Dc,ar1111ent ot tne . Interior, Waabington
41 Jtr1t Aadatant Sollo1tol’ l:o. the Inter1ol’ l>eparlmenl I’ll 4ut1e• l.11-
clwt.8′ lniian affair•, queation• ari11nc in the Geeral Lall4 Office. \he
lleolau.Uo11 Sen-toe, the Geoloclcal hne7, •Uer1 affecting lliniq looation••
oll lea .. a, aD4 \he like, and u. oocaaional probl• in \he •ttonal
Park S.moe. SooJl, boveTer, uader tu lmpao\ of the leti•lative progru
of the Pr•ticl.ent, the \radi\ional obaraoter of Interior oban,ed.. Seoretal’7
Iclcea wa• -put in obarce of the public wo rk• progru; but v• of ,he Sollo1-
tor’ • titaft ha4 11 Ule to do with \hh, a4Titing \he Secre\al”J’ o,nl.7 occaaionally
1a the toniaUve period. of thla procram. Mr. J.d\ll&rd B. fole7. la\er
Un4•r Seore\ai,- of the !rMtul’J’. w.1 general ooun .. 1 for P. w. A. ‘fun
were other aoUv1’1H, tnoludtng aw grating leglalaUon vhioh ‘became e.
111ntf1oaai 4t·nlopmeat for tu cattle ooutq • and 1a a ld.JIOJ’ fath1on. ve
helpt4 10aevhat Dr. Ai-tmr Mor,aa aJMl Mr. Da’rid liUien,bal 1n ,u plaam.ag
1tage1 of ffA.
I wa• aot cleepl7 in…-olved 1n Uw opinion atteeUnc :Ilk Hille, or Seotioa
36, but reviewed the opiaioa beton 1 t wae lined. It •• prepare4
prl.aoipall7 a, I recall ‘b7 Kr. feltord !a7lor. wi\h Sollo-ttor Jfar?l4 gi:d.nc
much per,onal attention. to 1 ,. Re’riev of order, vi?rawiq public lam
from eatr7, and tho1e affecting reaer,ation•, •icht alao be mentioned •

– 74 –
1. !he htroleua Admiai•traUve Joard.
!he –•r of 1933 wa• the aoe\ a.0th·• perio4. la the 1hort lite et tbt
XattoMJ,. Ja4uttrlal leoo••17 Ao,, ‘U4er whioh hmral Bqh lolmsoA ••
tor.-iaua, ood.ea wl•b 1n4utl17. C>ae of tu aoa, uiponaa\ code• wa1 ?of
th,,. pell”Olewa ln.d.111’17. the. P:redlen, 1eleotecl Secre\a117 tcltet to e.4•
111n1:1\er it. ‘fhi• •• the onl.7 cocle for a la.1-c• lntlue\17 ahinieteNA out•
li4e the lecoTer, MaiaittraUon t taelf.
S.or•la1’1 Ioltet 4eo14t4 Iha\ a f!l’0\11> in tu Solloi hr’• otfic• tllouli
‘be U• rip\ ara ta aud.ai1tel”la, the Code. le orea\ed. tb(t PetJ’Ol .. .A4-
ldal•tra\1Te load., with Maiwo14 •• Cbainu, ••elf a, Ttoe Ohainu.,.,
Jrovar4 Mar9hall, •ol’Mll M7ert, Jeha w. rre,, aa4 Jllwar4 ». lvaaton •• -ber•.
Dr. ‘hq and Mr. 8wan1on were oil expert• – haa1oa, of ln\eriol’,
one ot \be couat171 • torUDtt ta p1’0clucU011, &Ill Dr. h-,, a like av.\hori v
in •nettnc •• well a, in other braacbe1 of the in4ut17. MaJ>thall u4 ·
M7er1, altbough they had hlld. lU\le praoUoal uperle»oe 1n the oll buai••••
had. -4• •o•• apeolal ■tu.lea. 1 ba4 ao ei:perieaee of ur, 11p1f1- ·
ou.oe ia 11- laclua\17, ut l bell••• utlber W. Marcol4.
la \he tol”‘ll&U.’Ye petlo4 et ‘he Oode, <l•rlnc tu ftllller of 19U, wl.,ll
••• Wlcaa\loa that per.up• 1 t •• lo o••• to la\vlor, v• ba4 a1el1tei
,he lleco••J’T AulD11tratloa, parUmlarly ‘4th Ntpeol to the pro4-otioa
control prcYiaiona. !he Oo4.• which alao aoaialne4 detailed. arkeUnc aa4
ref1Aing pN’Yiaion•. va• a.a efforl on the pai-t of ihtt 1D4u8’1″1, in coll&-.
boratlloa vi th the P••J’••’• to eliminate utalr a:14 ateairabl• 0011pett …
UYe pracUo••· 11: wa■ 4eltped. to ah.bills• the lad.u,,17, t:hea 1A a eouvba\
oriUcal con41Uoa. ‘fhte oond.1Uon grew ou\ of tracle praoUCMte ia
• :part, bu, pr1-.rll1 wat due to ezoeedve p1″04.uoUoa which tlooderl \he
– 75 –
•n•t with cl”‘Qde oil. panloularly •bot” oZ’Ud• oil, -prinoipall,- ti-o,a ·?
••1 !eat oil tlel4. vhen 1t -• prot\uce4 ln nolaUoa ct q,ao\aa pN•?rlbed.
by ,ie lallroa4 Oolllll••ioa of ‘•••• ,u Staie NC\llator7 ‘bod.J’. Ihle ••bot
011• wutermtne4 lh• prtoe of crude, wllb ,t•••1on• throu,beut \he la-
4u.1t17. The lfa.Uonal ?nd11.8’1″1al Reoon17 Act oon\a1ne4 a apeolal :r,rondea,
Section 9 (o). 4etiped ,o «s,ve the federal p•rern-.nt oon.tnl OTel’ •ut•
oil. lt pro•1de4 1n t\1.betuoe Uel the Presideat could J)J’Ohl\lt the \ran1-
1er\a\ioa 1n la\el’1lal• ooaene of oil prod110K · ln nceH of \M U01Ull
&1dborile4 \7 •••• npla’cf’F law,. One of •v pnbl•••• parall•U.111 \be
a4al.A1t\raUoa of the Otu, •• \o edoa-oe tbla pro?ltlon of the .lei.
there•• alao ••• cru,U&l iapl’OTeila\ in cu.eral oon4tUona, ht l
think ,he adat1l11\n.’1on et S.oUoa 9(o) and ot the Oocte, la oolla’ioatloa
• with ,? .Plamdag and. Ooord1aat1ng 0oa1 “” ot \he lnduet17 helped •\
‘UDdtr the ieooft17 Aol a nolatloa ot a Oo4• pron.ion •• a onal-1
oftea1e. la a4d.1Uoa. \lier• wae a.u.taletraUTe eaforoeaent tb.rowp. tile ••?
oall.414 IJlue lacl•, • vhtoll 1 ‘hi* plqet a alplftcaat par,. h\ I 0.-.1
gift a ••rJ fair appalw ot ,he “Blu •cl•.• Perbape U •• ,.., pa?1-
alarl7 1aponaat ta Ille oil ln.dutq. t do naalter ,u., Geae1″al leha1ea
an4 hi• aAai:a1ttrahra atlrl’butet a poet 4•1 ot l11ponuo• ‘• lt ta.
geaeJ”&l. !here ven ••••• ln e’f’e?7 tow. aa4 people beoue llv.e II.cl•
ocu,.t1olout. It vae a ••17 ua.nal 1>•r1o4. Iv.I 1 t beoaae ,.,..,.1 ‘beoaue
con.41 Uona were 10 4eepera\e.
Co11pliuoe an4 eatort.e:n.l wen alto o\taiae4 ‘b:, pro’rl.eloaa la pflm..
, contract•. Ant \here •• pol1o1a, of Oo4ee by inclut17, Yhioh w.a per-
• ••d•• but “1 thout the eaacUoa of penal Ue1. laforoement effort• were

