– 53 –
l:bnta. le Yearg, l924-l?3a
Santa le proved not only a health-resatori.ng but a lovel7 place to ltTe.
Before long I began to worlt at \he office pa.rt ot each da7. Gradually the
work da7 beaame e. no:rmal one. I •t,qed at first, tor about six veeke, at
9wuaount Sanitarium, conducted br Dr. 1ra.Dk Mara. I became friend? v1th
two other 10ung men th?re. !Cff.ler e.Dd MoDowell. and thn three ot ua soon
rented a house tn to-wn where we kept house. I lJaS never hotp1 t1’1hed. after
this al.though during ‘1117 bachelor lite I did 11Te at 8’. Yincent’e SAD$tortu
for a vhile la a non.-paUent etaw.s. !he good S11tert1 had eo■e rooms aTa1l,.
ble for a tew. in the building at the Ne.r of the Oathed.ml. !his :pl’C1’e4
e. con·.-enient al!d. pleau.nt place 11311ee4.
l. Santa J’e and Its Wa1•
Santa :re was then a eolllJDtlDi t7 ot about 11,000 1nba’b1tanta. end as l 1
well known is beautifully situated on a. plateau acuae S,900 feet 3b0Te 1tea
leTel -. with tme.11 hills near and, farther northeaat, the great &.ngre de
Cristo !a?e eloping e,gr;.in.&t the llt7 upward to oTer 12.000 feet. !e70m are
the still higher ‘l’rucba•.. !o ,ne mrthweet a.t a far\hel” diatance b the
Jemez Bange, a blue border on tha .ho:rbon.
Saata re waa the firat oapUal in any- pe.rt of what ia nov the Uni te4
ftates. 1’ had been an Indian oapital and the capital of a 9puish Pron.nee
before tbfll founding of our ori”1.n.al colonies in the llaat. tn the famou•
el!!ped1t1on. of Cabeza de Vaoa \he Sr,an1eh had reached Ibis area earl7 in the
16th centu17, crouing the southern part of the conttn.en.t from J’lor1da.
!he climate ts superior, the ataosph.ere usual.17 cleal’• fairly free ot
moiatu.re or dust except so•timea in the spring the vims do 1’1r Up a ver,
fine duet. !here are gorgeoua nights and day• – sun.eel• and sunrieea •
– 54 –
‘l’he weather 11 cold in thft w1nter and in the 1waaer i• oool ln ,he e.,.ning.
Vnal.11 uov co••• earl7 aa4 l’e•l•• all winter, vi th Uae mountain• heanq
lad.a. t ••• alwa7• reaeabered ,he beauty of lfT Tel’J’ tir1t i.mpre•at♦ne,
vhea Mr-: am Hre. larkeJ’ •’ • in the H’ellln« at La.,.. where the Saa’6 t•·
train pauaei. The air wae the cool air of the nigh.la of late Auguet. At ve
ol1Blbe4 fro• tb.e 11 ttle town ot La,q up \he wimlag road. to the htaher pla …
teau. lhe ••re aeemecl ‘brighter than l bad eTer 1eeni and as wed roTe on.
atop ,-..plateau, the 4am hill• al>out were like low 1CMDe17 fooUnc the
creat aoual&ln• ‘cval’d vhloll we droTe, leanng \hell ureaohed, howff•1″• be-;,
ton. the low 1\aelt •• al bauc1., aeatled there•• 11 had. ‘been oTer th-9
the Sangre de Orl1to 110utain1 are 10 oallecl l,eca.u1e at tunlova a
‘beauUtul N4 clow ia often lht’Ovn back an4 apread.s o•er th•• to tlMt ea.at
u4 norU1ea8’ of Seat. Je. !hie i• particul11rl7 l,eauUful and ‘riTid when
1110v 11•• on the 110utain1. A1 the first Spania!de oaae up from the eouth
a.Ad reaohed. the plateau \hla crlaaon glow led \hea to esolata, “Saner• ••
Ori ,to• – blood. of Chrltl.
!here •• been a ncc•••ful effort oYer the ,-n \o pi-•••”• \he
ulqu• ai-ohUeo’h.r• of the area, &Dd the adobe oona\notlon. ‘l’hi• 11 a
n.riatlon of the Spaniah. lt beca11e known at the Santa 1e at7le vh1oll,
while baaloall7 Spani•h. 1• elmpler. the Cathedral. howe·Hr, 1• not of
thia arohi\eoture. l\ wa• ‘bull\ by the faJIOUe Aroh’biabo-p lean. llapti•t• Lam7,
vbo •• a henchman, the hero of Villa Oa.ther’• Dg)h Qav• It \ht :tinll-
) l •ho»
W’hea l wa• there the Arohb11hop •• Albert ‘l’bo•• »aecer, a. 1ranol•oaa.
!he Jrana1acana, vbo have had a large put ln the h1etol”7 of the
• 55 –
Southveat, came with the Spanish qgnQ)rl.Uadpfftl a.nd hi.Te remlned. ,U,
an ‘h• pl’leat• a, \he Oa\bed.ral • vhioh 1• the center ot relt11oua aatiYlV
la Sa.a\a 7e.
