– 15 –
4egree IN.rd.er•••· Al.0711ue IQ.laer, a olaseaate — he la\er returned to hit
ho•• 1a lu.la• — oame law the oa•• wt \h ••• The trial renl ted ta a ooaYio’
1oa wb1oh vat rnereed ‘b7 tbe Ooun ot Appeal•, where l t la nporlet a•
ltrebell T. VaileA State■, 41 App. :D. O. 3?3 (1918). Af\e:r ,ne rnereal
Mare-.11 plel p.ilt7 to mu1la,achter and reoei•ei a ta1rl7 light •••’•ace.
Aao,her 1atel’eet1nc esperleue in the oour,, waa a vtll coaltl’\10’1011. •••
which came to •• thro’G&h JtT coo4 tr1eJl4 lobn Ooaaoll7, a tonier ro01111&te, vl:lo
Ja4 cou •• to lo•. I\ aleo r•ohecl the Oovt of Appeal•• vhln:e 1, 11 repor,.a
•• lnYA •· loll•, 44 J:pp. ». O. 488 (1916).
Duiag tb11 period. ao 4.ueet1oa •ro•• la m:, alallll •• ‘° lhe ollolce ot -,
prof•••loa. the praoitoe of law ..p4 q etroq 4wot1oa, aad thie ••
war iua,iu,
Vhaa \he JS.re\ Vol’ld War bepa la AUCQ.a\, 1914, 1bor’17 after -, «nt•Uon,
l followed olo1el7 the eTeah of the per1c4 an4 ‘belle-nd. 1n the leadership
ot Preet4eat Wtlaoa. ‘both t.a hit 40•1’10 aa.d 1a,ena’1o•l ‘POllcl••· 11■
Pre■iiea07 \eoaae a hnlnc poia\ la nr nla\10J1t wt.tit tu othe1″ naUon.1 of
lbe vori.4. VJt.ea w entered. tl:le var la April, 1917, I felt v• ehould 4o ao. ?
grea \ co•’lroTer•1 la .Aaerloa about v!Mt,her Ger•a, Ol’ Jaclu.d vat ia \he right
1• largel.7 for,o\\ea. At tll.e Uae, hovenr, there •• 41aagreeaeal. SoM
tboqla\1 for eaaple1 that \he 0.r•a n.’baariae warfare •• ao aore lllepl.
\baA the colMltol of ‘h• lriUtb. l• \aklDC 0’11’ ftllell lalo pon au. ia\erfel”lq
vUh ou ,racte.- lfUtoa carafullJ approached tu whole M\\el” lA an effo’I’\ lo
\rill& al>o11\ a eolv.Uoa vt,i. .. , ov ea,el’lnc the val’. At J aav 1,. hovner. u4
a• I atlll ••• 1,, the laiter felt he coul4 punu hl• oo•r•• an4 we would
• da, oul, or tba\ he could. nacHcl ewn it ve oamt 1a — probablJ the toraer.

– 16 –
Whe:a 0erll11El.ll1′ declared wu-eat:rioted. eub1ariae wal’Ca.re aa4 becan to tiAk our
•hip• at will, without regard. to vbelher thq were paHeager or freight.
Wlleoa aeked tor a deolan.Uoa Iba\ a ■tate of W.l” exi•ted, the same requeel
Pre1ldenl ifftefllt •d• la 19’1 wua l•J)aa atlacked. us a, Pearl Hat-bol’. t
lhoucbl Wilson YG.s righl. a, l oonUnue4 to rep.rd hh leadership ta ,11e aoa-
4uot of our f’oreip at:faln. He va• hie ova Secretary of State, la e11eaee,
and proJ>erly ao in the otrcuttanoes.
Mo\her ba4 “oeea • claH•t• of ma Lou Axaoa, the ftrat Mrs. VUeoa,
vhea the7 wre ;yo? wo•n in Joa. Mra. Wtleo:n, who c1.le4 d.uinc the Pn•ilea\’
1 tb•at ten, l• bu.11.ecl ia ‘beauUtul MTrlle 1111 oe .. te17. 1fhu \he
Preatd.ea\ ‘brought her ‘° ••• to ‘be ‘buried ,are mt mother and one or two
o\her of her cl.a•••’•• vere a•nc thoH who gnetecl hla.
• lel.11& uarriecl &114 ?,u,. ao depenclent? l felt l abeulcl go lato ‘1ie terrl.oe.
l vaa elicllll• for \he draft u4 la cood. heal lh. l d.td ao, co i.mediatel)”,
howenr. a• l cl1411.’t ¢te kaov ‘Vbat some• to choose, ax ,hea 1 ieclded oa
adaUoa. At tiret U vat to be Aruv a:rtattoa, n, fn.ak &nith, who ad. •
offt.oe oa the f1ret floor et 410 11:t\h Stree, – for a vblle he reai lav la
•• Jla.rllagtoa’• offio• – rehnecl one 4q from lertollc where he had loeke4
ialo lfa’ftl aTiaUoa an4. had d.eo1cle4 to «o tato tbat ••ffice. I d.14 the •-••
Oae wea\ over to the liaTJ’ otfloe oa Peua:,l “f8Jlia Aveaue la South.eaO Ya.ahlac\
oa where JQUltC men who could pa•• the pb1’•1cal and ether \e1\e were being Nero
,ec1.. !hi■ was about the middle ot August. !hq ga’f’e • the neceeMr,
te1t1 .,..,, qu1ckl1 u4 ori.e:r• ca• to report al’O’Ulll ,he ft re\ of Septeal>er to
Jilt — lloatoa !eoh – to? eight weeJts of ground. 1olleel “‘°*·
I kept 1u oles• touch vUh ?• tamU.7. Joa w.a alao maJd.ng plaaa to ca
• lato the aenioe. Like •••lt he 11111• tho. uamarrlei. le beoau a Captata,

– l? –
la\er Ooloa♦l. iA the hgineeJ’tng Corpe and ••r”Nd ta lnnoe for aome tlM. We
nte \here part of \he aa11e UJH bu, 41d not aee uoh o,her.
l •• tven’7-five 1 older \haa lllOt\ of the ‘bo,- who wea\ b.\o a•laUoa. an&
had leen praotieing l?.v tt’beu.t \hNte 1•r•• e.w.1 tn• u athl.eUo life. the
1ou«er Mn ot coll?ce age. aroud. nineteen or tven,1’ or tventy-one, were \he
bet\ &Tie.tore.
We learned vha.t we could 1n lbcee eight veekt, a 111&\terinc of theoq of
fli&M. •o• navicaUon. toae Q\247 of •tore. toM Morie eode, e.nd platy of
pllt•laal tmin!,w. U \he ell4 ot \be 4»1ll”8e •• vere ■eat to Jtenu.oola., JJ.ori4a,
for ial\111.oUon in actual n,s.nc.
A\ Peaeaoola, which -, then perllapa t)Mt ‘beet Jiaftl air station. we lralucl
baaloall1 oa 1-9•• a11\Cle poa\ooa \lplaaea vtth 0ur,1, •tore euppoeed to ban
100 horeepower. We had goot tn•tructon, but the tralatnc •• dmple compam
vi.th that of avia?:ra 4.urtng the Seoclld World War, vhen. -.,. ri.ephev. Alber\’• aoa.
Joi11.e4 Anq &rlaUon u ,u earl7 fall of 1941, a li\tle befere Pearl Barbor.
He h&a w.e av1&tion hi• oareer and 11 now e. Coloael b. the Ail’ 1orca. Ile left
\l:le l.a’lt vhea var aeemeA 1mmlaer>.t. l’or eome ‘1.M now b.e ba• been vilh tu
luge etn\ectc bomber,. Be was avardt4 the DieUqaJ.ehe4 nrtnc Oro•• Aud•
the Wu.
Our in.atruot1on planes a\ Peneaool.a had O.UBl oontrol a. When ,he llilt\n.otor
preaaed hie toot on the rwta.er the etultent•a toot on the dual rudder moved ta
the .. manJl.er; so, toe, the haiid• on the “”hee1 9 which coatrolled the
aileron• and eleTator iitheA the7 were Jl8llipulated b7 the laa\ru.otor. La.Ddl11&
•• \b.e oDlJ’ 4U’flcult pa.rt of th11 fl7in,;. ta t1- ail’ 1 t•elf 1’l1’1ng •• eaa,.
I do not IDltftA tllllt th.11 1 a eo vi tb mo4ern plane• of tll”.,.nd.011.e poveJ” aal eqd.,p•