– 76 –
al10 •d• at ti••• in the court,, by wits in equ1t7 to re•trai.n. Tiolation••
and bf criminal protecuUone. I bell•T• l arcued the ttr1t caae to restrain
a ooo.e ‘riolation, here 1n the hpre• Oollrt C>f the Dtttl’ict of Columbia,
before JuUoe Ad.ltlnt.
‘l’he “hot” oil problem we et,t’bborn. It va.1 difficult to dense a
method of prevenUng 1 ta lateretate •hil)ment. We drucgle4 and eXperia.JittlCl.
11nal.1T v• formulated the 11 !der Plan, 1t under vhich, 1n ai?le tel’Jll• –
althou«h adld.1111,ra’\lon •• 0011plicated. — the tra1u1portatloa oo\lld be pre••
nted unleH the oil was aoooapanie4 ‘by a 10-oalled temer, or pw111t,
vhioh had the app,ow.l ot a tender ‘boanl eet Up ‘b7 the coYenaeat 1n east
Texas. rue •1etea aotuall7 beoaae effeoU”Ye &Ad “hot’ oil vaa brought
Wider OOA\1’01.
Parallel vi th the•• effort, 11 UgaUon aroae in east fen.a and in the
Dittrlct of Ooluaib1a. o•er the ftl.idi t7 of Seotioa 9( o). I def ended the
first· oaae before Juttice Coz here in th@ Dlttnct ot Columbia. It ••
under the JecoYH7 .let, tilctcl by \he Pana.a lietinlng Oompaq a,alnat the
Secretary of Interior to eDJoia the enforcemeat of hi• reculaUoaa Wlder
S•oUoa 9(o). Plaintiff 0011teactecl Ible pn’rieioa YAI an. \UlOOn.att.tu.’1.onal
d.elecattoa of lepalatf.•e pewer to the executiw. Ju,Uce 0oz denied ibe
1ajuoUoa, but a, ve shall ••• ihia was aot a penaUAt ‘rictory.
S!lbHqUenUy, the same and othe1’ coJRpantes instituted dmilar litiption
1n the Uait6d. States Dieh1.ot Oourt in eaa\ Tent, tome of which
eTenluall)” reaohed \he St,ipreme Court. ‘1’be SupNlle Oourt cleclarecl hotioll
9(o) to be unooneUtuUonal, with a di11ent only \7 Ju.atloe Cardoso. !’he
ba.•1• tor the 4ec1e1on va,e laclc of ad.equate standard• preacr1’bed b7 Ocagr•••
• to guide the exeouti-ve, the legialatioa thus amounting to an Ul’lcon.-1’1.-
– 77 –
Uo.1: 4tlep.\toa of leclala\h•• power. PtMIA hOAIAC 09. v • .Bua, 293·
u. •f •.(193′). l ••• alwaJ’• thoqa\ ta\ ,u cU,11ent •• .ow.Ml. · ·.
),.za :., aaaU••• ht.Tine worked ou\ thi• tuder boar4 plaa. wlllch ••C:; . ? ,,, .I – ,, _,. · · · , –_ c:.-,. 0_-_-·,,–.?_ /·
? . . . ·? nci?••tul• ?• aov aikecl Oo».&n•• tor leg18laUoa to i-eplaoe hetlon 9(•)”
of tMlteco••17 .A.ct. Ia reepoase Congre11 paasea the Ooually Ao\, o
called ‘because 1pon10Nd ltr Senator fo• Ooanal.17. It waa aa uopUon of
the ?••r bead 17etea. Iw •• eMCted o1’1glullT a, te?on.J7 lteit1la,101t,
1″1.\ l lteU.eTe •• beoe• part of the per••••’ lav ot the Vatt.t
s, …….
Got-, baok to the •ool4 • at 4l•tlnot t1″0a 1hol1 oil, ,q ovn part took
a an. Ma1Weld oeuutn.t.. •r• •• •r• ell tu ceaenl lecal won of
the ».p.,.., aa4 I oa oil Oode aad Ooa.ul.11′ Aot probl•••• So 1, •• 4•–
• o14e4 l tlw,ul.4 become ehainaa of Uw boari., aul I ‘Wilt la that pod Uoa aa4
tor so•• tiae lad ‘bHa d.en\irac ••’ ot a, Uae lo oil, when the hhtfh\tr
caae •• deo14ed. la 1935, wtac al.l ood.••• .295 tJ. S. 49& (1935).
la the uan\1• l Ud.dc l t talrl,- thoul.4 be •ld the oll lnd.ue\q
r••W. a, .. ,.. of •ta\111t7. 0.rtablT at \lie U• of IQMIMtt. tbe la•
4u\J7 •• •Gh b•”•r ott ,i.a wlaea \he Code •• a4opte4 ta li33. l• •••
lie r• .. •NCl ,na, ‘1ae p’UJ)o•• of the Oote prnttloa• of the la.Uonal :S.­
co••rt Ac\ ,i,ae \o aHlel 1a rea’b11Ua’1n.c ialuet171 vh:loh vae in 4J1•i
!be period wa• one of great effort thnucbout Watld?oll. 11’reaell4oua
en.erct, v1 tllo•t rqard. to per••nal ooaton or llo,a.n of “°*• was •2P••..
bf cnenaent per•oaa•l• anl. alao ltT 11111:a.atn. ftie JMlOft of la\enoi- ••
et-i,ped ‘9 appreoiab17 beoa.ae ot aw re99oaai\1llUea •• the efton to

