• 898 –
• co J’urlth• aeetlng 1n. WaebiA&ton. ln. non• of thi• 414 1 aotioe or do I
recall the alip.leet llld1oa’1on. ot p,o-Co..,.11-. I ha.cl n•Yer heard 01″
1uepeo,.i Ual he •• or ba4 been. a •••r of the part7. !ha •ub•eqo.ea,, •·
deTel.op•nt1 reordlDC WbiUater Obulter, caae •• a. 0011plet• Ripriee to ••

aa4 l upeo\ed. that he woul.4 be able to 41.irpn’ff ,he ••••Hon• acata,,
hla. 1 wa• aeked ‘b7 b11 bl”Olher huld to be a ohano\er wltae•• at the
flr•I trial, and 414 so. l ••• N1′ tba, tn• rq close tollowinc of the
tnal •• \be ted1mov 4nelopK l feel the Juq ba4 a4eqaate baei • tor lblt
ooao1u1on ulUMtel7 reached.. I •• aot nbpoeMed. to be & vun .. , at lhe
teoond. trial u4 4.td aot fffl that l allev.1.4 ID ul••• nbpoenae4, ai,-cb
I hll4 4oae to at lhe flnt trial. the oa•• 11 a 117ater, to ••• II,- Jwlc.,
1a \lat if Alger Jfl11 414 aot tell the tru.th about \be • Uer – if he
perJve4 b1aaelf – the tn.th peri’!apt 1• that he wa\ vroag la \he lliddle
of tlte teooad balf of tbe thir’l••• recntte4 11, 11′”4 11 4owa S.n hl• ovri
Ute, ud w.a later uwllUDC to taoe up to aoknowle4&aeat of the earliel’
ll11tak••• So tar •• l Jcaov, nolhinc 4ero&ato17 oaae out, eU,ber at tl»
trial• or otbenr1••• reprcltn, hl• ooaaol la the 7eara nb1e41’leat to 191?
or 1938, ‘llnch he reaa1ae4 la ti:.. co••naa•\ for to 7ear, \hereafter la
ooa\ao\ vi. th 1mraun.ble people. lt 11 prola.ble l.bat Ille a11tata1, atlRlll-
1.Dc thq oocm.rnl, w:re •14 o••• fl”OII whloh he ha4 taru4 •WT au. whlob bt
11’1.ecl to keep lruiecl 1n the paa\.
m PltllSIDIJrl’•s OOMMlffD OI ?QUALlfl’ 01 fl.IA?
AID onoatUIJff ti ‘Ill AmtlD JOIO’IS
In J-.l,71 1948, Preat.4.at ,,… tin.eel SxenUY• Ord.er 1to. 9981. eatlt-
194, ·»■’al>llehing the Pnatdut•• 0oa1,, •• Oil 1qoa11,, of heatmo.t u4