– 18 –
11ent, ‘but vith ua lAndint w, th.• problem. ‘rhit’I took !)1’8.Ctie9 e,ru,_ eldll bt
I eaJ07e4 tl,tng, em pnfen.a a’ri?Uon to Joining the iu:f!!}nt1’3′, tb.ouch
I wae •flea frighten.a. fh•r• •• • ■ort t’f ohllll,;mge to ,? abl& to fi7 rM-
1oaa’bl1′ well, s.U thiJt ie about •.11 I O@A u:r t wer dU.. I nev.r eoatldtH•ed
a7Hlt a pa:rticularl7 •k1llful pilot.
In \he e.rl1e1’ h19’•1″ of snaUoa ta tb.11 OOUJ1l17 — end th1Jrefore.
eTerywhe:re — ov •? ,.,., the lu4eP. Lat!il” on We…,- a’tie.tton became rela\tm1
1-11 ooapu.4 with A’l’flY • bec1nue ,..,., e?•IHled. eo mob.. \at .,,. va111 ■’Dperier
t.a \he begilmi? ant 414 ,,, of tu ptoa.erlag la ,he araet aen-lc•••
•• l••mtl4 only u.tlo flyla,t: .. , l’ea«•-oola. I ftn.lt’he4 rrr ccuree 121 Januar,
a.lid •• \hen co•le1lo11ecl •• ••tp a.ad recf!1Yed my wlng8. the Ar,q eteppecl
1a to help us la aerial gaan•r.r. which the Jfa.V7 wae nel eqt1.tpped to gtw 11ti
P•aeacole. IJl ,be wlnt«r of 1918 • «TCUT,) ?f u, vere tef\t to !’P.llbferro lieltl
Vo. l n.Mr 7or• Wol”th. ‘leu•• tor? tht • Aerial “1••17 tt”J)•rlt11.ce vi U\ Ars7. l•
th? aUJ1Ume I md beea k..-9t. o.’! “”au.eols •• en 11uitnote1′ of new men.
fi,.,. ex,ert.enee tm. feza• ooaet 1te4 of ’81’cet l)l’aellc• on \h? &TOl’I.H ant
HN praeUce la tlri.n« aollh• «a•• fro• a plue to ntcll,. !htt Al’l’IT n\ then
•• aHlatet b7 the Bo,al Jlrt.a« Oo1p1, tttnl 111 fna O.lla.4a. the !’DI “” not
•JDohronh … with the -propeller. I f1ret Ofl.N ht aoatt\ot wt.Ill theH e,nc?ateet
cu• at\er eotw« ?broad, but no pl••• I nw. ueecl ‘•”·
Oace vhll• I •• in flight la ‘•n• • •aonh@n•I’• ew,pl onr the aru,
brlaglac a •«• curtet • of .. ntt. lt wa• U.k• a 114′-riag nll. 1’• ha<l lo c•’ 4ova
Oa ? V&T fl’Oll Beaton to Peaaieol• J hat ?o•ti to ? ho• ln Jte•. My
• ta.tber we c.tUUe 111. Be conTeY’H to •• the lapreedoae Oat thtti Ye.tt ld.t lat\

– 19 –
11lnen, 1,,hioh prov-ed ti, b? ao; for ?t Pen,acola. …, few llleelu later word came he
?as dying. JefoTa I could rE!8-ch home he “«’8.t de.al, a\ 77 :rea:ra of age. !hit
occaeioned indeGd a sad ga\he?1JlC &! the famil7. 110ther, folll’ daucht$rs ax.A
aeTen soat. Fa,aer h$J.d dou vell by u.•• an<! ?d aoq\1.lred the reapeat r,f tbe
eo!1Ul1’1llli\y. Aa ?G l?ft s,. Mriry’s Churoh ?1th hlm for the last ti$e, to which
we had gone so often with him as children, Jroa4 S\ree\ clote4 down bu1lne•s
&otivi ty -while he w,;i hken to Myt’tle Hill Cemeteq aoro .. \he ito’119.h. Eh
bod7 lies there no? far from \he oouatryaide ia Irelud vhioh he left eo lone
ago. J’a_tber n.enr returned to lrelanil, but l u.ndeJ’lt&acl kepi 1n touch w1 th hie
.malher there un’1l hsr death. Ia lalH• years “” blve bee• lA oloser \e1toh
wt\b his :relaUYa1 vho still l1Ts nee.r PortUJlrul. ‘fhe ls,, t tme I saw Papa ul’Ye,
en route to Pensaool& .• he gave m0 \be nrune and loOAltion of \hl• place. thtnkia«
that 1n traveliac during the “”‘ T I might ,:o \here. kuq- lhou.gll’h come to a1:ad
now about his life. !ie .sa a ma.not great inhgrU7. He ‘built well, ‘ind he
loved hit m3-Zl1 chiliren. He devot&d bia lif8 to the homo and family, 111oludJ.s1
dt!TOt1oA to the ?uttnen on their behalf. He wae a f’tne lookiD.tt Atan of \he
darker Iri,h type. He aeTer lot\ interest ia the welfare of the oli aoun\J7,
and he would read the “Irish 1forld.1 ?ecul,srl7. Ju.\ bi11 life vas in .’Romo.
\hough hi• tboucbh migh• ot\en haTe been of Irelan4. I .al.”81’• loved and roapeoted
him l r:.111 tfllraa but at \he YfMlr& b,.v? paned, with 1tore refieotion am
per’J)eotive. I am altJO rure tha\ 1 baV$ ooine to a.ppreoia,e hi.m more. l feel
·ve17 hwal.tle now 1a lhinld.AtJ ol b.ia, a.nd vrowl of hilll, 1.nd. gnhtw. ‘be1oa4 vo1’■•
•• uil•d tor lllgl&N\ in April, 1918. ‘-‘here wa• quite a OOAt1ngea\ of
lf&’V’al ana\0211, pel”n.’\JH’ t1:neen or ,ven\;r. oa boart ‘b• .barioaa ttae II, kmt.1.
We 4oolc:ed at tiTe?ool am were disappc,inted in no\ ,o1ag to London, at ov
• orders read. When -we landecl. our oommaading o:f’fio•r• told \\I we were to co