– 78 –
illJ)?”• ?oaoaic CQnd.it1on1. There wae u.n.sparing use of iiu and. abtl.t.t7,.
vit!:\(:i … t ace••• to ,he Secr.etar, am, when the oeca,toa Nqllirecl, – ,i.
l …….-..n vell one oonlereaoe vl\h •he Preaideat wlliob. Mr. Ioke• ft’•
aoco\’d.1q to -, ow recollectic11. ?u fb1ng of a 111».lt.ma prloe tor <JNd:ef
oil•• ‘Deina 111eriouel7 oonddere4. !he matter •• cl1tcuee4 wi\h the ,.,· -. ‘
P-r••?•••\Jtben he wae about to leaye ,ow. for aoae pul’po••• f1’e coateN.
•• a.: •1?d’aotor,- oae. fhe P.-ed4•a.t gave 111 hi• approm if we tbotach’ :,,
prio..,.flslnc both neoea1a17 U4 lep.l.
· l• hi• ooa.dd.e:raUoa of a ooapln probl•• llk• thl• the Preatcleat aaAe
a 4e-, illpnaa:lon oa ae. l Mffele4 at his 4ft”P ot OUI’ pantoalar pl’Gbl••
k.eowi.11« how J1aD1 other• u wa, ooptn, vi th at th• tlae. Be n• no, lmffiecl
o1′ JMu,u,eed. EY817Where ta V..ahimgtoa there wa• l’JaffY Ou.a, except at \ru.
• of:fiees. ‘Phare one •••med to aoTa lato a 4ittereat a\1101phen.
41Ue\er &ad. wt. th better oi-pat.u.Uoa. Oae f•l t aa a,IUJ’Uc• the Pre,t4eat
w.a •C\Ul. to hi• tau, vUltac u4 all1• to llak• 4ec1 •1••• udna aftt.llllll?
hely,lnat aot faUia, to ••– N1poadlillt7, o•••tac ooaf14eaoe la Jd.• ,
a\1l1t7 •• ….,. Uie «r•’ otl1oe.
lto aot remember that the Pi-••ideAt oo–•• oa the !Qprea• Oolμ’t
an-1′ the ,…., d.ecidoa. •• he d.14 afler Bcheohter. i. wa• probabl7 JIOI
\rollbl-4 .a.l>out \he Oourt, tor Section 9 waa onl.7 a eepeat of the Jeeon17
Aot. a,ru1 ao 4ou”bt ve were able — altaou«h I d.o ao\ r••••r thia J>&l’Uoa•
larly — lo Na■aure hia, if he •• coaoes•1.u1d, ‘1111\ tlut tlh&Uoa could. ‘be
re-4te4, a• U •• by the OollD&l.17 .4.ot •