ArohbS.ahop Daepr va• a aimple am. bea-.tttal epirtt. known to h11 J)eepl•
a• father Albert. It we.• -, hoaor to become one of hh legal adnaere;
and after h11 death 1 bad the reapoaeibill t7 of pro’baUn« hi• will. 1
shall neTer forget him. am I feel that none who lmew him, of wlateYH’ religion.
ahall •••r forge\ hla o:r think of him vltll011t tlankfulne•• tor hi•
ceo4 ••-.:,le and t.napiratloa a• a true ‘Pri•at ot God.. Death oaae n44eal7
to hla at be opeaa4 a vron.g 4oer fro• a eul.11 •tnet and fell lalo a
lovaw.l’d •’-11″WA1′ vbea he expected to find. a noor at the lnel of ta 4oor.
fhe collll\Uli t7 retains a great deal of the ol4 reltctoua custom• ot
Spala ud. Mexico. the feast of Oorpua Ohriati 1• oelebratacl ‘b7 a p:rooeelioll
through the atreets, with the Arohbilhop oar17ing the lu.ohar11t. there
are pauaes at epeoial.17 prepared. 1hrlne1 and altar• along the rou\e where
\he Arohbi•bop bl••••• ,he people and the7 kneel ln vor•hip of ‘• Beal
Pr••••oe. I shall not go oa to deaorlb• other n,,oae and celebra,1oa1 beaau••
the7 haTe been ‘• nbJeo, of better pee tllaa ld.ne, 1AC1u41ac Uao1e
of ou goo4 friend. Buth Laqblla Ale:zaue:r aa4 of Pau Borp.a.
2. the PraoUoe of Lav in Bev Muioo
Mr. :Barker •• ,he eoa-la-lav of Ju.cl«• Lavahl.tn and bad ade hi•
oareer la J’241e l,au.ghlla’ • offl ae. He bad gone lato \he Southveat on von:
of the United. Slate• kn4 Office, I believe, &al thouch a naUft of Wa1h
lng\-oa dec1de4 to lake b.11 life in Bev Mexico.
!he people of coune eleot ,heir pubU.o offlcial.1 in l!fev Meneo. in
oon\tatt with the DlatJ’ict of Oolu.mbia. Barker lilted poll Ucal actlvU7 •
– 56 –
• He became State Chairman of the De110craUo Part1. After RoosH’elt’• ele4-
t1oa a.r.ul ‘fl11’ re,u:m ‘° Wa•hington he •• appotate4 lhli ted Sta tea Atton.e7
alld. a.ften.nta va1 eleoted .1wlge of the fl.rat Ju4lo1al Diati-lot vhloh ta-: .·
eluded Santa 1e Oou\7. He died onl.7 thia latt 1ear (1953) after ao••
J•l”t of bad. heal th.
Ke vaa an excellent ,r1a1 lawyer. We oompleaented each ether, becau,e
I think I w.a a better ottioe than trial laW7er. 0\lr practic• wa■ 1atereatlng
&D4 •rle4, vS.thout 1peotaltsa’10A, whloh would. ••• been. 41tf1C\llt 1n
a tmall ooll&ldt7, alUaouch Santa re aa the oa,1’-1 drew more lepl wozk
t-.a otherwl•• wo1114 b&Te ‘been the oaae. OU, pao’1ce included. a goo4 4.al
of tUle vortc, often lnTolYiag sui h te (l’lllet U Ue. We bandle4 aleo b.Z:’iHk? to•• V
Oftl’ earlf’ land 1rut1 made by the linp ucl Q;D.eeaa of SpalA, inYOln•«
pro bl••• of enoroaohllent and oontllot■ of t1 Ue. We vere attorne7• for oae
lal”ge land gn.nt owed bT a Vev York ta.mil:,. ‘l’hh crant bad ,:old. 011 1 t ln.d
at t.be U•• I wat there \ha gold. could be recoTel’ed onl7 b7 aa expendn
placer prooeH vhloh •• U11profi table. Our pracUoe alao 1noll14e4 eoae
orlalnal o.•••• partlC’Glarl7 eeTeral latenatiac bold.oide oa•••· ‘fbere
wen al10 vlll aJMl pn’bate aattera.
Deaooratio Party kept ,utttac up the beet ticket■ aYalla’ble tn etate,
ao1Ult7 aa4 11UA1oipal eleoUo••• and grad.uall7 ‘becaae the •Jori t7 party in
lallt11 J’e Count7. DaTe ChaT••• the 70,:mger brothe1• of Seu.tor l>ennie
Oba•••• waa eleotu Jla1’01’ of laAta fe, a.ad he &Ill hie ceuncll appolatec! ae
0U7 attome7. I va1 oallecl upon to ad.Tise the 001111011 about all nrt1 of
que1Uon•, wt the verlc vat net -parUoul.arl7 burdeaeo•. I eaJ07ed. thl•
first pYern.mental poettloa tn tbe ancient city of Santa Ja. ‘!’here were
– 57 –
Dr. ltobel’t o. ll”Owa.
·SaAia re cUd ao, ba”f”e publio ovaer1hip of uUll Uea ‘bv.l
ooqoil va.a T9f7 moh ooaceraed vi th ‘\he uUll t7 n.,e,. ‘1’be eleotrto power
COJlpaJ’ll’, prlYatel7 owned, was the principal uUll\7. Water wae eupplied b7
a public enterprise – from a reaenoir fed ‘b7 the Santa le Rinr ta tlle
Jarker am 1 opeae4 a branch lav otfloe in. ‘l’aoa. We plaeed 11074
iea.Uer 1n charce tiler•. le wa, a ,eua .. vhe ha4 ooae o\\t tor hi ■
health a.a4 with whoa l bad beooae well ao?•late4. Be was a gratuate of
ti••• parUC\llarlT vll•• there vat a tena of oovt. te.,er-, ,ouace:r ‘brother
Leo, after hi• graclsUoa 1.a lav at Waeh1qto.a & Lee Vat.Yerei ,,. • oaae
to lw Mexico and Joined the offioe in 1’ao1. Leo did not eta, Tel7 ltn,.
Jeu.tlei-, however. baa remained. In. Ume he HTered hi• oonneoUoa vi th. ••
aat went on. b.11 ova. Be hat beoo•• a well kaowa aDd fiae olUsea of ti.
!here wae a falr awiber of laW7er1 la Su.ta ‘•• but the Iowa •• not
tTererowded, cou14erlnc Uiat tt wa• ? oou,,. ••’ an4 Stale oaplul.
fhere were about tveaty-fiYe lavyere lhere ill tbo■e yean. Sou wre ••17
able. ‘Phey worked hard at their profeedo». DOh’Uhatandin« \he pleasant
aooial life and the aoU.YlUea a.ttrl’butable to ,11e oountr1, with it• ln4iaa
pueblos and their dance•• and tbe old Spuiah cu1tome.