– 20 –
8’ra1Ch\ to Xilllacbol•e• a BriU•h Haplane station oa \be lorth Sea on tu
eaa\ coat\ aear the li.Ter Baa,er. Thtl »rit11h ha4 qUlle a lol of eeaplaaet
there. u4 ••• bla tlnnc boa\a, wbtoa were engaged la pat,olllng ou, o-… ,. tile
Borth Sea leold.ac for aub•rb.e1 10 •• lo preteot thlpplq. the JriUth ore
pul.ltnc O’llt am OU • .,,, ba4 acned to take over the a’6\loa.
At Xillta«)lolae ve l1Te4 ln tl11>l• wood.ea frame •••• ‘Wl th lnmk11 good.
blaltlt•’• aad ‘be4olothee• a.Ad. we ven at coJlforlable at J’OUDC mea dll be. Ve
were ln the ••nio•• an4 cltu•, expeol or nee4 aDT’hlac more lhu ve W. the
1taUoa l \self llacl eoae Te’f7 lar1• ateel hanpre vhloh p1’01eot-4 the tl7i11g boa ta
&D4 _ aeaplaa•• froa the wea\l’ael’. fu?• veJ’e Nae ln:dlcll»c• aon penaaeat \hi.a
ov 11? (Ul’leJ>•• ln. oae of vbloll ve hat our aeala. ‘- food •• simple lN.t
,-…h. We arrlTM la earl7 Jp:1’11, u4 it wa1 a TH7 blua\e17, 001411h l’J)riJtC,
‘but ve wre well cared for.
!here wa1 not aob dot.ac \hen. A Zeppella oe.m.e oTer one 4rea17, c1o’Q47
atcht. We could.a” ••• U bu\ oo?4 hear lit droalnc ao,on. It oaM aero••
th• •?•h lea aa4, 4,oppecl ‘bult1 la ,he area inland· troa u. tld.1 waa ‘h• tl:rat
aohal ftriac et ‘•• en-, \la&\ l heal’4.
MJ noelleoUoa t• ,.,, I vent oa 1n1, one pa,ro1. ta a Bri\l1h eeaplaM,
vhS.1• at m11111hol••· The weather vat b&ct aacl •’ -. \np• ven made.
J.f’\er al>A’ a aoath older• oau for•• w go to a 11’1\lah all’ alatioa oa 8aU.eba17
Plat••· vbloh, flgur&’1Tel1 1p-.Jdnc. -· \he Jrl’11h • ., …. 1A , ….. of
&Tia Uoa \ralala,. l vat •••’ ‘• a plaoe aear Stoaeheage u4 \ralae4 \MN for
ulgh\ bout». oa l&l’lcl pl•••· ru, vat a Yer, 1a,ffedtag a;pel’leaoe. Ov •?
hat 4ee14et to take o•er … alp\ am tay boat,lq. .,.n.,1ac fro• SoJ’tua
lraaoe. lei,iu va• tbea oo0\1ple4 al••’ enUrel7 b7 the hnu1 ana. ve wen
• to \17 \o get a\ \he IU’b•rlae MU.Ce b7 getUAg al the •l>•nn•• vhea \he,-

– 21 –
… ta troa the •• ,o llelaiaa ports for l”epalra or ea.pplle■• We f1alehe4
eur ,rat.alq tor ‘h1• wn oa Uw laa4le7-!’age plaM, vhloJ1. •• tbe big
Jrl.’19h atcht ••ber ud tlMt ‘-•’• l tld.llk, tba\ –• n.\ ot the :rtrat Worl4
War. I• ha4 tvo loll•-Jo7oe •’•”• u4 •• a tt.u, powl’N. pl.au.
Oa Sallel’U’J’ Plata• w :U•e4 a,aJ.a la • faa• bat, clont to17 a,11ei ·
vl\11 oeta 1a a row. Oon41 Uona vel’e perbap • •r• ooaforla?l• \bu at 11111».c­
bol.lle beoauae of iapn’t’e4 vea\b.e1″. 1\ w.• unall7 417. lpri».g wa eu.t.nc
u4 we were eaterlng …. ,.. fte food., acat•• •• •lapl• ‘but a4eqUte, v1 th
a goo4 4eal ef •••lrallaa tan. ‘be7 wen P•••• \Ma la Aaatnlla u4 pea\
.,1 \le• of Ul.elt. w?• Jdlle4 uA elll-,pe4 •• feo4 to »aciu&. la the lllUl.e
of, …… both., li111qholae u4 l tld.Jdc ., ftoaehnce, •• ha4 llpt
rotrePJ11ta\a1 am tea ia the attenM••• ooaa1a\111C at Sloaeb.eap of goe4
on.okel’■ — 11\lecnd °’•• – u4 lolltml obeea• vU? t• or obooola\e1 or aa.Jb• eoae
aotl d.riall llJce 11:ac•r ale. 0v aoooao4aUoa• Uld. fH4 at beth plao•• wen
priaar117 applle4 lt7 tu In Ii •h u4er an-anceaea, wl th o•r ova co••r1111eat.
1’1.J’lng all \bi■ ‘1•• I •• a’ble lo keep la aoauloa\1.oa Yl\h the 1aa11,.
Jfolbel’ ,,…,. nplarl7, aml al.to otllff … ,.,.. et Ille faall7. Aab1″9•• W.
co• wt \la ae h \he boa\ la lev tol’lr. It nellecl \lat Joe u4 I wouli ‘be ,i.
… ,. •• of ,_ tull7 la ,u ••ffl••· Alben .ba4 , •• IIUTlel ud he ul
Due were ao\ llkel.7 lo lte aa11el1 •r Will \eoa••• of ap. Leo vaa \oe
1ouc &IUl A1ibn•• l belleTe wat takla« halal-« at Plattalnlr1 tor • while.
(Albert•• aoa •• to ha.Te a rathu aeta\le ••”1•• 4v1ac the-‘.lecoa4 lfol’14
Wu.) hke aD4 loaa ame&, la AUD ’61 while 1 wa1 al Stoaehe»c•• t wa1
able to oa\le t».a oa IMS.I’ wecl41 .. 4&1.
la the eouae a, 8\oulleace n laa4 prao,1oe la beabta, &D4 la atght
• t11ln,, vi th to• alghl oroa1-oou.tr7 flytag. taol-ad.lq a 0011Ne to Oxfol’t

– 22 –
and. return. I cJIJo,-1 the nev vot’k ••:rr nob. A\ the and. of \lda ,n.talng
we w•re sea, tc J’ru.ce. I reaohet J’ruce ia \he_earl7 hJ• of J\117, 1911.
1 •• ttr,, t.ltache4 \hde to a Jrltl•ali Alckt ‘boablA« 1quadl’OS1 of Qla41ey-
1ac• plane•. lie were ••lq la\o thia won ,o aupplllllleat the Jnlltll or to
mien tbe11 of eel’taln pha••• of U. We were a,tachet lo ‘be• pend.lac orp.Jdtat1on
cf our ova p«n:ap to opera,e •• a \Ullt u4e1′ American order,.
Wl\h \he ltdtleh equd.roa la Jn.r.oe some of u,, 1aolud111& 111’•elt. a,
fir1t 11-Yed. ia teA’8. Mlae waa a cood lenl. I\ •• ..ii. with a 11•4 ll”Oll
oot u4 u:oepUoull.7 ft.a• wol•• sa…, “blUket1. SealP\11rei-• tn.ae .,,,.
eae of will oh va.1 -a.te4 at \u Jrt ,111’ ae1a ball w1-n ve all ate toeether.
kler when eno11&h .Aaeri•aa ant’hi la \u Tlo1a1’7 ‘4t ton o•r- ova ul\ ,,.
took •••r a.a 014 oktea. fho,ach net pa:ntnlarl7 well•appolatecl t\ vae
aomto:rta’bl•. U was aot a4equ.h boweftr. to ho••• all oft1cen 10 la the
rar were erec11ed. the faalllar ta11e ha\111 an4 tor a whlle 1 •• la oat of
lheae. U vat co:apletel1 a4aqu\e. 1 .., ‘be llittaleea lna.t 1 belin• a cna\
teal ot 011r food •• tn.aapone4 41reoUt b7 ov Jrayy fro• ,u ‘Oal\el ••’•••
wl\la unqemea.ta to-r cetUag 1, to ,u aont•• lui. Ve were lnla.S. a\nl ll
klloaelen troa Calatt a\ a lm&ll 00_1,7 callel St. la&leYerl.
At,er ‘being vl ,h ,11e :Jrl \lall 1A haaa• toi- a ffftf •••• aq’be a U.t’1e
loaier, 1oae of 111 rffelYel oriert ‘4, l’O \o IUlu., IW7, vla Pant, to ptok
v:p then a.Dd brine “baok to aorthen hanoe •o•• Oaproat pla,aae ol’ll” goyeHJ1ea,
va, ob’8.1l!li:ac tns 11&17, be :Brl’11:b ao’lllcl ao, nppl.J u w1’1, ?-….. ••
vhlok ve preterra4, u4 tu Val ta4 S’-‘•• ana’1o• 111A•••l7 wa• aol a’ltl• to
npp17 ua vith Aipt boa’bart. Th••• Oaproal• wre blg ‘blplaae• ‘WI.th IU’ff
l’ta\ 110’°”• but l affer tbougll\ lhe7 wen eqa.al lo ,u laadle7…Pap. ••
• u4enook \o fe’l”r, aeTe.uleeli or elgh\ea Caprolllt fro• Milan ,o nenhen