– 299 –
Oppo,,ut t7 la the ? S.nloea. • . Pu.rtuaat to l t a OouUt.ee ..,.. ••’41>it.
a-.W ‘- oan,- ot&t Hie IT••lcleat• • pollq tha\ tbel’e abe,ald be eqllalllJ ,t
,….,,.., aa4 epportu1t1 tor all pert0aa la ti.. arae4 Mnlo••• vttbout N• “!>·:·? :·,
can -. •••• oolo•, nllat,oa or aaUoD&l o:rlgt.a. !he o.-t. “•• •• \o- .. ,,
1l•;l!Mt alllla17 eau.bll•hlleal, 1 and kDowa at tm h’atld.en\ 1 a Co•i\tee on
ltpialS.\7 .ot ‘frea,aen.t u4 Opporhai t1 ta the AJ’llie4 Semo••· It w.1 at&tber-
1se4 •to uke a a\ucly of esltttnc nl••• proeeciu.re, u4 praotic••• •• ooafer
tbe •Ti aaA of the .Ur foNe, ud. · to aake noowaiaU.on• ,o the Pr•ddea,
u4 .Uw··• … •re’6.rie• to -effeo”1&•• ‘”1e polio, atat..i. •
I W re’1mle4 to ,n••• pnoUu la 194? ad ta the tall of 1948 ••
la 8aAta le, lev X.st.oo, •ltPI• 1n a tF1&1 wttll-., 014 Su.ta J-e law pa.r, …
aer, iaftlYit)g \be l’ielll ot O&Uao11o •1•hr• to teach la tu pu’bll• aobool.t
of lev Mexi.oo, aad klad.ncl pro)lea, wlaioh ba4 arh•a out ,hen •••• the
oa …. ,, pro1-1 … , pllohtl • ll•t ti. Pre,14•1 vt•W • to ,..,..
•bllnu·.•t the 0oa1,, …. u,., • upl.alul. ,aa. pu,o•• of the •*•<•llA
Mt.A \J:IAi. ?■14•’ nallJ VS..W .. to MM. ,ap U• ea4•1’0r. l \?\ .I ,
allo1al4 4e the bed l 00\’lld vi.th lt 1 lnlt apla1ae4 1 wvl.4 no\ b• able to
ltecta tor •• 11\Ue nll• ‘IMtat&ae of other OOlllllt•a••• Ml”. Sll•• talA
ti•’ wvl.4 be all right.
· fl» otur mealtert et tu Ooast U••• all &ppo1Ate4 \T the Pre•14?l.
v•r• Mt. I • .1. Doaatm. ot Coaneo’1cnat. aa lJMlv.atrlallet; lb-. Le•t•r JI.
Gnager, ezeouttve aeore\a17 of the •uo•l Vr’bu Leacue. a l’ecro ot 41•Uaotlon
who bad. been. a4’fiaer \o hore\a1’J’ Jorre1tal oa kl.1141’84 pNbl••;
– 300 –
• M11. Otaarltt tu.ckma». of liner JnUrera, who, however, vat an tu.aUTe ..,. …
be? of \he Oou1\t••1 Mr. Mah\ Pal••• ptet14at et Oenei’al Oal>l … Oor­
P•?’-1Mfllr. Jou JL s,enc1taoke, -puUt•heJ” of the AblMCQ htenfVt ,-,·
lttt. ltll.lu i. $te1’atoa, pNt14ut of O’berllil Colle&•• lb-. Dona-. lltMl
in Ille •rJJ ••«•• ot our wo1’k. the other aeillten ot the Ooaml ttee, .,. …

cep \ M.r. Luot•:a, ven aoU ••.
•• tirt\ met — ! do aot aov n••be:r the tale – fo-r orcaatsats.onal
p,upo.•••• We eeleo\e4 Kr. I. W. XeavortbJ at ennti•• teffetal’J’ •a a hll:
11M ·-··· wt.th a -11 ol•ri•l atatt, e4 vt,b O •• ,1., … , …….. ,,,
Mr. lJuball, vbo, boweYel’, 414 •• Nllllla. to the d •
.A.a l \epa \o Nalls• tbt 41.tftnlll•• I oaee to thne aoanottoae.
Ou •• tbat lt ll oot&l.4 lte aocoaapliahed the 0ou1,, .. mat be uaut••••
la an,••••’• the white .,ra thoul.4 not be•• 011.e .S.de and the ‘legro —
ltera •• \be other. leoozuti,-, w tboulcl •••re Ille oontat of t!M ane4
aemoee lo the procna we ai,:ht 4″14• aho’lll.4 lte 84opW, beoau•e a ooaa1tt••
of oi•lltu• eo\114 •’ veU ezpeo• U• won to neoee4 if the ••
….,•••111• plban.l)” fer •Uoaal 4ef•ue wen oppo•• to OU’ pro«a”U ••
ooa•rr \o their •••» .,…., aa to the N(ll1neu,, et •Uoul ,,;..
S.tJ. lbl.1’417 • w ••’ l!:l&Te a prepaa. tn o)Htn.1loa \eton we ooaolu4e4 ov
wa-k 1.atb.er tsa •l•l11111a a reperl ant 4o aotlat.ag alto•• lt.
ftd.a approach vov.14 take UM ant l 1boqht 1, tholllt be laicl heton
the ‘”•14-.t. fhi• •• d.oae at a pereonal oo•f•l’4tllM u4 the Pree14ot
aa•• bl• hll n,po?t.
Oar … unca aa4 uanap vere held. ta the >•’-co•. ln4tn4•1• ..a
oqa,al1&Hoa1 1ea.t repn••lattfta Ntor• tM ColllllltM. hll naorft of
the beari.np were pre1ernd. la acld.1 Uon to pri fth pereoaa ant oPpilha•
– 301 –
t1oa• \here came ‘before ,he Oom1ttee General Omar iradlq, cbairman of the
Joint chief• of •Wt; Mr. Louie J’obnaoa, Secreta17 of Deten1e, •ho bad
n.oc.edtA Mr •. Yorreavl. upon the lat,er•• death; Mr. lermeth llo,all. $eontaJ7
ot the l.l”il7; Kr. Johll X.. Sul.11..-an, Seontary ot the 1.a.,,, Mr. S\uar\
— – —- – – – ?<Hi, -here-tar,- of the Air J’o-re.-r amt other p•rell.-? bcrtlr otnllaJi ea