Du.rinc rr laa, 7ear 1n Santa Ye I arped. •neral 1ntereat1n,r ca■ea la
the Sttpreae Covt of the atate. One w.1 a faactnaUn« oaee troa a legal
atand.poiat. After her lm.eband had been oonTioted of second decree murder a
– 58 –
• lad;r eame to u1 one day to appeal the oaae to thei Supreme Court of the
State. The e.ccuwed lived in a Yer., remote part of lito Arriba Oout7 at a
hich A.ltUwle. During a. veey cold da7 he hld dr1Ten with a friend into a
commu1t7 aome miles from his home, in the high oountl’7 of the ‘l’rucbaa
Mountains. Another man vho lived in tl’B same area had te.ken u:o ·?11th them
and. all started baok homeward together, tra..-eling the snow co•ere.d roads in
a sleigh drawn by two horses.
At the ator7 came out later the •other man” be«an to alimb out of the
rear of the sleigh a.nd walk, and ,aua alowed up the homeward journey-.
Night vaa comin& on. ‘fhe accused ‘becaae b1ps.ttent and told him they were
go1ng to freese to death 1t Utttf didn’t get on home and if he got off e«ain
th.et would Juat go off and lea’Ve him. It was bi u,,rl7 cold and. there waa
evidence at the la.ter tt1.al that when the surrl•ors reaahed home they wel’e
parU.all;r froal’bi tten.
The nex.t dq the United Sta.tea mailma,n travelling that route found th•
body of tb:4 other man in the anow. face down along tbe tide of the l’oad,
dead. Hit ‘tnok:a in the snow indicated he had walked about a llllle before
he fell down and apparentl7 t:ro1e to death. The accused w.1 convicted ot
eeoond decree mrd.er on the theor,- tbe.t he had. abamoned the deceaeed and
left hi• to die.
In the Sur,:reme Court, I took the poeUion that the trial court errecl
in tailing to instl”Qot the jur7 on Jlll!lllele.u«hter. although defense oounael
bad not requeated the instruction. Ve aleo ?rgued tbat in &D7 event the
e’rldence wa.e so uncertain that the Ju.?7 could not U7 beyond a reasona’bl•
doubt a crime bad been oomml Ued rather than thet death wa due to the oold.
There wae no mortal wound ot any sort. !here was a little bruise on the
– 59 –
deceaeed’• face, which might have bet’,n e&ueed b1 hh fall, and. there were
eozae abnaion• on hit ahin which might ba’Ye beea due to hie getting ln an.4
out or \he be.ck of ‘\he 1leigh.
· After the case va• briefed in the Supreae 0ou1″\, another ca•• inTolYl?
a 1bd.lar question as to a.n inttn.oUon on Mnalaqbter, ort,r1nat1.ng 1a
aaotber part of the state, wa1 clecided by the Supreme Coun adTerael7 to
our conten.Uon. I thaa oo..,.1cated wUb counsel ta the other caae, explained
the aUuaUoa. and aaJced that if he filect a aoUoa for rehearing
would he llind if I helped. h1a brief the qu•eUon.
!he court grantN a NheariAC :ln the o\her oaH, cha.need 1 ts ‘rlewa oa
the legal quet\1011, ••• aa14e the connctioa, aad remanded the ae.ae for a
run, ,ttial. !hen in our oa•• the oour\ decided that tba evidence vs.a ineuttioieat
to eata.bl1ah a orlae and. ordered the e.oouH4 released on that
gro\UM\. ‘!’he court no doubt bell&fld the deceaeed bad tnaea. to dee.th and
wa• llO’ killed b7 &nJ’ ao\ ot ov.r client. I have ci••n ,u foregol11g t’roa
recolleoUoa. Sln,ce 4.oinc ao I ha.Te found the oita’1one of the two oaaea.
!he •other caae11 1• repor\e4 aa Sta\• ..-. ?. 36 1′. M. 284. 13 P. 2nd. 883.
•eu.r• case 1• reporW •• Sta,, •• Btrl’J’t 36 I. X. 319, 14 P. 2nd 434.
ln tb.e ume oov.n ,-., ,-.ar l presented. the caae iuol Ying tbe U tle
\o om ot the big l&lld. granla, a oonte■t wich grew o\1.t ot OY@rlappiq
clalu. l\ was a Tel7′ oomplicate4 queatlon p6oul1ar to the countq. The
cleoi•loa 1, reporh4 aa ,laAUQa v. hJ.ltCPI, 38 1′. M. 21.1, 30 P. 2nt 179,
oa rellearinc a.Ow 111′ 4epartan. I also arp.ed am loet a case iaYOl’rlnc
the couU fttionali t7 of a ,atoU.ae tax 1ape•e4 b7 iu al ‘7.
fh11 appellate wol1c •• vt.thollt the help of a Jtud?r •
– 60 ..
I oanno\ eay I found appellate work lllOre int?r41!st111R than trials. 1″).t
I did tlnd it easier. !here’• nothing quite a• laterest1ng aa the Id.al ot
a case. which’ 1 oona14er more diffioul’ tor a lawyer than JDOat app.Uat•
11Uggt1on. A good trial lav,ver llUtl\ potteH some qualities oTer .-,. a’boTe
thote J1eeded b:, r111 appellate la\q’er. He 11U1t proJect his poai tic.a aero••
th6 tootlighta. a.e 1t were. to a Ju.17, vhioh it different from presenting
legal arguments to other la,qera who ha.Te beco111e Judcea.
A1 -.tter• tuned out, althouch I engaged in a sllkliticant llWlber of .