– 79 –
!her• va, eo111e relatton.ship ‘be,ween our ioal’d and Dowd l.U.chberc.
Jla?l 8mtb aad o•ner• in ,he lepl aecUoa. ot IRA, bat it watt 1n,1,e4
, .,- C • •
at,?i lhlJ Phti4ent appi,,Te4 tile Oo4• and S.oreta17 loket became it• ?a …
;,:,:·,-_·, .
%’\. vae lneTltable tha• the ftlldi t7 ot the oode1 would be teated ln
coul”t. · We tel.I that t? Petroltma Qode WA-EJ the moet ta”f’Onl’ble, vehicle for
thitt ted. Primarily the au.tbo:rtty of Oongeet to au\hor1se ‘he cod.11 rea\ec1
u,e• 11• oo••?oe power. ftMt pe\relftll indu,,r:, at a whole ud in 1 ts
pari• va• ‘• a gr$al exto.t aa 1ateratate 1mlu•’l1′ ,;Uh a \reseaume l1.t11•-
1tate tlo.v e>f oil •”4 1,, pl’Od110t1. !he Nib ••••• ta eaet !nae, taTOl.Yllil
a n.ola.tloa ot the pro4’1.0Uoit pro1’ll10Ju1 ot \he Ooc!.e. lt bad been d.eold.el
bf the Dla\rlot Oourt there 1n 1934. •• t recall, e.a4 oould llaTe cone 41-
reotl7 lo ,he Supreme Oovi, •• we ,.bought, undfJr \he criminal a-weal•
atat<ote. Ve reoo•endet to AUoru1 Geaeral Eoaer c.uta.ge ,hat he u1e tu
••• tor •••ling the coaatttu\1oul quetion• of the Beooveey Aot. fie
call.a a ooateraoe ln the 014 Depanaent of lu•ttoe on Veniont !veaue.
Ir••••’ ••n a.u?r lolt•rt Ya.per, \he lecida\lTe av.tbor of the leco.••17
Aot, Mr. leffM J’na, vbo va• ti.a, l ‘belieT•• •••n.1 ona1el ot tu 4A4.
?•-..l lollnH•, Kr. ltolib•l’I• Mr. •rol4 Stephe••• wlilo va• U»n head ot
\he Aati-\n1t DiT1•1oa of Ute ».,an•nt of l••Uce, loltcUor 0.1\enl
:Bin•, ltoo••••l t• • fir•’ Solloi \ol’ O.neral. aJl4 Marpld. Mar1hall, HJ•r•
ana a,e.3.t ho• ta\ertor. Maybe Mr. l3laokwell S•ila •• then, and 1 •1
W.- 41tO’OHH liUgaUoa :,01107, and. o,r reOo11Mn4&Uoa vas no, tollov.a.
the Attorner haeral •• Te’r7 lboughlhl. aad oon•111erate of ou.r
– 80 –
• definite tugcest1011,. :rn•eferrtng to leave ,he atter to the lawyen. S.aa’c
r lfacner .Ok pretty auoh the aaae :po•1’1oa. the ceneral feellq va,
tba\ 1t w.a be\\er ,o let the 004•• operate loqer ud pia DION ))\t)lt•.,.•- – .
– ?

oeptpce \eton 0&1T111C to the 8apNu Oovt \he oon.atUuUonal llttpUon.
l ‘i?b,i\h1• •• a wroq 4eeleloa.
w-.a the IAMAAltZ ••• cue OD we tel\ that ov ·deve o’btaia.e4. to•• ·
••rlfioaUon. ‘!he tlelq put the control of the lUtgaUoa tn ha?l.d1 other .
,bu.Ill. ,overnaet’•• fu ••• ••cbed the hpNU Oov, u4es- ut’a?Ori&bl•
11 u.,uen o1rou•taao••· taotvUhetan.dlnc the &OT8rAIHUlt bed pl”fl’all’4 ta
the Olnnd.t Oovt. l me\ a44, boY8’f’el’, ,11at tlle 1ue relU.l.t Id.gill.., •.
come about la aa, ff♦at. One oannot ..,- tbat in the end. the liUpUoa
pollc,r we pl’eter,Nll volll.4 ••• b”• n.ooe11M. ol’ vo\114 have \u.eti te4 the
00.\27 aol”e t.ball n•n\uate4 •
. Af\el’ kbeoh,tar the vork of the oil adld.nie,n.Hoa w,e largely a cleanup
am noonlinc tau:. aal a ooa’1n.11atlon of the control of 1bot” oU in
east. ‘fie••• .wh1oh w.a mot affected by hka’tl•
; fll• ♦esoa •••• aa well a, Ui. bmae ••• under SeeUoa 9(e), …… w
the hpnae Ooun l»don Sq)wmte;r. MIMI ant• 1n ead feua Ull•r the
pro4ll0\1ou p:ro’tiaioat ot \be Ood.• u.4 eaae ,o tu lapreae Collrl fn• \lie
Clrftl.t Court of Appeal• tor tu ftnh 01Nllit. at, in the lapr•• 0n.i-,,
111 oo•traat vi.th the oovae of nenta ln the 01rcuit Court, where Ule ce>••n••••
bad,· ncoff4e4. the •••• w,a :aot dec14e4 on coa1tt\ut10D&l gro’Uld.1 wt
oa \be croud tlaa\ there W been an uen4a.at to \he Oo4e relaUag \o pro-
4ao\1?• v)lich olli \\eel a pro’fialoa 1n the original Co4• 4eeme4 ee■eatlal lo
Jlldlelal en.foroeaent of tu :produotlon control■• hMM hfiliM Qp. •·
.Ima, 6ee,01 f•lrAlfWP ,.. JDa. aga u. s. ass (p. 210) •