unltoraed., hann.c to 4o with per1ouel problems tn the t1tt1•’rioee. Later. we
conferred with Geura.l Collin•, vho had “become Chtet ot Staff of the Ara,
when General Jl’adle7 moTed. to \he head of the Joint Oh1et1 of Staff, and
Xr. Gorllon Grq, ..,ho had beooae S.oretaq of the .4?’111, n.oceed.h.c Mr.
1 alao bed. a penona.1 talk with General Clar la Jei-lta in the latter
part of 1948, vhere 1 bad eoae fro• Parle where I •• tor another purpoee,
and obtained soae latora.tion about Uw 11 \t\atlon il’l GermaD7 &IIOng the occupation
troop,. We al■o vrote to General lleenhotter, who va• then preald.ent
of Colu\1& t11l1Terdt7, rectuetUnc his nev• ia the light of hie •pen.a
ce. lN.t 414 aot NCeiYe a reply ae I recall.
Dv.rlng the pe1’lo4 of the beartnc•, which ‘began in Jazma.17 1949, I ••
Hrioua17 tl’Ou.blecl •• lo bow lo ‘brine the udertaltbg to a 9\looea•M coaclutlon.
Ve bad ln effect tvo arid.•• – I refer to the arm, because it
preeen.tecl the aott 41fflc\ll t an4 i11portant problem. One •• a vhl te anq
and the other a le&ro &J’Sf. ‘l’be write •1’111, the me.in one, va• aot as
,troDg a1 U thould be b•cau,e 1 t 414 not contain the ,;ood •te?’ial available
fro• the legro population. !he legn ara;y vas vMk becauee 4nw eaUrel7
tn• a 1•••1 of capaoi t7 d4 tratunc which vae ‘b-1.ow the ••ilable
‘lalen.t uonc the Beere••• i’o bring about lntegraUon ln a mazmer vhlah
vould be accepted, in new ot the b11to17 ot the eu’bjeot and the concern ot

– 002 –
.IWl-1, a1l,1tlll7 aen from a mnle atand.poiat. -• TH7 trou\letome. ‘Phea.
came. •? turm.ng potnt. 10 far •• -., owa Ti•w• were ooaoened, and l bqaa
to •• n.oc••• •• eTe».’1aall7 1aeTitable.
fhit ruatna point •• a. hearlnc at whloh two •n ea.me before ,he O&allittee.
Mr. io7 lllftnport, a Negro War l>epartaent oh1.11an e11plo7″ who hat
1184• a apeotal •”147 of the pereomutl probleu b:.-ol”fed, and MaJol’ Ar••tronc.
a hero Wea\ Point «rad.uate vho had helped Mr. Danaport compile the •\
erlal for preaentaUon to the Oourl Uee. Wt. th deta.114’4 ob.aria ud accurate
lmovl?e \he7 d.emonebated the vaate:tul. oonaequ.enoea ot thia ho ara,
11 hatloa u4 hov lt MMe about. the details are ••• tonh ln the NtP•r•
of our Ooald.ttee to the Preat.4eat of Ma7 22, 1980, publltbe4 ‘b7 the ‘Oil1te4
State• Go•enuaen., Pn11Ung Office \ID4er the t1 tle, •rNetoa to S.ne. •
!he pre1en’6Uon ot laveQporl and Anah•ong ahowe4 subttaaUallJ’ a.1
‘1’here are a larce n’Ulber ot milita17 oocupational apee14lt1••• •• they
&N oallect. la tl» ar:m,. !h••• are olat■:1.f1eaUoaa of late’•• a• tt vere, ·
neecle4 ln a Mt•ra •1’111’• .&a elll.1atee or Araf\N 1• g1Y•a1u oocrap&U6nal
apeolalt, olaee1t1oatlon. After hie baalo tnJ.At.nc be 1, atfoNe4 apeo1al
tratata, ill an:, 1ohool• which «l•• further ,ra1nlng for ,he neei• of the
•”‘1’· !he tn.1nln& a panlcultu• aa 1• &lTen 1• 4lreote4 ln goot pal”\ b7
,he oooupatlonal epeolalt7 1a\o vhioh he nh. After reoei’Ylac \h1e education
be ta aaaigne4 •• nee4e4 b7 the arST aooonling to I’d• tMlninc.
In A.q\lst. 1949, there ver• awurou• oocupaUobl epec1altiet vblch
were vbellf ‘IUl&Tallable to Jre,ne• ncanll••• of an lndl’fi.d’tl&l. •aero••
qualitioatloa therefor. ‘!’here wen ho bud.red an4 tort.7-flft apeoialUe•
vi\h aaiborisalione tor tea or more white, end tor ten or leaa lfe,:roe,. In