\rials, I he.Te d.oM 11110h 110re appellate wen:. la \be appellate 11’1,aUoa ..
l handled tor the pTez1111ent I e.lwa,• ball able •••htanta. !he aaout of
original work ftri«\ with d.ifterent oaaea &il4 different atatfa. Onl arca,-
1U11t& ‘became pentull7 perba.pe the 1110et lntereaUnc par\ of -, oon.tnlnltioa
and this. wbahTer elte alght b4’ said of 1 t, wae ‘lflT ow •
As to taehz:liqu.e in oral ar«ument • lline went through change. Usual.17 t
wo,ald no, :teel safe, and ,ht, inolwled ca.aes in lower court., without firet
fully writing out \he ar,ument. I telt unea.e7 uleH I tornlate.i clefiai\el7
what I ought to sq. l kept to this •thocl of preparaUoR tor a long llae,
‘bv.t cradua.117 abaDdoAed 1 ,, at I gained aore oonfldence thnugb experience,
&A4 used mo\e1 1ri•tea4. Allother faoet of prepait.Uon wae a T•l’T tlelibe:ra\e
ooncentratioa on “Vhat 1• the heart of \hi• cate’t” rather uaa-., ttVha\ 1e
thle case?” in a general aenae. Uauall7 ,here ia a tu.rm.nc point ln a ca•••
it 0114’ can oe.ll 1 t t.bat, a ltind or eaaenoe. ‘.l’ai• h not al.W7• true, for
eom• ceees a.re too 0011plloatt!4 to lead \heraeei…- to \hie apprai eal. hi
q,,.ite often there 1• a ·con. Onoe 1, lt fouad \he peei Uoa lteooMe olearer,
no\ onl.7 the pod ‘1on the court ahould take but \he method of pre,eata\ioa •
– 61 –
rlhtle oral argument ah:>uld be oonaistent with the brief 1 t. should no’\
duplicate it. 1’here i• little point to oral argument unless 1 t makes a
contd’buUoA beyond \he brief. It 1hould be a reetatemen\ of the case la
ditf’ere.nt for.11 &ad in a. -.nner to add J)ereonal perW&sion to tbst of the
printed word.. ‘l’his ia the challence, I think:, ot oral argument. It afford•
an oppor1lunit7 te point ttp the eesenoe of thA cane and to remove
doubts in the mind of the court. ‘!he epok:en -word beoomes a vehicle for an
in\e:rpl.AJ vhioh 1• ot,en an laportant l)&rt of argument, giving 00W1sel an
opportUlli tT to help on matters which otherwise he Jd.ght not lcnov are trou’blifl&
t.be court. Jor this to be don•• howe-ver, the oourt 1t••lf 11U1t be an
aoUY• parUot.paa,, not merel7 a llateaer.
there 1• perbap• e difference in the relat1enah1p of an anpellate law-
7er to the court and that of a trial lawyer. But I -would not aa,- it 1 s
tundamatal, because in a trial there is also the taak of ?i?ing the oourt.
lf the trial is ‘before a jury the lawyer III.U$t aid tbe jury as well. There
1a thie diffei-ence, too. in that &’ppella.te litigation creates preoedente,
wb8reaa ln a Ju.17’ • YeJldic, oa the fact• of a particular oaH, etpecie.117 a
crimlnal ca••• no precedent usually •rl••••
3. Indians ed. ‘!’heir Proble11a
Kr. John Collier, who became \he first Oouisdoner of Indian Atta.ii-a
in the liooeeYelt ad!ninistn.tions, under Seor@tary of the Interior Harold L.
lckee, va.a vell acquainted with Mr. Barker before I ca• to Santa Fe.
Oollier was the executive aeoretar7 of the Am•n•ican Indian DefonBC”J AuociaUon,
devoted to promoting the welfare of tho Indians. Re wae in Santa :re
from tiae to time, though his home w.s in California and he lived p?.rt of
• the tims in New York. ! beesme one of his ?rlTiiers on ma\\ers involvin«
the Indians, 1:noludin? legislation •
. ..An important :problem affecting the Pueblo Indian, had d.nel<>t’ed before
I went to New Mexico, wt had not yet rw,. its course. These Pueblo IndianJ
are }Jr”etty .llttl.ch where th?y \ilere when the first !ru.ropHns came into the
Sou.th.west, along the Rio ‘.Jrande and other waterways. 1’he7 of eourte had
the fir?t. choice of placaa to live. ‘l’he Pueblo Indian as the name licni:t
iea is one who live$ in a village.
!he Spaniards did not t17 to exterminate the Indians or to driT? them
from their hoJlllee e.nd adjacent lands. !hey did assume clom1n!on e.nd granted
s.rPes tc the Indh.ne adjoin.in& their Pueblos. ‘.!’hese b&came known ae th?
Pueblo Lend Grantg. When Mexico became the sovereign after ahe revol hd
from $pEdn the Ind inn si t’IW.tion was not ohallged. Ailleriean eov?reignty
followed our ‘tl’dl’ with Mexico. Thereafter, Congresa confirmed the old
Spanish Land Oranta to the. Pu?blo Indians as community 1)!’0-perv ‘bt,longing
to the Pueblos, thu? following the Spanish patt?rn. ‘l’he individual Indian
ll.’Ould 1¥.tve his ow house for his familT but the lands were owned b7 the
Yeart paued.. Individual Indians traded otf ploh of land. Amerioan
or Spa.llish or Mexioan settlers be$;1Ui to eke into the old cra,n.te and take
posseesion of parts of them, often with oolor of ti ‘1e. “t’his mi3ht have
come nbout by?. trade of <!0!’!19 sort, ait:1.1r with the Pueblo or with an Indian
working u pi;irticular plot of land. The Sp.?.niah or thfl! Mexican !amil7,
or later some .Americans, made theee places their homes in good ta.1th. ‘fh.,
thcugbt the land was their own. Aa Ume went by this oi-eated both a lE’!gal
and EUl eoonomic problem. ‘?he Indians needed for their own 9U1!tenanoe the
– 63 –
land laolw:le4 1n the original grants. ‘l’he tran■tera referred to vel”e of
queetionable ‘ft.1141 t7, 10 that the non-Indian .. ,uer1 •••n U’ he bad IOll:ethl
? to •Y14eac• hl• \1Ue and ba4 bnn 1n po•••111oa for generaUone, 414
not hi.Te good. U ne, beoauH an Ind.in va, not .ISl1 Jur:\e; he w.a a ward of
\he pTenment and he could aot oonTey a”Wa7 the land..