– 81 …
. 1 tbiiak l tbould ••1 tbat we in In:tserior, vbo were l’eepon.tble fol’ the
dra.fUn, 4ef•o’ la”t’OlT.S., thola.gh’ the ca•• wat not -properly pre•e».\84 •. It·
we.a ou •1•w tbat ae • matter of a\atuto17 ooaatnotion the ao-oalled •at.••-
1nc• para.1n.ph vae aot Jlleeln,c at all but reM.tn.eA a part of the Cole ln the
UffndiDC proc•••• at reflected in the caplet of the Code in •••• Ve tel t
that, along with tall disclowre to tbe Oour\ ot the aoourat• faote a’bo\lt
th• matter wb.ea awareaeas ot the probl• aro••• the cate ahoulcl haTe 1′?,
1troncl1′ pnaented on tlle theory Uat the entoroaent proYlt1oa had zaot be••
o.111 tted or npeale4 1>7 the •o-calle4 1oaltdea. 11 I t:boQChl tbat O’U’ reeearoh.
the beuf11 of which w p.n ,u hparaent of Ju•U.oe ta a IMJ!Ol’U.d.u,
wau•,-attcl th1• poat Uoa. ht acaln n.r Tlewt were aot aooepte4 ‘b7 Uw
I>epartae11\ of lu1Uce. fhe eetablt.sllllen.t of the :Jeclen.l Bectder largel.7
grev out of ‘\hie ine14.ent, and. Ho.non.bl• larold. M. Stephen•• later Qluef
Judge of the Uai\ed Stat•• Oourt of .Appeals tor the l>tttrto’t ot Oolubia Oircuit,
ie enUU-4 to peat credit for that excellent d.nelopmen\.
At,er IAMtl\StJ: there va• ooaalcleraUoa of amend.in& the leco•er, la\ \ct
pro’f’ide \eUer ,ooi• wl\h which to police \he probl••• 1, •ouch’ te solft.
Ther♦ ven eoateJ”ence• at the Vh1 •• Jloue • wht ch 1aol’lld.e4 u, abo11′ a aew
1tatu.te. dra:tte of vb.ich were pnpared ,,. the leco••r”7 .U.S.ai ,,rattQ..
I \bi.Dk U la falr to u.7 in appra.leal of the lep.l quettiea• of the
period that ‘houch’tul lav.,era were troubled about the rult1cation• of the
cod••• -4 doubted tha11 all ot thel r pron alone ooul4 be euatalne4 ‘UCler the
Cou•r•• 01.au••• !we was alto q11e,t10D.1q. \bough p•rha:pe .1••• about
vhether the t\atu\e ,et up autflclen\ etankrdt to p.14e ‘h• ue011U •• in
foJ’Jllltlatlnc oo4••· there w.a a belief ta, it eon de\&111 of the •tatute
• and. co4ea ccnll4 not b• 1u.1tained \he 1tatute a• a 1tbole need. no\ be coademed.

– 82 –
‘lhe ‘i’e&l reaeon for the detail• 1a \he Pe\rol.u. Oode wae not prl•i-Uy
that’ t•. eo••l’JUlent viehH to eo eo far. ‘but thll t indua,l”J’ Yithecl to do •o• ·
:tt-eJ>tt ·.-. of ••• oond.eae4 practt.u• 001114 not “811411 be pn,htl>U-4 lt7
-• ·. ;·
. .
. ,’ . . -···
lav. It.le ·.1.nAuttrJ’ v1,w t:lw•• 4etalll ., p.14•• to tai1′ l)l’aoUaea.
·. ‘.Pu cod• effort — tAt-, ia likely to be torgo,\en wi \h the paHage ot
U• and all that •• oeovrecl eiace — wa, 1n aoo4 -part oa• of indu.etr,.
1 t••l.f ( Yltb ex-.pt1ou n-011 the an.ti trua\ lave am •••1 a’taaee troa 10Teraau:
O to rehablllta•• itself aD4 ‘• eliminate praottoet 1\ withed to ‘be l’lcl
ot. · •• ooacll Uoa• iapNT•• 1114llet17 becaae aol’e tel.f-ooatlde»:t, and. more
oonedous et po11tble 4.11&4Yalr\ap1 ot cl.o•• oolla’boiaUoa wt th eo•ei-uen,.
In4•t17 \teoaae tearlul. \h.1• w1&14 1-4 to aore ooatrol \baa •• 4eti rule?
It bego to 4raw baok. At the ‘1•• of IAMIMII’. l nppoee U it fall” to
9a1 that 1adea4 ot the ooiea b&Yinc obtaiud. gt”ea\er public aoceptaAce, ae
was boped. tor at tu lUiaaUon coatereno• w1 \h the At\orne7 0.neral, \bq
bad. beco• l••• popular w1 \h iadue\r,- aad. ,_ count17″ aa • whole. Wt th 1•proY4ltl
ooDAUioaa, illiu.ttry vaa •r• vllling to •b.n4 qaln oa u, ow f••••
s. Colleot1 ft Ba11&1aina ProTlaloaa
fl-.•. ooll•o’1•• ‘bar,a1Alnc pn,”1.atoa ot the oe4••• S.otioa ?(a) • ..-.lJ
‘be ••Uoaecl a• ot la1Uq •1calftouoe. Ooal.ng after the •:rp•ri•no• ptael
dvtac the Jt.re, WoJ>lcl War aad. v.n4er \he lallvq Labor .Aot, \hi• -pronelo•
bad. ‘P•r-..u\ lntlueace. Alter ltheth\tr ConcN•• pat■ecl Iola\ leaol•Uc,n.
lo. 4,1. a• a •-,1a1ng11 pl’OTleloa to pro\eo\ colleo\ln \arplm.nc an.a -­
plca7’ff 1.tt-orpntsaUoa. Aa4 oa 1\117 8, 1935, the ¥aper Aot it.elf?•-­
I \h1Jlk S.oUoa ?(a) •• reaNu’bl7 eftecU•• la \he petnleua 1duatq •
A sepa.rate auxilial’1’ board ln \he PetYOleu AcllllJd.atra’\ioa a4111n1stere4
thia pro’rition, und.er Dr. William Leieer■on1 an aadnen\ an ia the field. of