– 23 –
1l’e.nce, but only •even finished the Journey. 8eve:r?l of our He.est young ma
vere killed in tbi s ferrti.nc oporetion. X do not know quite vha\ lhe trouble
?e. Perhe:pa our meoha!lice or piloti 414 act know the motor• well. or we cot
a bd lot.
We ,tent ‘\o Mtla.n by \rain from Pana traveling in a YAC9A-li\. I ytat ,e1
,ht) C-.thed:ral at Milan ud aho f’le? o•er it on leav1.ng, vit.h a. rearkable
Ti•? of 1t, tntrioate •f!Mletry. lt 1e probabl1 as beautiful & buildinc a, I
bav? eTt,l” seen. I &14 not see the La!\\ S.ppeJ’ – 117 own fault. l ttlppose.
An4 I dtd no\ see Saint Ch&rlee, ‘but wae near \ha place ot bi.a llul’ial la the
beautiful C&\belnl.
There were two plloh am! a m”h&aie to A plue. ‘With ae w•r• Lt. (j.g.)
0th, a vary good p11ot ?ad J’?nkine. lroa Milaa vo tlev to fu.ria, there lo
•??1t favorable oond1t1o•• for cro111rA.C \he Alp,. fhera vae a fiae airport
at ‘t’u.rtn and we stqed. tor two or three d.a7e. Upon :recei’Yiq clearance we
took oft and lan?ed a\ t1011e 111 France, aercas tha Alps. \le tid aot eaoouter,
th(J highest Alpe but thoce we did oro•• were tairl7 high. Moa\ llaac leou4
white and oeautlful to our right ae we flew vethari.. fro• L7ou v• fln to
DiJon ar.id fro11 there lnle Parh. la.ndiag a\ Orl7 l’ield. Olia aai I parW ln
fa..-h e.nd I f’1n1 •hetl tile \rip to St. lACle•ert w1 th ka1p lea.Jud.a. Ve
l&nde4. d our a.irdrome 0011Uguou1 to the one used b7 the !rt llsh. It could
be 4eeor1be4 a1 a Jei»t alri.rom.e.
Our 1m11tillate couaaUng officer was Lt. Bobert 1. ton\\ wt.th. wllloa 1
llt.d ha4 ao coutaot ln trallling. !he Tale croup of which he •• & p&r\ bat
ao\ trained in fea1acola..
Mr. l.o•eU wa, ,wo or. thr?e 7ea.:re youcn ,!all ,qaalf. !e had u
• aU:racUve penonallt1 and dhplqed. the quallUea •hieh gave JuaUtlcatioa

– 24 •
tor bi• aeleolloa •• •-n4tac otftoer. •• 1lke4 u4 nap•••• ht.a. Oar
vhole o,,n \ •• •••et ef • flae er-, ot -.
Oa• of \Ile 0.,nal• •• •4• ,…,.. aal ” ,.,.. lo open.le blt1pat•U7
of ,he ll’t.U•. la 4••• oella’bo1’&’1oa 1’1\h thea hi u4•r ov ova oealUA.
I i.t tbea bM1l on• vt\lt. •• Jrill•? oa , … at.ell aS.411 1eantq what t
001114 abou\ ‘• writ. ta. lrlU•II plau ‘° vld.o!l l JIM.. altaol\ea ••
ta oi.rc• et l1llt0a, aa expuleMe4 pile, of \he lo,a1 Alr Jofte.
O•c. la pla, Oftl’ with &l.11••• we W a pntv laten•\taa tt•• le
•• ialcbc ofll” aa apul.-.W ltoalt ftlplac a’bnt 1400 poul• •• 1••1 aat
ftf&Url .. a ., .. s.1 ..,. nek. ll •• a hnlfto tld.ag. ‘Ille o\Jeolt••
u1lp.t14. vaa u aaaul,loa I.up ••r 111&•.it•l’b b hlctu. au … a ••
ualou \o .- a nooe••M •”•*•

l•to•• •• na•M& \lie o\.teo\tw a d.acl• ….,. pl••• … aleac, loold.q
tor boalter,. Jlllleoa ltu•t ••’ .. eaoealer vtt!l a tlcht•• plane • •
aoud. Aon •• pt aw.7 ••’ to •• aa4 flev la .,.1a. !bl.a tt.• 11- ••nlt­
ltpt• oaae pntv ‘°”• \J’etaeM.0111 llllacs, … utt-alnraft fln ••
lrantlnc el••• too. •• new tht • ‘beoaue v• oftll i..a11 ,. auapael •-1f4•
ta ,. air alt•” “- •• of ov aeton. ht m.lteoa. an … eolllnc aewa
, ..1 ,. low. cot nt et t» ‘M.-‘ aU flO.I, nppoe.U, •”• \M •’ttJ ..l lw.
l\ -.4• a crea• 1plau, wt•••• the olJ••Hn. Al tie ….. nt.p\a aal
n•r,\ld.ag weal o’I., ta he vJJole •– Mt we O&lle .,. vlthe11t ?•
W.11 oa• of ev 0.,ftlll• •• Nl47 ladp •••’-• Mel’, vile Ital llatl
… upel’t …. wt.Ill .. heaoh ,., .. ,. ,lota.4 …. la …… -· ….. ,, •• ,
pU.t u4 J …… :pt.lot. 1J •••laaatlea •• HeoaA p11•• •• u•thlaa ot a
• aleaoaer ‘beoauN \houp a plloi la a plue vl\ll na1 eoatrol• l reallF u\114
– 25 –
•• ebHrTer. Dave Bale, who bad gone ‘hrouch ,u Stonehenge tntnlnc VS. \h
v.■ aa an obsenei- ?• ,mate \he nolllul obaener b’G.I reall7 va.e NIil’ C\1Ue1”,
an4 mane4 the J.ni’t i-“” \.tlieh w.1 eH0’114 ,o proteot the plaM fro• the reaJt.
l alto had a Levla cu.a 1n the obeerTe1’1 t oookpit la ‘\he tonfl’Ont of tbe
ucell• which ex,em.a. out 1n froAt. w1,h \h1• crew of \hree ve vent off oa
the first American nicht-bombiag n1d under Aaerican oolUISlMl 1n the hitiol’J’
of the coulq.
We were to bou tbe n.lteriae wost alone ‘he 1lllan4 ball.a al OttellA
where the au.bllartaea wen tboueht ‘e oo• for l’epai re au. retultnc. %• \hS.1
al&ht boa’b1q we were alve1• ctwn 4etialte obJeo\h•••· We wen aenr tolc1.,
either when w1\h \he lrltteh t>l’ 1.n ‘he tbort tlme we aad• ra14• on ov ova.
\o beab O■ten4 o:r U1″ other e1111, for fl’UIJ)le. We took &11 the oaN ” on).d
• to tlad out bow to reach a giYen obJeoUTe. Ot course thffe wen 11a1’4’1oa11
but we had pbotograph1o apt on the datloa and we aw lhe oeatnr of the
ooa,,. and of the ba1S.n, to help ae P14••• One oould pick oui \he ba11n. tf
\he A1&h’ wae ol•ar, and. 411Un,ui•h 1\ tna ,1ae ehor•. We tnev alx>\lt bov
lo.a, 1 t should tan 111 to flJ s oer’8.1a 41•,aaoe. We knew the noo4e4 ana
ud could ldeaUf7 lt •• ve approaue4, aml new Us 41ataue fro• nr flel4.
Ye oo’llld follov ,u ooa,, arad then hn lalud wt ,h a :l’airl7 ,oo4 ou.aoe of
Yi■uall.7 picking up o•:r ol>Jeot1Tes. We alao had a ‘boab dch\ b11, I cln.’bt l
oaa now ac011ratel7 d.eee:ribe 1 t. fher• were a4Jue\men.h tG l>e ucte 1a 1 h
movable pane, and it ve nev in a tlxed 41reot1on at a f1nct a1u-.. aat
11ae4 up ov e,e vt th \he obJeeU ve, aoro•• the bat”• ia the llighl \me acljllated.
theoretlcall.7 we should. hi\ tb9 tu·1et. There V&t lllcelihoocl of
ernr, e1paolall1 tt the wb.4 chanae4 ff tba\ we “ov.14 not be 1″1J1.na la the
• enc\ direcUoa or at \he en.ct height ve wen nppoae4 to be in Nla\toa to