The al tuatton vaa oonto.1ecl.. OongreH took a aene1ble ltep in the
•rlJ •ooa, b7 enacting ,he Pueblo Land Grant Lav. !he lav created a Board
and la-14 tow 1\amard.1 tor th• Joard. to f ollov. Jriefl,-, the law pron4el
that if a 1et’1er who waa in poHe811on could lbow color of title aa4
actual poHetaion oftr a 1peo1tle4 period, the Joard should. contlra Ma
title, but \he In4b.n• ahoud ‘be oompentated 1>7 the t1nltecl. Stat•• for the
lo•• of thl1 land. The VaUecl State• took reapona1b1llt,- beoaustt tt bad.
aot proteote4 the land fro• enareaohment • so ti. Go•erJU11tat wul.4 P•1 the
heltlo the reatonable ftlu of the land confirmed to ,be aeUler ‘Ul!er tii.
ttaad.&l’d.• of the statute. It the olaillU!Ult could not •how i,oaeeuioa ud
color of u,1e under \heae 1\a.adard.a the lan4 O&M back to the Pueblo.
lt .,, a NA• .. ,w of t17lag to adJud a 4S.ff1cul, 11tuaUoa. ••
Joa.rd iAYeau;a,eci aa4 he14 heartnca – a tr•ulou ull\enaldnc. then
wa• & pl’OYl■ioa ln the law \l:t.at at\er the Joa rt a4.e 11• aw.rd a the attel’
ehoul.4 ‘be Mken into eoun a, to eaoh Pueblo u4 N’Ylew4 by the 0011.d. 1a
· Jlr. larker and 1 wen retalae4 by •o•• of the aetUere olaimlac tl ‘1•
u4;•;,he atatute. Oa the vllele the deciaion• ot Ille Board on UUe wen
prettl’ to’U4 in our Ju,d,a,, 111 aeoordance with aTailable lnformaUoa froa
– 64 –
• old ,•C)C)Jlll and fro• ,e,t1aorq. Jut \he compenaator., award• the loaJ’Cl mate
., . .. ,o •? P\iebloa were lud.•flU te.
[:1la .•tev of 411•thtao,1oa. pl’laarU,7 la Ud.1 latter reo1’4, ‘••• t•?
••?;.?-?• in ln4ian welfare threa\eu4 lo ‘1J>••’ ‘• wbole pnou b7 .-ol aooepttitg/
tb.e reftl.11 aJ.14 ueJda« Jv.dloiall.J’ lo oTerihrov Oil oon1’1.tutlonal..
CN’1M• all tbat the Board. had. done.
It •• eald. t.bat Ooaar••• could not take •Vll7 Ind.tan Ii Ue eNn ad.er ·•
•ht.:• ate.ate. fml• there aroee a •eriou1 threat of pNlracled. OO.iH\1tu1l••l
. ‘ 11\lf,&Uon. !he wJ:aole proble• vould lie lhrova ‘baok: in.lo the uu.111ta<ttot’f’
tl”-:tloA pr•ee41ag the 1’8.lv.te, or ta’9 a wr•• elate. I 414 aol ‘1d*
thl• abould. ooftl’. l f-11 the pro,raa va1 to\UIA. I felt thal \he Joan,
&D4 0oll1er a.n4. bl• ach’laera tel, lh1• too, had. Md• r•eoaaltlt goof. deolaioa•
on ti ‘1•• ud.er r••ne.’ble ataata!d• laid. down bT Ooqre1a. We
a&J’eed. • . hcnteffr, Iba\ the award.• wen taadequa le to ncolll)enae the Indiana
for their lo•••• of la.Dd. eepeolall1 ln ••:ra• ot \helr aeeds lo npl&oe
eooumioall7 tbe area■ belna collfll’lled. torenr tn others. I ngpetecl that
a Join\ approaoll of la41aaa aml ••”l••• ‘be aa4• ‘8 Ocu1cre••• to 1q $)la
vbol• •Her \eton ti.. J>l’Op•r collllittees, aa4 ,., •••• the ha1’4’• , ….
oleio•• on 11’1.e tbo1114 be aooepte4. L1’1pt1oa elloulcl be •••• lhlt we
au 0oanaoe ,ou tat •bl• »oar4 ha••’ a•J’de4 tuft1o1ent to coapa•••
,be 1a41an• for their lo•••• of land. A441 Uonal oompensattoa •houlcl be
Jl84e b7 Oongre■aional appropriation.•
Our Sena\ON, ln,neoa OlllUn.g aml 8aa ?. Bratton. an4 Bepre■eata\lT•
OlaTes, tbo\lP,t ,ht• va, eouat. the •”•r •• goae into ••J’7 •nful.17 b7
\he appropriate 0011111 H•••• oa the •••• 114• uder the lu.c1.erth1p of
Senator Out\lJIB and Senator JnUon. Bearing■ were hel4 111 Bev Mexico allA
– 65 –
• in Wnshingion. Su.ch an adjuetmen t of’ the problem we.• reached; supplem.entary
le-sla.tion ws enacted; the li\igsUon was ended; the decree• beoue
finalr the t1tlet vere se11Ued. And Oongreu lncreaeed. the amount to be
paid to the Indians. Before a nbooami Uee cf the Senate on Indian Attal?••
I explained the si tuat1on as I eav it and •de reoo11mendatione tor a aolution,
at .Taos, Ma7 9, 1931. See Pert 20, pp. 10058 et seq •• Sun-ey of
Condition, of the Indians in the United States; Jle&rings, etc., ?lat 0ong.,
2nd SeH., Pueblo Lande :Board. 1 alao te■Ufied in ‘Wa.ehlngton on both the
Senate u.d Bouse eidee. ‘!’he latter appear,, at lea1\ in part, at pp. 75
-1\ HQ.• of Hearince, 72 Cong •• lat S.aa. • on B. R. 1071 – Doou.mellt 597.