– 83 –
l8bor relation, who later became a aember of the la.tional Labor Relation•
:Board. Be had pined. pl’Ominence in railroad labor work, and alao ae iDIJ)a.rUal
ar-bU•r ot the garment indu1t17.
l am not Tef7 tef1nUe in ‘lfl1 :reoolleoU.on about the oil tnd:u.str,r• a
attitude tovardt Section 7(a). I bell•ve the induetr1 wai relatiTel7
friendly to it and. that oolleotiTe bar,al:ning graduall;r increased amon,; the
on co?aniea. Later, however. ume ver, ,171nc labor el tuation• arose in
1egmen:h of the ialustr,.
3. Harold L. Ickes
Ma-. la.ea pve great re9pont1b1lU7 to the CZ’OVIP of which l •• a JRHber,
tn.ated. ue, and looked \o ua tor aaaletanoe &Dd ad:nae. We responded
and. thH•e grew up a tin• r•latS.onahip. We could ••• him wheneTer Ye vhbed..
J’ro• Uu to Use there vere rc.uch epoh in the Depsr\ment. The S.creta17
hlut rehabll1 tated Mr. Loui • 0.la’f’i,, a1 i a well known, and bad brought hi•
into the Departaaent. where he be?•• a aort of npereleuth. Ve thought at
tim•a the Secretary was rhiDC hia \o.o 11\lch authority. Bat the proble•
vorke4 it1elf out in tlae, affll 1 only aentio• it in p•••l•«•
lclte•• a• 1• vel.l kaowa, w.a a lremendoue worker. unsparlnc of h1•••lf.
le va• deYo\ed \o \he Jtreaiclul – aotvl thetandinc ao•• eoauneat• ia hl•
diet”)” vh1ch, conliderefl alone and taken out of full context. are critical,
I as sure he bad a true fondue• for the Prea1dent, who pl•eed ao moh reapoa1i)
1lit7 on him.
leke• had a ooamon touoh and •• aoutel)’ outspoke a\ U11ee. One
co’t114 aot well agree vi th •••rrthinc he did or said. Bu, I a4llired and
liked. llim. and left the Department wi’\h regret and with gratitude for 1:arl.DC
• been able to YE>rk w1 th him. Some 1•r• later he reoouemed me to tb.e

– 84 –
Pre•,1tlent for appointment to the Supreme Oourt -.,hen 1 t aeeaed that Mr. Juatiae
Mu.!pby’ a1ght reflip. I never knew about thle until I read ht• dia17
publi;ehei .uien7 7ears later, “!’he Lowering Clouds.• p. 541. I Wl”Ote hill
then and had a very friendl.J respoz.ee.
I.ekes w.e Vf!J”ty anx1oia to b&ve .Agriculture, e.• Yell as ln.terlor, reorge.ni
zed. me wantM tblnge to be in Interior vhieh were in. A.gt-icul tu:re.
This was a aource ot conflict. And. he wae a showman. reneotinc perhapt hie
ntwtpaJHtr ‘background. I thinlt th! a iafluenced hie method a ln eontrovH’et•
:But l ?d no, sa7 he waa undiao1pl1Aec1. t think be new what !le wa• 4ot•
and ..-11 deliberate about 1 t. He va• a great defender of the Depa.1’tment and,·
1 ‘\s personnel.. At U.a•• thl., cauaect batU11 with other• — for exatllJ)le. hit
defense of I. lt. Burlew. One gets an ialdin, ot tbat 1n the d1a171 ‘bu\ Ye
knew it at thP. time. Sinoe our oil adminiatration vaa never ttnfter •e?iou.s
attack th•re •• no par\icule.r ocoawion for h1m to defend. ua in \he same
sense. But w• .k.nev he ‘WOuld do so in oaee of need. He •• proud of hie o.-pni•
tion .·ud stood by it. Of couree he 4.ema.n4ed lo18,lt7. but not more
tban h$ ahoul4; be••• too, ttBoa.ea\ Jfarold.” Be had 011. u4 ‘blllioa• of
doll.a.re for public works to epellA, aJ:ld he -., detemined there wo\ll.4 be no
Onoe our 011 gro,ip went to him ln proteat that Glav1a •• ta:ppl»c our
teleiphoi1e vi.Na. Our office• were located then in the old Leaon :Buildinc
acrou the etree\ fl’011 the main Interior bllild1ng. Ye wanted. him tG stop
the nonsen••• a• 11e ta’W U. But lckee said. \bat Glavis tapped hie vire1,
aad a• long •• be permi tte4 thlt he cU4 not \hink we oqht to obJeot. lie
would not ct-ve 1u a.q eati&faction. tater on, though. he ree.liHd. \here

\ria.8 too much of tha.t eort of thing and put a ,top to U.