– 26 –
the adjustl!ents. And oul’ speed ;night not be exactly ae calcruJ.ated.
there -waa conslderaltle iaacwracJ’ ia the bombl.nc of tbo•• 41171, espeolall7
a\ alght.
On thlt :t1ret all American aigh\ raid. we 4aace4 pr1aoipaUy a railroad
gtat1on, close b7 the we??, ?e were tuppoae4 to hil. leporta of the
raid. later cg,11• to ,u thro,a,gh \he U!lderaroun.d.. 1 neTar knew Juet hov
thi• opnated but tl:ler• w.a an Ulldergroud reporting .,,,… 1a al.d.1Uoa,
pho\ogra-phic pla1uta wen\ oTer in the daJUu. tae7 could aoaeUua p1Ck
out the retul \a of bo.111’bi04.
U wat coat14ere4 a talrl.7 n.ecastN raid. OD.17 the oae plau par-­
Uolpa?ed, the oal7 one ve had. teadJ’. When \u Jdtieb wea\ ott at algh\
tnen or eight plaae, u1ua111 participa\ed. not tn fonation1 of ooune,
• uc1 each l1kel1 with a dlfterea\ objeoUve in the 1ame geaeral uea at
the aame appron•te Ume.

On our fir■\ raid wo nu\ iato no opposition exoept a.a\1-a1roraft
tire. We had clear tailing in gattiag oYer \Ile ebJeoU•e. r•l•a•ecl our
boabt a.in oame awar without moh dU’flow.\7 troa the e•ell1′ alllloqh ,11ere
vat a good deal ot cmtt.-airoraft fire. But ,rouble aroae oa \he re,un
trip due \o a ahit\ in \he vlnd while we were 1a the air, vh1ch llra4 blow
ta a haze and also me.de U d1ft1ault \o allow aooura\ely tor Arif\ vUhta
\he calcul.at1one we bad ade befol’e lesving ou:r atation. Ve loat the
coat\ line oa v.b.ich we had prinoi:pall7 ceun\ed to gw.4e ua baok to a
place on the co&tl from which ve could. cut :La to the a’8.tioa \o l.al:id.
ro? a vhile 1\ looka4 as if we were lost.
Tht\ arrangement w.1 for ua to li«n.al tor a lan41Dg in Morae code
with a large naabllgb.t, wb.9reupoa u?a grouad crew would throw on \he

– 27 –
lu41nc l1Ch’•· Sotwtthltu.41a« ve tboupt ve were lo•• for a bad 11\Ue
11hlle1 the ,roUA4 crev p1ckd vp ,he a1pal I kepi flaehla,. fhq
1wltohet oa lhe ,ro’UA llcb,t• whloh we eaw off in ,he d1e’8Jlo•. We ‘*
lau.el. Th\1all7. Mr. Lo-rett •• \here to pee\ •• •• ve clla’bed out of
the plane, am the whole etaUon vaa plea•e4 with out tlra\ open.Uon.
A few •••nine• later the tame orev nal off oD a tecond rai4, ao
o,ur plane being red.7. lefo:re ve on,11e4 ,he 11•••• and while at about
6,000 teet al tUue, om of tile aoto:ra ta11ed. Taber tlpalled lo • out
la the fna\ cockpit \lat we •at 1aa6 &DI. imloa’-4. what \be treulde ••
‘before I bad ladepellllea.’11 beoen ave.re of 1 ,. A1’1’11JaCe11Bt1 h&4. ‘beea
•• for ua to laM oa \he lteaoh near hnld:rk la aa ••reeaq. We o1Nle4
back toward• thie plaoe whioh •• alao ued. a• a etop-oft etaUon ‘b7 \bt
JrUitll oa retunuac fna ra14t •
When near eaoup l at.palled appro,natel7 tor pen1H1on. to Mk• a
forced. landing, but reoei “N4 in reepon•• the d.aal•r lipal. The laacllq
llglltt were aocor41:ag17 act tlln.e4 oa ‘° a••l•t ••• We learn.a latea- \he
hrmu.• were o..-er l>ukirk. l>oa’b1n,:. ‘-•• open.Uq ‘• lamUac place 414
ae, wlah lo p11\ on tu 11,eh,a u4 make a tarpt for \Ile hraa ‘9abera.
•• gra4u117 lot\ allihll• oirollq al”OlUUl. We 11pal1e4 acal• \,ii noe1Ye4
\he Mme napoil••• 1lmall7 we wre oblicecl lo land wi\bo11t \he aaa1t\
aace of grout U.pta, and en.shed. I Jumped al••’ llaal taaeouly
wUh the hpaot and w.e catapulted. tome 411tute. !he pla.ne wa• bacll7
4a-,e4. Bale waa ou, about the taoe a bU bu.I falter though t!akea ••
aot 1aJve4.
1 wa• taken to Q,11.een .Uexaad.ra’e boapital, operated. “b7 the lri.Uah
• aear l>Wlk1 lie. I\ •• la cm. re• of ?er n.urHa troa bgland, \’1.t ,he doc•