Former Jud.1e 11. H. Banns waa the priaoipal attorney for the Ind.lane, a
ital.wart lew Merlca.n of great 1\a.ture.
Durin« Uda per1o4 I aaw Mr. Collier frequent17. !lit! frie!ldship manifeated
1 \self in 110re waJ’• than one. He has ‘been at times a tomewllat controTeraial
personality, but he hu been dnoted to the Indians. I do not
know the begianing of his interest 1n the Indians. whether it waa tna.Tel
and contaot vith \hea, when he eav ,heir 91\uaticn and wanted to help, or
whether 1t vae through some other aeeociation. He wae the epir1t ltehlnd
the .le80olatio11 although 11here were other• ot coune who aleo npported it.
A.t the Um• of which I speak the Indio• thouch ciUzo• did 110\ enJ07
all the rights of 01’11:ena. ‘?hey vere the ward• of the goTenunent. vhiob.
wae reeponeible for their welfare. !his va1 an enlightened and c1T1l1,zed
policy, but 1111u1? eontrover1ie1 aroee over detail,.
The Indian■ had a great deal of autonomy vUhia their pueblo•. One
source of controvera7 among friend.a of ihe Indiana turned on whether the
Indian• thould be subjected to the «eneral la” in greater measure, or -per-
• mitt-4 to keep thdr own police power, •• it vere, in their pueblos, vtth
\heil’ tribal form of goTermnen\.
Ooll1H· proao\ed and. perhape im. \lated an all-pueblo ccuno11 ot all
the p’1.e’bloe. which would ••’ ta 10•• central i,lace, uw.all7 at San Dom..neo,
to dlacu• problea• mutual to the pueblos. parUcalarl7 legtalatlTe matter•
pend.inc in Washington. When Oollier planned to coM to the State 1t vat
likel.7′ auch e. council meeting would be cal.led. I often vent “1th hia to
\he•• »e♦\S.qe. Some’U.••• \he7 wen conducted in thne laa,;uc••• Sou of
the older IAA1ans u•ed their own lupage, vhloh Tarle4 fro• pueblo to
pueblo. ‘1h11 would be tranalate4 tntJo Spanleh, vbioh •• andenteod \1 all
the Indlant, anA then 1ato lngl.1 ah. ‘!he ••Unga were v•’f7 deU.beraU,Te,
vllh the lad.teas eittlng arou4 the room vi th their lobaoeo before thu fol’
thelr ciprettet or :9ip••• A 1eoreta17 would. kup note•. SoaeUae• re1ol11-
Uons wM’e pasaed and g1Ten to Mr. Gollier. who llighl be coming baclt lo
Wea:tu.nctoa. 1nd1cat1nc bcv the laU.ane Yiewed pemUnc •tten.
I was talking J••t w1 \h1a a tev week• hire in Waehington to Preelteat
Jiaeabover•• Co•1H1oMr ot h4.laa J.tfai’r•• Mr. GlOA 1,. llmona of Gall-,,
Jew Mexico, on the edge ot \he •ft.Jo cou11t17. Mr. Jncu’le 1• a clo••
tri.ead of l>a.za T. XellJ’, a proalaenl oiti1en ot Santa 7e aa4 an old tr1en4 of
ou1. Daa and hh wlfe ha4 oo•• laat tor the vetdlng of lheli’ son in lfev
York an.4 then had. come to ‘ffaah1ncton ‘° speud a tw da.1’• wt th ue. While
here Dan pt in touch wt th Mr. .0111 and ve ha.A a •1•1 t.
Altbo\llh I have peraonalll’ not been clote to Ind.laa -.ttaira now for
.,. 7ure, 1 would •7 that \he \&lie difference of oplaioa &JIOD« lhoee 1a…
terea1ied la theta it whether the Indian should be p:oteote4 ln. his owa oulture
or whether he should ‘be eacounc84 to abandoa U aa4 become •••111lllate4
– 67 –
• into the ord1mq American life. Thie baeia problem breaks dova into maq
fac•t•. Collier was of the 1ohool vhioh \hoqht there wa1 a great 4•1 to
‘be p;.-?•ned. iv.t he atn•• aleo fo1′ thell’ eooao•ic, health aad e4uea•t•Ml
dffelopaent. I he.ve 117eelf e7q.,ath11ect generall7 vUh thie poi.at of Tiew.
!here la the brpor\ut subject of religtou• d.e-velopmen.t of the Indian.
Moat of the Pueblo Imian• 111ould ta7 thq were Oatholloe, ha.Tine bHn ooaTert-4
1n earlier 1ear1 und.H’ the Spam.th :reglu1. :But vi th their Oatbol1-
e1o there hat lteea. a\ leatt arrionc a aba\anUal muaber, a reteaUon ot a
1004 teal of their ova ln41aa religion. ‘!be hu.oi,oan father• aeea ut to
b&Te oonditioned their aeoeptaace of Oatholloiu ‘QJ)OA ehucie, all tlMtl:r ·
ouatom• and pna.otlo••· fne7 laave re?lned any of their dano.t ot which
the QOm dance at Suto Domlago 1• a now.bl• example. t tb1u: U can tftly
be charaoterba<l aa a pr&yel” for rain vhioh anted.ates the Ohrhtiu en 111
ln ea1,ern Unihd State, “here the Indian was largel7 exteminated. we
do •’ appreo:t.a\e full1′ \he Yildoia ot the Spaalsh pollaJ” \oward, the ln411Ul
w1-r• ? eUll llve la th• aa11e plaoea their aac•ahre live4 ¥Ma th.
lpaaieh tire\ oaae with tu Oonquhtadora and \he lathers.
