. U. Ss..,, 332255 UU.. SS.. 9311 7 :’.c1.rry Dridges v. I. F. \-fix.on, etc., 326 U. S. 135 i-r ,., v. ::, • 58 F. Supp. 408, 2d 416 .(1/27/45) • • • . – … ,1 ERRATA The house in Rome and the present Store Building were not both built in 1893. The Store was built in 1895. I think 1893 is correct for the home. (p. 2) The priest whose discourses had primary responsibility as far as we know for Mother’s conversion was not a Dominican but a Redemptorist – Bishop ( ?-) Gross. And the discourses were at the Opera House. I say that Philip Levy was then with Senator Wagner. This I think is a mistake. He was on the old Board staff and in that capacity assisted Senator Wagner. He remained with the new Board as a valuable lawyer, later, however, going with the Senator. (p. 90) At p. 93 “Reed” should be substituted for “Jackson” as Solicitor General • At p. 305 the meeting there referred to is mistakenly placed in September. It was December 27, 1949. The name “Armstrong” at p. 302 and p. 306 should be “Major Fowler”. In the Index the reference to “Armstrong” at those pages should also be “Fowler” • . -••>,vtf\,