– 28 –
tor• were of the Jri.Uah Arrq. !hla wa.a an emergeno7 ho-,1,a1, pa1’t1oulal”ly
fo-r aYla’\ioa. •• toea a• poH1ble •••• broucht lo 1\ wen ••’ r•ftl’&rd lo
a kte ho■pllal. I\ vaa ezoellentl7 coadule4 u4 l wa, well oaN4 tor.
fhe aext aomac all explora\oZ’J’ operaUoa of a lmee laJv.17 •• pel’foned..
!hit inJui-7 healed. vell aad cauee4 ao pen&llelll trouble. M.,- pn.nclpal dlfficul.17
•• a baak ia.tv,17 am concv.saloa lhroueh ,he oh.ea\. Uter abou, tea
da.71 in \h11 hospital. d.•rlnc which Uu 1 becue alao8′ the old.ee\ iaba.’blv.at
ln a, •’• I •• •••’ back to the t\atioa earoute to the Vat tel lta.\••
••1 lo1pUal la :Lea4oa tor ccut.ftleeceaoe. Bale’• cats healet well bu, l
‘btll•T• he atlll ‘be&J’I a taclal ,oar, vld.oll, howenr, 1• net 411fl.C’Q.l’l.11.
Wi\Aia & a\ter of 4a7• tvo of • aloee trientb, 1oeler MA Stoclter,
were alto iaJv.re4. 1oater1 • aociteat •• la a take-oft oraeb while atlll
aUache4 to \he Bri’1eh. Be •• throw nt of \he :plaae aa4 hl• el,l>ov u4
ana badl7 lmn, but he wen\ back la aa4 pilled out the lr1U•h ….. who
at.gbt have ‘been ln:lraed excep\ for 1oeter•• exploU. lhe »rt.t1ah 4eoontei
hla for hi• herol•m. Stocker waa “911 more •erlouel.7 lnj,antl la a oath
eD. the a1r4roM, nt reooTere4. the \Ju-ea of •• were aeat to \Ile Val te4
Stale• •n1 loap1\el la J.o!ld.oa tor ov ooJffale■oen.oe. l’ctalter .,,., 1•
an.a Uon afier \lae w.r aJ’1d wae kill•• the earl7 ending ot the lite ot a
ve17 fine, a\traoUTe J’01UtC Amerlcaa. J’oe\er and I have kep\ 11p ov ti-1ellll•
hip e-vei• tu ,ear, aD4 aov aad. thea haTe .. pd to see one another. J’or
11aJ17 1ean be baa beea -pnc\lcing la.v 1D. !fev Orleau.
the hoapUal bad been the ho• of ••• Allerlcaa or friea4 of tu Aaertoaa•
who 1114• 1, an11&,1e to ,1ut •TT· the av••• vere Aaancaa •v J•r­
aoanel. Aaerioaa •..ai doctor■. wre la cbarce. Ve were apt• enreael7

– 29 –
“ell te.ken care of. ! was up and about practioally all \he time Nld IU-‘!d
1that ?roved. \o be a very plea@an\ vid\ in London.
When reco•erecl eD.Ough to return to duty- Command.er ldvards ot Midral
William s. Si•’• 1\att in Londoa, in chs.z,ge under Admiral S11111a of OV$7-
eeaa officer-a ln •w aviation, 1e.id I ooultl retum tt\ the VAJ.,ett Sta,?•
to help in11ruot 1 b?t 1 preferred to go ba?k to th8 at?tlon end va• pemitte4
to do 10. Thi a 1,,1111 in Ooto’be:r, 1918. The Germane had ‘\hen fallen back in
occupied Belgium and our &1rdro11e ….. lettl a conddera’ble 41eta.aee btth1nd \he
linea. We were order•d to pe.ak U:P to me>vft forwrd aDd a grea\ deal ot
equipment was oa trueka read:,- to move; bu’\ ao move .,a,., ordered. !he prnapeo,
of an a.rm:iaUoe became mo1,,1’• at lea.a\ to the b.1.gh?r officer,, and “”• rttma.ined
vhere we were. All aoon. ‘beCU\e awre of the 111pendlng ft.J.’ll1.stioe.
It is m:, uniterstandtng tlla., at,er our cra8h la Aucu•• the Oaproat•
were n.ot uaec. a.pin. !his cau.te4 \hf! atat1on to beoo11e mor-tt or lttae laactiTe
due to la.ck of usable ni,;ht ‘bo11bere. · Had the ?-r conUau• thh soIMbow
l..’Ould. have been rt:1’le41ed. In the l!ieaaUme eom9 of our flying otficf’!r& were
again mfl4e available to the l3rU1ta. who mul the &ndle7-Pf\p boabere, alld.
helped a gree. \ deal 1n thf.t. t wy.
Af\er the aralstic? lonmber ll\h I eailed ho? fro• s,. lie,.t!eir?
loYPber 29th, be.in;; amcn.g the fire\ fl’Om our 1Jtattoa to do eo. I d.id llQt
wish to ‘be part ot the ?r,. of occupation. encl “‘fle g5.ven. the oho!o-.. of 0011-
ing hoae. 1 had already ‘begun the practice of law and when \he var \\-al
O’f’H’ vithed to reaume. We aalled on the old ste8mer PDUW – no.f} the
l&.rge and la\er Broal\- It ad ‘beea renamed. the Sp,1a•bePM wea take».
over by the Uuted State, in one of our ports when war ve.s c!.@cle.roo. They
were aixteen daT• oroasing in rouch weather. Mu.ch to our disappclntment

– 30 –
iaeteacl of laa41ng in Bew Torie, ae we had. hoped, ve were no\ la.ad• at all.
1a a ,ente. the h•mttMDM anchored ou\ from Jo’J’tolk and we caae a1hore
oa 11ghffl’•.
Oa reaohl111 Borlolk 1 lane4 that -, •hhr Sarah va• there TiaiUng
,he h.amou, ol4 frien4• of earlier 4qt ia ltome. Ko\her was la Wev Tork
with liumah. So 1 •’9J’e4 a few 4a1• \o ••• Sarah and trlea4e ln llorfolk,
arranclric al10 to be pl&oect. oa i11&0UTe senioe. or at lea1t on lea••·
then I wn\ to lew Torlt to 1pencl Chritt•• wl\h Mother and. Bauah. 1
doppe4 la Wathb.gton oa the wq lo w.,, York to ha1’9 a rllit at the Lau
hn.selao14. Ch1’1•i•• alp\, •• l noall SM>v, l let\ Wew Tol’k tor iome ,o
He othert of the tallily • an4 after a good vi el I there nw.rn.e4 to Wa,h1qtoA
•rl7 la J’u.ua17, 1919.
ll wa• ot oour1e a little out of the ordlBaT’J’ for Mother to be awa,’
tro• be•• at Ohriatma.1 U•a bv.t ahe waa freer dnoe Papa’• death, and
‘1:io’QCh\ it beat for her at tba\ paa-Uaular time to be vith Bauah la Nev
York. flda wa1 a ooatort aJ:14 help to 8a1nah. I know. who lbe ae:d J9&I’ ea-­
ten4 biAl\7 College la lfaehbcton, ad after cn.4•’1oa bep.a he:r narkal>le
u4 beau’1tul nl1ciou “f’OoaUoa at 11,ter Pe\eP Cla·rel’ of the
11111ona17 lel”ft.n\e of \he Nt1\ 11••• … !r1a1,,. She •• oae of .., M
111\ert, Ape• S\ephaale %be other, to co to fl’tas.,,. fhl• •• du pJ’tao1pally
to rq frientl1hip with \he Lane family in Wa1h1qtoa, b.to vbioh I
aJ”rie4 ln 1929. Mr,. X..uu,• 1 elller, Sitter Gertrad•, waa !nan.rel” of
!rial\7 aJ:14 oae ot ih to11.114er1, and. tile \hree :Lane 4aqh\era at ditfeNa\
ttae, were &flld.u\ea.
I IUP’PO•• ad&Uon weat \hrough :Ua grea\e1\ period of 4.evelopaent
tunnc the lint 1’orl4 War. While oa Se.ll■bU?’J’ Plaine in ?ud. 1 traine4