4. »co11ealo Collapte and Poll \1oal Obaqe
fb.e 1929 coll.a,•• attected Santa 1• ‘but perhaps l••• tma ••• lhlold.7
popul.&ted area,. lfhere w.a a good deal of speculation. about what ehould lte
done, w.ba.\ the pYen.aent waa and vae not 4olng. alld \here were anxietle• aa
to \he future.
1 :reoall DO U.a•• of huCr7 mu 1a Sa.A• ‘•• b1tt there vere people aot
able to n.pporl iheuelv••• poor people vho. throup. unemplc,y11ent or illn•••
or old age, 11.eeiecl help. One of the aotiTe med.ta ot this vaa the St. Vin-
• cent de Pe,ul Society, which made thG poor its apeoia.l uolic1tu?. Then
there were the welfare agencies. and the Red Oro••• of which I•• Presi-
dent for a time, actively functioned. We received and distributed. a good
-,,. de..”il of “Red Croat J’l.our.”
No doubt we were as ..,ell off. if not be\ter off than moat plaoea; and
we looked upon the ei tuation as tempora17. We did. not fall far into the
gloom, due to the rather simple econom.T of the !lr’Ja.
There ve.e a groYing feeling the administration vat unable to do much,
..a.e not imaginative or furnishing needed leadership. There was d1uathfact1on.
but e. feeling the CO\Ul.tr1 would reooTer.
As to a demand for a chance e.• the 1932 eleations awroaohed. of
course beina; a De11Gorat I wat read7 for a ohe.nge before the depnaaion. I
could not eay aocuratel7 from reoolleotion tha.t we e11need in advanee the
strength of the feelin& of nEH!ld tor change that the elaotion of 1932 •bowed
actually existed. Ae in the eleotion of 1936 when the Republicans oarried
only l?ine a.nd Vermont. I suppose moat people might have :felt \he President
should be re-elected, ‘but few sensed the.t so man:, felt the ae.me va:r. Thi•
was probablJ tr11e S.n 1932.
The bank holiday created 1nconTenienoe in Santa 1e but we managed to
get groceries and keep thingA going. The bank w1u sound. ‘he people were
not serioualy ooncerned about it. It closed only es part of the general
closure. though a good ma.ny other bank• in the state neTer reopened.
I could not sa.7 that the Demooratio platform in 1932 toreshaclowed to
me the. Nev Deal to come. l came into the Interior Department trom New
!.fexico thinking of it in 1 ts tn.di t1onal tense ,u concerned. w1 th pu’blio
lands, oil, Imian affairs, ?eological 9UM’ef. reclamation, eta •• the De•
– 69 –
part111,nt most concerned with the West and the Southwest. I did not eome a,
a Bew Deal•r 1n terms o! later deYelopmenta. I do DOI ■e.n I came ae a
oone41.nat1ve1 on the ccntrary, ‘but 1D1 Uall.7 iq vol”k wa, the kind one wou.14
have anUcipat.ed in the le&l branch of Interior. ‘Before long. bov6Ter, 1
wav en&a&ed on quite d1ffai-ent problems and never got back to the more
tradi tionsl ones.
Soae inkling of the detail• of the adminittmtton•• program came fro•
the oan1pa.ip. ‘!’here wae a nev, 1111)1’& imaginative and more vigorous appnu1,,oh,
a 111Qre 0011.raceoue and Neourcetul etton to Gol Te \he co111lt17’ a -probl•••
l’rom the caupaign I had no parUcular conception ot a procnm 1n terms of
the Wacner Act. or the Oil Code or the Industrial leoovery Act. for example.
‘mere vae sose forecaat of Social Secul”i t7, control of the •took •mt,·
• perhaps lecislation in connecUon with public utiliti••• and other epecifio
matters. 1Jconom1 also wae streaaed.. But generall7 I look baak upon. ,he
08.qlaign as more a forecast of greater imegi.natiTe etforte to cope with
ttmteTer the proble.1u were, an assumption of leadership ra,her tban drU’\ …
1ng Qd d.efauJ. t.
looaeTelt came throllCh New Mexico during the campa.ip. We wa\ 4ova
to LamT. where his train w.1 tra..-elltnc East. Re came out on the rear platfors,
looki.ng nr, healtbf and in fine spirita. It was the first time I
had seen him since e.s e.n Aaahtant Secretary of the llaY)’ he bad walked.
acron our aird.rome in northen. France in 1918, before hh tllnen. Jronaoa
CuUin«, 11t’ho lived in Sen\& 1•• vat at Lamy. !he Pre•ident called to h1a
to come up on the platform vith him. Cutting •• a J>rogreuive Repu’blio&Jl
but tvpported BooeeTel\ duriJl.g th1& aaupaign. ‘!’here waa a vell-def1ned
– 70 –
rumor the Preeide.nt offered him the Seoretaeyship of the Interior, bu.t that
he p’x-?ferred to remnin in the Senate.
Ve he9.rd the Pree1.dent oYer the ni.dio oa lu.ugure.Uon dar. ‘l’he .-…,.,.
Uon..?• a little dlttioult but ’11’e could bear his strong voice, &1″111:.’1•
?-.’-‘ 3 ,,.:: . .- ‘;. ,•,· : . – -.
. l never e:xpeoted to N\urn to ‘iaehington to l1Te. Collier •topped otf,
on bi• we.1 to Washington 1n the spring of 1933 and ve talked abou\ vho
should. be Indian Commi111oner, etc. ‘!”here ‘!tat aeaUon of loket. Collier•,:
own interest waa unselft•h and impersonal. le wanted a £Ood Oo-lH\ou”.
and seemed to prefer \hat eoae person o\her \baa biaeelf be selected:. I
told hbl I thought he should make bimaelt ava1lable. •’P•Oiall7 1f ……..