• 303 –
ainety-4,ne ap•olal tie• there were aut.borhatlon, tor I-en or leH lfecro••
u.4 (ot ••• lmmlJ>e4 or •re whl •••· ‘l’here were one hl1.n4NC1 and tort7-to1tl”
·?·. . . ,, , :._ ‘ – . ‘ , .
,’ ‘ . ‘ ,
IPH???–•• w1 th &\lthor1satioa• tor ten or more vhl tee and no a11thorisaU0Jl1
tor ,earoe•.
!be reesoa for th11 e1tuaUon w.1 \he.t in the 11e,ro• ar.,-, which was
onl7 about t•n perout ot the total &:t87. there wae no need. tor men in \he
wi4e ranee ot lipecial ties needed in the white arm,. In limple ,era, this
litut1on1 wUhout 1Uldul7 golag lato detail, meant ta, a legro ‘bo7 vho
cue 1.ato’ tu &1’117 wl th the apt1″‘4• for •-.Pl• to ‘beooae a l”a4ar opeJalol’1
could •• o’bialn the oooupaUoul 1peoial t7 leading \o n.oh a poll Uoa, or
the aoboolia« 4.eaigned. to perfect h1a ta 1 \, because thel”e •• no place in
the lepo ariq tor neh a an. ‘-‘ meaat aot only that the boy hiaaelt ••
deprt.•ed. of equal opport0Jlit7 \ecaute of h11 color and noe alone, ba.t al10
tllat the •rlll’ vaa depriTed of hie taleat and oapabilit7. Jurther, the Negro
&Z’JIT ob1ia.1Aed bi• aot •• a trained person 1A \he epec1alt7 for vh1oh h• .baA
csapaot 17 • ‘but a• a l>o7 -1 tho•’ noh tmiat.a«. ‘lh1 • •• ao\ olll7 plat.a lll …
equalU1 ot trea•ent and opportutt7. laoonaieten.t with the J>reti<lot’•
pollq, tt w111 4P0111trabl.J 1aettio1nt la the ••• ot the nation•• manpow••·
Whea l UJM.\eratoo4 thte aUu.Uoa l felt ooaftd.ell\ tor the ft.Pel tt ..
of being able to accompl11h wha\ \he Pree14ent had la lllnd. l felt that
when thi 1 .S. ‘1:latioa va• •ltJ>latne4 to per•n• vi th flnal re9Poa1lltill t1 in.
the an, – \he other ••me•• -pr•••nUnc a uaevha\ 41tf enat pro’blu –
they would be tma’ble to retl8’ a progru 4et1gned to elladute lt. !b•re
eane4 0011terenoea VS.th Seontal”7 lor40A &J’a.1. General Oollt.n• and. other,.
to vho• l •splal11ed in ST ova va,y v.ba\ I he.Ye ouU1ne4.. Seoreta.17 Gra7 ••