– 85 –
I foUl:14 bim a triendl7 person, but vi th ,trong teelinc• about people
‘ ·· -. .
aa4 1th11110. le •• •o•U•e• urrpredlat&ble. He would be aake4. fo-r •–1•,
aa Ajad.nt1\i-.toJ’ of tae oil ood• to give u atctre11 at ao• tmportaa\ … ,_
·t.q ‘in. ,he oll 111Auh7. Be wa• liable \o Ao eaetl7 the oppoall• of vb&•

. one atgh, expect. le •• e:d:remel7 1a4epemen, and 1nd1T1dul.11Uo. 7et aa
excellent ad.ainittn.tor. 4♦vote4 to hia reepoali’billUea and d.etend.netl to
, .. that he «ot the wo:rlt done as well as he posliblT eould. Jte was o.rtalJll.7
ut ca1’t1••• no it ,mpi–41cte.ble a\ U•••
Afler l lilad. let\ latel’lor Seor•ta17 lclc•• aslced. .. aboat -, old la».\a
1• trUJ.d Joha I. (la.a) D.mpaq. •• a potti’ble Under S.oN\a.17? I -. ..
hi•• coo4 reoou-4atioa. I a111 eve 111 on ta.-,orabl• co-••• vel’e •’
oont?lliDI a• :0.,•eJ’ a’°°d well en hi• 011111 t .. , but the S.Oreu.17 414 vi.sh
my opinion •
‘lo,w1the,anAS.nc 1 aaw a ga.\ deal at him 1 wrrer i::uw tb(a Secretar.r
•• lteepin.g .- a TOluinous die.17 aa later vat pu’bl1•W• th&v«h 1
pnbabl7 kaev h• Y&• keepinc 11emoranda.
law Mr. lck•• a, horce\ovn BoepUal not long oefoN he tle4. fhe,agh
la ht• lae\ tllnel8 he w.a ••l’T al•n and ••’8117 enerc•Uo. Mn. loke•
lla4 .Uei •• lb.en •• a Olll”l”eat •”•” 1- vl1bed. to Wk •••r vi tk ….
l pthere4 u inU•Uoa \hen ot hl• 41al”1, ‘b1 a. reark M -‘• Uat a oer-
talA atter vat AOt IDMlUen..4 la 1 t. I u «iatl to baYe Md \hie lad ‘YI.tit
wt.th-, old friend. ‘•17 MOil dea\h NIIOYecl hi• tJ”Oa ta. …… where »> ha4
pl&7e! a ••1’7 1n41Yidual1,Uo and ulpful part – a ttronc u4 covacMUt
Aatt?tcaa when atnnctl\ a»A oo,race wen .. e4e4.
•tbaa Marcol4 naa1ae4 so•• 7-.r, a• Solicitor. Be •• u abl• la,qer
and a fln.e pe1’son. lot rel1eh1nc a return to private praotlce Jle hope4 for

– 86 –
, ,
\•r tome 7-.rs M&rgold wa, aom.lnated b7 Prelideat loo,ev•lt for a UaU4K\
Stat♦s Dh\riot Ju4&eah1p in the Dhtnc\ ot’ Oolubia, ba.t h1• no.uoa ·
‘>/:.- ‘
vat not reporW out \7 the Sen.ate lu41oiaq Couit\ee ‘betor• Ooacreu at-.
Journed and_ wa• not •e:At down agala. Be later a.ocepted. appeiatMn\, toir
whtch he wa.s con.ti r-ed, bo the Mun.ic1pal Ooul’t here. l 1tl’On,cl.7 wpportet ala
before tba Senate •boommittff tor the Didrlot Judgeship. le va• v-11
qualified for hi&b Judloial office lnl\ laborecl uder ,u Jiaa4.toap of …
llinndu-e\u4lnc of hi• 1uti·eoaallt7, tu.e to bd.i’ridul ol:anoteria\io•
vhlob. ba.4. ao relation to h1• hoaeat7, a’blll’T. lategl’l\7 or hi.ch •nl •• ..
acter. Jfe 41e4 eou v•n •eo. •till a 7oug 1m1.
I havtt aot ,eon Oolller mob 1a reoet yean. l recn\ to 97. Be re­
mained •• Indian Oolllll1H1oner to’l’ to11e ti•• ‘but •• mon reoa.U7 cle’NW
hiatelt tc ethnic aoti’d ties of • broader ecep•• thou.gb l aa 8\U’•• a\1U
alert to the welfare of the Iad.18.n. Perhapa it wae he ul”e \baa &J!.7 ether
oae pereon who •• 1’etponsi”ole tor rq Joutq the legal ataf:t ot latfflo.
ia the Spnnc of 1111.
!’he pwl>U,1hed optntone o t the Dapanunt of the Iaterior-1 “’17 l, 1932
– Septemb•r S>, 1934• are ln Vol. M. Deolsioaa or the J)-r,artaea\ of lhe
laterl,n•. pu.’bltebu. la 1935.
My wife oaae to lfaahlngton with Obl.rl••• .Au• aacl. Sarah about tvo
J1181ltha lat.er tbaa. I. in •rl7 auu.:-, 1933. We ttret took a hni•hM b.oae
o• Oxford s,i-.et 1D Oheq Ohtlae. Thh wa• 1014 duria, our oooupuq aad we
JIOTe4 late \he fall-,. TI.ala Apart .. ah, \haoe to Oourtl&lld Pl.ace, u4 after
that, 1a 1135, ‘° Mili\ar, ioacl, due which tt• we haft U,y.a, la »l••••
S&cre.ment Parish. About 1937 we ‘boucb., 3’i00 Jortbaiapton Street, aad la