– 31 –
011 u old Morrie-Famua, one ot the earlies\ planes to n1. We also tnined.
there on J’-11. ‘the Mo-.l”h-l’anwa wa.a u.aet oal7 111 ,ralniag bu\ the J’-? vaa
u early llrtUab tlchter 1a World War I. l\ ••••• od.4 n.ov to \ldu et 1,
•• a tlgbter. Pro«r•••• ‘before lone. \Uld.eJ’ the eUaul.111 of the war relegated
1t to \he pae\. !here came along the Handle7-Pe.ge1 a_ &’Cll)erior plane
tor aight bombing. and the Cfe.lsp’bell-Sop became the prinotpal lri \1th tighter.
lt •• a aingle seater wl\h a l)’llchronhed aoldae gun •hooting throqh th6
ntring World Wa.r l \bere w.1 nothtac like the bod>1ng of ol ‘1•• \ba.\
occuned la World. War II. A• I baTe ea14 atpt boablnc •• inaoo11l”tlk au
ao tou’bt S.anoau.t pMple an4 oiTlliua nftere4. the effor\ of the Allie■,
howeTer. was to bo!llb oal.7 aa a11lp.et atll’817 obJeotl•••
On rq w.1 \o -., ,tatton in. .nol’thern Jruce af\er traininc at S\oaehen&•
I ‘1168 :routed through Paris from llxlcland. ‘Iba Ge:raant bombed Parle
tb.e nicht I wa, there. A bomb 4ropped near La ‘fendo••• ou:hide the Hotel
Co1tU.aealal where l w.• e\qlng. then were a hlliber ot plane• over, ••
\he1r- •racin•• ooul.4 be hearcl 41et1nat17. !he ae:r:t da7 the :Sic lei-Ula w.•
ahoottng ia’1> Pazot• v1 ,a oonel4erabl• reolari \7. Al\ho11Ch the hl’IIU•
throqb. thb l’o•nitable pleoe of artille17 were a\le to reach Pal’ie \he7
could not oontnl the place the ehell would land. I w.11 w.lkinc a.10111 ,u
s\reet when oao fell a ffJW blocks away, and I vent to the plaoe 1t •tl”‘Uk.
!he traJectory of the 1hell vas woh that U oa11e down abloe\ ‘Hl”Uoall7.
‘lh1 e one land.• aear ,he ou-‘b a\ an. la\ereeotion, ldllini a ho?••• daaging
eome ebope, and 1nJurtn,. •’ ao\ aerlo•1l7. •• OJ’ ho people. Of CO’lll”ff,
at lt known now, a, o\ber Uut a beautiful omu-ch was hi,, aD4. ‘\ht •hell-
• inc eaused \he l••• ot MJ1.7 llTes. l remember feeling Te’f:1 •’Nncl7 oa \h,e
– 32 –
• tv.bJeot. As 7enra ven\ by tbG ?r ot coAduoiitac wr chanced. !hen, howeTel’,
th11 ehootii,g lnto a b1c 00UIQ1lit7 am ao\ oar1EC what •• bit w., aa

1 think )1,: l\enhe. •• aoae\h1z,c of a 4.epn1s1131 1ntluaoe oa·ao,al.e
ta Paris, but oa the vbole 1 t ()awsad the henoh to be aiore 4e-\emne4. i.t
\lllllt were poui’ble. Jhperl•c•• such •• th1• no dou’b\ had 8<J&e\h1ac \o d.o
with the French d.eein tor a. ha.rah euotioa troll the O.rmana.
lJotvlthataaa.in& ve law aot autfei-ed the dlr•ot etfeo\a of W.I’ wl W.a
ov O¥n ‘bol’den a• J:aT• Fraace a!J4 2Dt;lant, and later Otll’JDIUt.7, we la•• aa- .
?- tro.emou., reaponsS.’blU.tr since the Second World War. lo 4o•l>\ lt we
had. ‘been mo:re 1-.eitat:el7 ln. \lie path of the J’t.nt W$ vculd ‘ba.Te oou to
acoept. ee.rllel” -\he neoeasl\y ar,.d. te1irablli\7 of u. u.tena,10Da1 orcanha-
‘10111 such •• the t1A1 ,ecl laUoat, aad Wilson Id.gilt haYe 1uoceed.et _la hi•
•ffor\ to baTe ,he Vatted States take leacl.erablp 1A \ha League ot la\10111.
la \he enA, hovner. ve ha.Ye aooept.et vorl4 lea.tlerahlp.
Maq Jee.rt la\er la the ‘Wiater et 19’1 l wa.1 1a Loadoa “1 \h 0o …. a..,­
ll•••ler ea4 loer.l larJT I. lif&1oq to aecoUate tor ov goftru.t \be
tea., of the .,,…, eat l•a••• COTeriDI oui’ aaru u4 abt \aN• ‘° ‘be
enote4 tn lrlU•h po.ttffllou ta \he Yes\en Atluue. ,crorinc ou, of \he
•tlft7 destroJ’el’t excbar:c•• ot the p?e-vlou• 8ep\eaber.. Mr. O!m:rchlll t••l•et
Gener.el Malo? and ae to Obeq:a,er• ca a 8u4a, for 4lsmer. Oo•ander Jle1-
aelei- va1 111. Hr,. Churchill aake4. -, oplaioa of the r•cUoa ot \he
bcui.cu people •IJ.olllt 1Qcla1.14 the• bu’b t>.e opea o1 Ue1 of Cktna117. ‘1w
hnaa, ver• ‘boabi.DC J.oD4oa qui\e •xl•••l•elr a\ \he U••· ‘Ille l>l!ts ••
1\111 oa. al\bo’ICh it laa4 beea wor•• ud voul.4 ‘be vorae scat• a llttl•
later. !fhe big tlre that bad ch1tro7ed. w.oh a larat• part of hu.oa h&4 oc•

– 33 –
curred. in December. fhie coa·verea Uon with Mra. Chu.rohill vaa tn late January
or Jebrwu7 tollowinc and. there bad bee• no tn1batanUal boabin« b7 the
iritish of Oeraa ot.Ue1. 1, had been p:re,t7 mch one w:,.
I replied. tlat in Tiev ot ,tie severe bombing at London I thought the
AMrica.n people would teel that \he >ri\leh were justified ia re\al1ator;r
bombia& of Berlin, bu.\ ,_, I did. ao\ thi.nk ceneral lndisonmh•te ‘boabtng
of open oi ties of Oermaicy- vould ‘be spproTed b7 our p801)le.
In the licht of what absequeatl7 occurred thie Jlight eeea inaoO”U.rate.
Jut l ‘hi* 1 \ w.1 a ta1r11 hue retleoUoa at Ua t Uu of \he ■en.t1an\ I.a
Some few 7’ear• later, la 1948, after the unconditional eurreJlder of
GermaDJ’ • when I vat 1A GermanJ •• head. ot the lepl work of Mill ta17 GoTez’llment,
I aaw theve•Dlo•• de1truction whloh our own •• well a• the Jri tieh
boabera bad vrouch\ on the cl ti•• of Gel’lllln,. Between. the time of the conversation
vi th Mr,. CJ:ml’Chill la tu vlater of 1941 aa4 \he ead ot the ftp ting
– if I had bee• aOC’llrate ia 1941 a grea\ chaace had come in the aethod.
of conduotlq w.r and in the aentlmen\ of the Amel’loan people. JfaedTe
1tra\eg1c boa’blDC vtth Us te:nt.tio deatncttoa bad beoome acc-r>te4.
l coul.4. no\ i,peak henoh, ao -, oontac,e with the J’reaoh people d.uring
World War I were lllli ted. °’11’ ail’d.roae vat In the ooua\l7-1icle, •• I ha.Te
eatd, about eighteen kiloaetera in froa Calai1. !here were, of oour•••
farmer, and other J’Nnch people 1n the Tio1n1 \7. and contao,a with the• were
0Dl7 oocaaional but pleaeant. ‘l’here was a 11 Ule 111&11,a•I town at the
croHroe.4■ where we p\hered troa llae to Ume, ooncluolecl by a lreaoh
taall7 who clenloped pleaaut rela Uoae, vl th the .uenoan, and the Jr1 t11h •