eurprited.. I thlu the matter had ne,•er been brought to hi• attention in

– 004 –
thoae \enaa. the anw had been taTiDC the7 were gtTing equal.tty of t1’eataen.t
u4 oppo•tu1t7, v1 th u dieortll111&Uo11 a.cataat lecro•• b•cauae ot
oolo’t• tbat the lecro bot •• takea l• lf there vaa a plaoe for hl•, alli
vat liTeil · \be aobooliag vhiob w.e aftlla’ble tor a plao• vhf.oh vaa &Ta1lalt1•.
la a UAH th1a w.1 true. lna.t U w11ld not bear ual.711•• \eoauee ao man,
pl.a••• w.-e oloted to hill. the leeretary was trouble when u understood
v.tat •• oocurrln,.
th•t• wn oollferenot• al to wt \h Mr. lomiaoa, S.oreta17 of ».ten•••
ancl Yl th olhel’t a\ 41tterat ,1…. ht tneofar •• the an, lhelt •• ooace11u1d
\he ke,- ooaf•r•ac•• after the … nap vhloh l ba•• tp0ken of ver•
vUh S.ontaq Ora,, at one of vh1oh General Colli•• va• pr•••’•. Geael’lll
ll”a4lq •• pnaen.t at oae ot the •rlter oonfenuea.
l took the pod Uoa that troa a Dd.ll taq atand.polat we vere ••UJ’lg
UD.pover, failing to u.UU, •• prop•rlt the anila\le 11a11power ot the Um.ted.
Sta$••• ‘1w arguu.n.t to the ooat,a17 primarily •• that the morale of th•
&lllJ’ voul.4 veaku it intagraUon were ordere4. l noocn1se4 thtt aap•.ct ot
tM pro’bl•, nt took the peat Uoa “1th Kr. GftJ’ au 0..e?al 0.111•• ti.,
vba\wer nu ot ••• o.ban.o,er va• l,m,lyed ••-‘ be talteA. MF ova Jwtcuat
•• ,a, tu l’itk •’Ql.4 -• to11114 to l»e a f•r u4 aot u aot\l&li\71
t!lat if ta Jecro bo7• were &iflll equal opportalt7 ad. tn.blq along
lb.•• 1beJ’ were oapabl• ef noe1Ttng, and took \heir pla.oe alongside the
more muaeroua vhl te ‘boT• on the ba•t• of qullflaaU.011• ant a\111 t7, after ,
… ,1ac the 1&11• teat,, tb87 vow.14 l>e accepted bt the vblte \o79 vitho,a\
..,. ucat.ttout probl•a. fht• •• ., ‘b••’ Judcae•• tllO”lh ao oae oou.14
curutN ao probl .. a w”l14 an•• am I ooul.d no, ••– to \• tnfallllJle •

– 305 –
Mr. G:ra.7 414 not 1′:lah ,a make •bi• Judgment ul••• he ob\a1u4 the
utt?t•neu• of the allt tarr 11ea. l \hiu \he pod \loa of Geaeral Celll••
•••’?’-*• •…. reaen.rt.ng ‘6 hl•• beeause 1\ •••aed. to .. ,., hl1 attl-«•
-· .,a. I oaau,.ot be more preol•• — va• sore taYOraltle to the d.lreoUoa \M
Oo•lttee waa pressing tbaa bad ‘beea haeral IJ’ad.lq’•• And Kr. ?, ••
•r• f•ftra”ble tbe.n had \eea Secl’et&r,. Royall, though ve ba4 not beea ail•
to think -the problem \hrough “1th Mr. Boyall to the eatent ve were la\.ctr
abl• to do wi”1l Mr. C.n.J”.
··••??·.,.. were nrifflJtC \be alta&Uou ta Mr. 3n.7• • o:f’tlee he a&,…·.·
tha\ lulal of noh tratat.ac •• t•lal. of e4alt.\7 ot one•\uattr. b\tt
aat4, •uter we \re.in ?. vbat •hould ve to wtU1 ht• tf there•• :ao plaoe
for hla uonc ,he Seen troopst•
. •v.i1. • I sa14, •70u 4on.•t am hl• there. Jou aaup hi• vher..,..r
\her• la need for one “1lo 1:aa• his ,raia1z,c. •
a. eaict, 11’:bat M6Aa intecnttoa. •
•tea,• l aaewftd.. •,i., aeaas 1ate,raUoa. but 1, l I lntegratto•
\R,:aghl abov.t la a anneio whloh ‘WOUl4 lte aeaepte4 U4 eauH 70u no aenoue
pnl>lea. It 1• 111\4tgraUoa oa a ltaala ;rou. oanaot n1’1•• to put t.ato •ff••••
a• lt , …. to •• • I ,,..a the a4ftllta&•• vllh all \he penu1ion I e”14.
!he &l’ltJ aoo.epted the plan. .lttaoW h a MmOIUAlt111 et 19 Septea\eit
1949 of tb• •••Un.a vi th Mr. Grq • tollovt.ng. a• 1 reoall. the one at vhloh
Geaenl Colline wa• pre•a.t.
1fJ arp.llleAla, puUnla. at ihe coafereno.• “1th Mr., Gl’aJ’, wre aol
11111.t• \o lliltu.17 o:r 11upcn••? eoaeicteratlea•, •troq •• Iha•• vere. ••
1nelwle4 azpaea\1 ltate4 ,apoa ,htt oltnou• 1$1’1” of the 1n.e”‘8li ty of
• t7eataent to the tnd1T14ual.