‘l’he Prellidaut appotn.,ed Icke• Seoretaq of the Ia1ierlor in9’8ad of Indian
Commissioner. Ickes mew Collier favora.bl7 in the Indian work. ln
which Mre. tokes h!td. been act1v’!. Other good 11atui were also oona1dere4, taeluding
Jamee W. You« of Ch1caao, who I ,Mu vat llOI available. Oolllei
wat appointed. la.\baa Margol4. of Nev York. who bad been atto:rae7 \htu••
for the Aaun•loa.t1 InUaa Defense A.teooiattoa, vhlch t bad helped. la Bew
Menoo, we.• ma.de So11c1,or. larr1 Sla.tter7, an 014 ola•••t• and trlm et
earlier day, in Waahi.nc\oh, w.a also bl’OU&ht ta\o the J>epartaent. ‘llm.a,
the7? were Ioke1. Gollier, llargold and Slattery, with all of whom l bad. ha4
aome aseoc1ation, ke7 men aov in the new l.ahr1o1′ Depart:ment. the7 tea\
l deotda4 to do to.
at it teemed to me. And putting all things together, I thought I should
– 71 –
aacept. I came on about Hay l, 193.,. not intending to ata7 indefinitel.7
I am reluct?nt to leave S&nt& Fe among these notes vi thout .?nc a. ··?·’;.)i’-‘<
good detl ll’IOre. W’hs.t bas been said doe• so 11 ttle justice to Ill¥ feel1118•
for the coun.try, tor the personal1t1es associated with it, for its history,
and tor m, friends there of those 1..art a.nd .now.
My Mother with Agnes, rq future “1if, vid ted Santa J’e in the twamer of:
1925, e. lovel7 oocaaion notwithetar:ding the illneas then not ent1r•l7 rttmedied.
We bad our m-.ls at Mrs. Abbott’ a, whose husbe.nd, the J’U.dce, still
gre.eed the 11 ttle boutsehold. Mother remained e. while longer than Agnes oa
this v11it, and lived part of the time at St. Vincents, vhere S1eter Genevieve
of blessed. memo17 couducted the beautiful work of the 11u,t1tut1on.
At time& tr.ere oame to the Abbot?• s household. :;)ugene Manlove Rhodee an?
Faul H.o rgan.
Phil Stevenson, then nw- gooa and kindly friend, had iMhY years ahead
before our pa.the parted so d.efinitel7. Dick ai.l8y and our land purchases
and friendship are a pert of ? Santa le 7earg. as vell as the house for
children enterprise in whioh I was a•sooiated “1th Mias Daccan.
The k:riter, Laughlin and ICall7 homes, aa well as other•• ooae Tividl7
to mind in pleaaant e.nd grateful recolleot1on; &lso, good Father Barnabas,
Father Jerome end others at the Cathedral Hector,-. Nor shall I likely forget
the country ride to Parkviev a.Di the da,ya there, studying the \lj!Bter
righh case. in the home of the «9uUemanl.7 J’ranoheo Lcpes, nor the Miguel
Chavez, Celestine Bomen, and Palmer caaes.
:? dater Sa.rah oame too for a while, aeeking to rid herself oi dnu1 •
As I he.Te ea.id Leo also came to Taog to start his legal career.
– 72 –
Agnes and 1 41a.de our first home after our marriage, which was •cv?
hed in 1i-lashl.tltiton, Jue 26, 1939, on College Street in San.ta J’e, lA -. ·
house .rented troa Buth Barker. Mr. and Mre. Joe Sena. were our good. •’4?–·
A.pril lo, 1930, our first children Charles and .\ane Mari• were bora •?
St,. Vincente, and July 19, 1933, Sa.rah Agn.ea, also at St. 1’1ncent1. (Dr.
Bolls and Dr. Ward. Mha Sta.plea. tb.e nurse.) M,r brother Joe, “Who came
from ·waahingtoa \o Albuquerque to· inapeot the nav veturan.a hospital, v1•1·W
us in Srutta re about the Ume of Se.rah’• birth. laoh ot tl:le children bQl’XI
itL S;.i:-ta J’e wa.s baptised in old St. hanoia Catb«.ral wdch I loved., an4
hope to see ?in.. Memo17 return& to Archbishop Daeger on Coa!irraatiou a.,,,
speklnc first 1n Spanieb and then tn Ezlglhh• wt tb \he Oe:the4rel crowd.eel
“i \h parents and babies, the latter filling the edifice w1 th their voices •
Some good friends no longer 11,re there, t!ordteldt for •?le, vhoa lie
have seen oce&.aion&.lly over the :;ea.re and whose painting and etchings still
e,dorn our home. together Yi.th the litl:l;,graph of Ken Adams, the African
dunes ‘b7 Cyril t. Scott, and old Santuario b7 Joe lakoa.
1 ad.d & \tON in tribu\e to Cba.:rl1e Eckert e.nd his worlt a111Gng the pool’
of Saata 1•.
Both Dick and Lflwis llll•1 have gone beyond. In coatl”aet 1 -we receutl7
met Da:a Xell;r’ e infant gnu144a.ughter, Susan, a.t the airport here. an route
to Mar,land to vidt Su.saa’1 grandmother.
I have aot mentioned Senator Batch. but I shoul.4. Be alva7• atood to•
me in the 7eara ahead, and vhen J: wae leaving tbe Oovenaeat la 1947 kindl.7
spoke ot me on the noor of ,be Sena\e •
– 73 –
I came on to W,uhington alone. Acne• came vi th \he children some
“eeka .later. not an ea17 trip. And here we have l”etl&iaed, \bough •»Y”
meaotie• •r17 u• back to the ‘111• and th.e place we fire\ IWl• eu.r boa•.
In Bo• the 81:ore had aoae bad ti••• during \ha d.epNHion. Borrovinc
to the htl’ we aeceHar7; but wUb Duke a:nd Albert &t the helm. and w1,n.
Mo\ur’• belp anti encoura.c•ent, ,he old store rode out \he tton.
– 53 –