– 34 –
‘1beJ’e wa• a Oathollc prie•t uarb7, with a rather 1-11 bu\ attrao’1Ye olcl
atone Oh\u’oh an4 rec\01’7.
0a \)le va, to MUaa to help ltrbc ‘back tile Oapnal plaae■ I •• a.gala
la l’aria, u4 age.la at\ep the ani■Hce ea rov.te to It. Saaaire \o aall
hoae. ‘fh••• tlae■ in h.r1■ vel”e 0D11 •• a -.111\or for a 1hort Uu to a
g:reat u,ropoll tAa cellll\Ull 17. So• 18’)rett1on•• boveTer, vere deftai te.
there •• •• uexpr•••• — at liM• ezpreHed.-nhal Npri. l>e\veen \he
.berlcau ·-4. lhe heaok. the 1renoh were grateN \o the Aaenaaaa. !he
.Aaen.oau, J. thiu, reallu4 \)lat the frenell and the >riUah hel4. the fort
ua\11 we •••• al ,1rouca X n.ppo•• ” alt1’1lnlte4 aon laportaaoe to ov ova
u’U ‘ri ‘1•• tban we ‘414 ‘lo their•. ?et the whole \!liq would b&Te bua
oTer t.efore ve cot tlwre exoept tor \:be tre•Dtlou.1 1\aataa ancl oo,nce of
the 1re.rich an4 Jri ’11h. I u.7 the Jreaoh and the Jri U1h, w.t ,,f oou.r .. ,
there were other• too – Jel,tau. Ct.M41an1, a,’1-aU.ant, au. to 1oae extent
the Portu.p-,1e, the ttal.lu.t, and •Ull oiher1.
In Incl.au. 1 aacl tw oppo rrul U •• \o eee the p•ople e:icep t •• a ual>er
of a Jllll ‘9.1’1 ecua.Uagea\. ft.MtN wen ottioer olu\e ta Lemon aa4 oae wo’lll.4
••’ people oa a Nmewllat 4.lfterea\ ‘ba.•1•, ot 00’1.1’1•, \baa in ou1 1 vo:rk,
aa4 then wen ooca11eaal trip• lo a plaoe like »oun.e•,’11. lut I had ao
dpltlou, ooatu\ vl’1, \be »ritlah. la \hell’ •••· 19 feeltaa for \ht
people •• al•T• one of o,, …. notwl\hs-tandlac ‘fffl’ father ha.cl been tlov ia
oYeJ’OOld.JIC – if he ner 414 – \he gna, H••• ot wnna ».claacl W 4oae
1i-elu4 la \he cenh.r1et of reltgle11.1 aa4. poll\loal pereentlon.. l l’-.111ei
t>Mt ,ntth a\ the bail• of bl• feel.lag aad. hacl a olear .,,,reolatioa of \he
r••o•• ?•hind. t ,. ht ao’1tUaet.Dlllnc \h11 l a.ppo•• 1 looked 11poa the
• J.ncll•h a, well a, \be Jreoh a• trl•D4• of Aaerloa la \he troultlad ‘1••

– 35 –
ot war,; Yet I lmve ao hetd, tallc:, ia attlnnlq 1111 own conYicUoa ot ,u lone
iaJ•at\c,.:< of the lacliall \naui.ent of ,he lrl•h.
In \he earlJ” dqs of U• 11ra\ forlcl Waz-, when the conteal va1 betve•a
lnglanA ar.ul J’ranoe oa the one b&n4 ud Gel’J:IU11 ca the other. then•• a
period of uacer,a11Lt7 1a a, 111:a4. e.• lo \he 4.1rection of rq B711P?thl••· fhis
414 not ltut long. I •• oonaciou, of the tn.41 \tonal fnenih1hip betweea
\he Vat iad States and J’rance fl”o11 the time of our ovn RevoluUon, u4 of the
coil\r1’w.Uoa of ‘lreaoh thinking and oivtll1&’1oa ‘° the West. KnowillC
tb.t •, and oollaotou.a al 80 of \he oonUauous affopnce and lack of re$1l’d to?
lateniatlonal o’bltgaUou oil the part of Gemaq I fa1rlf qnlokl.7
,,rai«hteaed out la -, ovn .mt.ad where la7 our 1.n,ereah and the relaU ff
aoral• of tu maUer. Ml’ own teelt.n&a about \he 1nternsUonsl ti’1lat1on,
\eginniD& in l.91.4, laying alide a separate probl.e l1k9 that which arote
vUh re1peo\ \o Me:doo – ver• Uke Wilton••• perhaps a liUle ahead iaaofar
•• h11 outvard maAUe1taUon1 of poliOT were concerned. 1or qui\tJ a
while he •••med ,o regard ‘h• Bri U1h ‘breach of international ebl111,H.on•
Yitll reepeo\ \o our 1htppl11g 90mewla\ oa a par wl th ,he JROre T1,a1 u4 iaexnu.ble
b?’e&ohta \7 Use OeJ’llau in \helr n.’b•l”lne nrfan. It U4 no,
•N• to •• \.ba• taldn& a pnse into a port oo-,..red tn ear1ou11e1• wt,h the
tlald.q ot ehS.pe ‘b7 to:rpeh••• Jut on the vale ri, thiaklng folloffl thd
of Wtleon. Wbefa we eatered \he war l felt ve were r1?,ht. Wileon•e oond•ot
of affair• X tboqht hat ‘been in the etfor’l to &TOl( ou enh7 •= to
aohlffe a peaoe 1f po1al’ble.
W,- peraoul expeneaoe ia lngland. a.ad 1ranae la \Ulifcra, hat T•’1’7
lll\le \o do with -, la\er iaternatioul ao,l”ri.U••• Bather, the reaaon
• for rq intere,t ta 1n,E1raational cooperaUon wae a conrloUon that the
– 36 –
• oommudtJ of .N1tion1 :hould eotnbinfl in “n ‘!ffort to prevent 1mra. I felt
3trongly al?o \hat since the United St6tea “?s dm?n into the ltrst World
War 1 t was •ound Ar.1erloaa poli07 to promote an 1:nt?rne..tiono.l orgaaimtion
vhioh wollld eaek to prevent a recurrence. I thoug;ht lt \>;ould be 1.apoasible
for th& Uni teci States, from tl”.e stan.dpoh.i? of its own interests. aa
well as cur obl1g11,tion to tht,’! 1nt?rnational comimmit;r, to rc=.ir. ou.t of t1
dgaificnnt conflict vhan it really get u.nd?r “imy. !here we.e 8.leo P.n
idealism ai.bout our lMdeNtJ.p durir.g em’! &fier the war (until other forces
gaiaed htitadvay) vhioh \llaB oens16tent with JV c-?? b<‘li?fe. I think such
14ealiem t.’8.$ right arid aotm(., though time e.nd e,:perienott aigh? be S&iti to
he.?.- pro•.-.n 1ome of its 1:ncidenh to lave bl’tt’n f eft<:Cti?e.

S’Mlclcer a,qe4 in aviation ?.rid as I M:ve $8.1? \’8? aee16.entrtlly killed
vhilo still a young fJ6.t. Jester, e.t I hr”‘V!I 11.lec ea.id, ls practicing l?.¾•
in New 0rl1m1u,. ‘l’abvr I thillk ia e. prseticing doctor in f’t.ttereor.. Nc-v
Jer•e7. Bale. vb.om I hs•? occaetonal’.!.7 seen oTer the yMr?, reentered the
eervice in World War U. Lovett, ?hose dieUL?.th:h.oo. oa.roer h well known,
became Undeir Seeretaey of Stat? under Genenl Mitrshe.ll. In 194’1 vben I vn.a
‘l’h? LfV!al .AdTiser of the Str,.t0 Dep,rhien’\ • our \•1ork thore b&ppily ova’.!”lapped
tor a. whila, reid.nltcent of other dais end. of battle• of lor..c a.go. I had
4ec1de4 \o leaTe Government 1Hnice befcr• t kne’-” h• vat to co.me into the
J>epar\a1ant. llisa l think I would ha.V’3 r@i11!11ned to work ·:11th him. Re s?kad
me to do ao, aa OounHlor of \he Departmerit. whioh apJ>ealed to me .,!:l%7 much.