– 87 –
194’1 our p r,Hent hoae, aeoo Ohevy Chau Pa:rkw.7. Ou?’ 70W’lges\ child. lifatJ
Agnes, was born 1n ‘Waehtngton in 193!. Our four Ghildren, Charle•, Ann•
Marie, Sarah AP•• and. Mary Apes, had their enUN p:r1ma1″1 •• ,t1’YM1’
achool edu(tation vUh the ioly Orou S1s\er1 at the 1chool of \he 111eate4
aa..-en11 Pariah. Moadcnot” S111,h was Pastor tlllUl bis death ln Mq• 1931.
We became good friend.e R.nd I lflls dno\od to hlm. t1p?n. bia du\h ve fom•4
a Ooaittee lo rain n parhh •emor1al fund in Ms bon<n•. ‘fhe “bront• pla?•
tn the t? ot the Ohu.roh, and the flu bronse buat of Moadcaor lll •ht
fohool., are ,he reeu.1\. In addition, we &a•• about $’1,000 to the Arcll’bl•-p
tor t? 11braq a, the aew A:rohbilhop OaMll Itch Sobool. Montil!M>l” a.jth
wa, a. remarka\le man. Re lo?e4 Ood. we a ltuild.er, a tn.e prieet alld our
ut.trinc &n.d fal \htul Paetoi-.
<Mr work took me ou, of ?vn aov and then during the earl7 perio4 la
lat e?or, to t,ler, !-.xa.1, or ltoua\on. on a case 1n oout, or on soas pm••
ot “.be>•• or eold oil. ta “la•hington 1helf the hours of vork wn loa, am
1 was not able to have 41nn.ttr :r?plarl;r w1 th Aca•• and the child.Na. Xor
va• Saturd&l’ a tne 4&7 ,hen. In ,u tw111er ve be?n to flP to \1ae •••h•
o».ee near Wildwood., oaH or ,w1oe to Je1Jw.v, 11r>re often to lehob&\h.1,aoh ..
A.en••• \be children aai l liked \hh “YeJ’f nch. A\ lle.bo’both ,be oh1ld.na
lla4 their J”>Un& friend• TisU 111 th•• at ti••• ‘We bad a oo\”8&e. u1uall7
for -. moa\h. fhoee were bapp7 d41″s ftcationtnc together.
MT brother Joe aad h1a taat’-7 vere 1n Waalli?on, lo• ln \tut oonahuaUon
engiuaring ‘branch of the Ye,.,… Ad.minhtnition; and Leo and hie
tamil.7 ven here then too. And Acne•’ aothttr IIC’ father were 1Ull liTlng
and her sister• and ‘brother were ln Waeh1ngton •

– 88 –
ff1″ mother died lebrwu7 10. 1934, at the old bo111e in Jome in the 74th
year of her lite. She died peacefully while 81 Uing in her rookinc chair
in hel” leJ’el.1 rooa on ‘1:ut second. noor, one window taoinc ea1t and another
eouth, b.1.Ch aboTe the ground with a aoft, beautiful rlew. Mothe1′ bad T1d·
ted. ua • few 110ntha before, when we were at Valley Vista J.,partmenh. She
made the round•• a• 1 t were, of her children away from home, and then went
home- to go f l”011 there to her reward.. In her later 7ear• she bad Hen her
chilcl?•n settle into their own livea. Her anneU•• aocord.in«l, leHeae4.
thcnich Ule7 ne·Hr completel.7 dl eappearecl I u Rre. She bad oonate.n\17
kept 1n touch with ue all, b1’ tai\bful leUer• a.DA oo<>aaional Tisib. !he
tn.nqu1l1 t7 &Jl4 ‘beauv ot her old.er ac• were enhaa.oe4 b7 her n.no,m,Uac•
in ioae, where Duke. Janie. Albert and Sarah. to meation onl7 her childrea
there. mdenoed ,heir devotion to bar. and she continued to reoe1Te \he
love and 1 h outward evidence• froa all ot us who were ava.r. though in ‘W/
oaee not enough. She reained active and 1n TerJ’ goQd heal th until the lat I.
Aa her cares d.eoreaae4 there ••••ed. a noticeable ablli t1 to turn aore Ml7
toward Goel and etenit7. Bert vat a bea.uUtul Jlaltb 11Utfeate4 in a beauUtul
Ute. She a11Wlld. IO well the ‘bard.en• of a good aolber to a large
faaU7. al\d. took the l1Tel:, later•••• of a 1004 0S.U1en in the life of the
aoa1Mmll7 u4 ••loa. She va1 4evote4 to JtT Ape• aact Agnes to her. I
ltnov 1ke was a bappJ aother when .I.pet beoaaie ay vife. Ber ow life it record.eel
ia imperlaha.ble lancuage amen, the lmortalt of Ter,1 Tel7 9Pecial
qn.al.1171 am lA the au,n-1•• allll hMrt• ot her cblldren u4 ooutl••• otun
vho new a-1 1oTe4 her •