– a:,g –
· ‘!’b• arsq- acread to atar\, on a ••• b7 atap batlt whioh, it oanh4
. .
011t, V01114 mean the aoaplete 1a,cnt1cua of the aftt7 vUbout retard to ..
or °”l;ol!, the Mldnt of one Aae:rtoaa an7.
• (?. llobol ‘• i-eoea, loot en tbe tubJ”‘ -,. lhe 4eu.1l• wn tt•?1·t
w•ed out ‘b7 Mr. Da:l’enpona ht “1th me \he7 wre tlaall7 aareel ‘Q’POA la
coi:tterences wt.th Colonel Jende,sen, Aal11tant Seoreta17 of the AP/17, after
l cam• on the cou.J’I. Bowe”fH’, as 1 be.Ye said, the te1t1mon, ot Mr. ni.Teapen,
with the help of MaJor Antll’On&, open.ea the W1′ to the wl11tloa.)
l •• appoin \el to the eovt ln the tall ot 1941 and \ook otft.e• l>eo•.­
\ei- l&,: 19 … lt•foN ,_ Wl’k of the 0o •• ,, .. -· “11’• coapl•’·· . ht 11
•• pnpe1ela, to well anA looked. eo tavoa’bl• I •• rttluo\aat n.ot to
ftnlu 1,. l loolt the •tter ,ap wt.th the Pre114at and the .&.ttoney Geaezial.
ft. Pi-e114ent ••ked u to co11Umu,. I tel t no sertou, q\1.Ullt about doing
ao lrec,auee 11tnte ot the Co•l ”••’ • vorit we.a of a lcal oban.oter. It va•
punl7 al.en,: poH.a7 l111ea, and. •• nearing a aucc•••M conoluaton.
!he aeuen ot the Oollllll’-• were Hllarkabl• on the whole in \heir
app.,..h to. tlae Wl’L We ves-e al>le to reach uu.tattT vben the an, …….
\o p\\l ,a,o operalloa tu ta,ecn.tton plu lt71etl7 nU1ne4 akn. fh.n
Wh othr 4 … ,1 ••••• lffol’Ylq \he , .. ., …… , cpv,ta vhtoh W , … ia
efteo\ tor •eanee, lnt.t \bere t• not auoh poln,, in Ttew of the re,port
vhlch l• aY&1la’ble1 la -, clot.AC •re he1’• than ntltalng tbe ••’ trouble•
!be wbole proJeo\ •• ct••n gN&t iltpen• \J’ the outbreak ot \u Xol’eaa
ftghtlq ln Jue, 19fl0. Va4er the preaave of aeoeHU7 the llegn lroopt
,u,e were thrown toeeth6r with the whit• hoop• ta the early •tace• of thtt
nchtbg1 and tb.1• tlU”Md. ou.t ••17 R.Oceeaful.1,-. !Ma tencled to all.a¥
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• tear•. i wader1\a1Ml \he ar111″ AOv le 0011ple\el7 integrated. aad. I thiak
\heN baa b•• AO licr,.t.floaAt cUtfloal\7. 1u.a-thtn’IION, I ucteretud. t-♦ ·

• .,-,. ooaa.-u• of oplaloa among ‘• re■po11•1bl.e oftlolal• of IM •”‘1’ 1•
. . that ;t.al1Ci11Uioa •• cnaU7 1,ruc,:taced. nr ttch’1ng to …. ,. •• wll •• ..
iaprc,”4 ov pot:Ulon ln \he IJ’eataen\ of our o1t1aea1 without recart to
nee or oolor.
·there wi-e oocaalonal dltfi ao.l. Ue• w1 th1a the Goal Uee d.ue to \he 4•- . .
1&71 a feeliiig thal we ba4 \he Pret14-.t w1 \h u an4 ve tbo’o.14 Ju•\ ‘1-,,
4ow. \he law• QA t.111111 \hat h1• po.lto, \e put .late 1Me4ta\e •tfeot.
fhS.1 create& a ptoblea for • •• ohalmaa, h.t the Oolllli ,, .. oa the
vhol• c,ooperate4 1J•11.Uh117 and••—• te bold toptur to \be••
lf• eeat a a-.rudu to the P:reaiclea\ eocalleaally ud t&l.Jce4 w1 tb Mr.
111•• or Kr. lash of thtt Whl te •••• •ult• Jceapinc tl’••• a4Tlae4. Aa4
there wen oonferenoe1 wl\b the Preel.dent. le •• not l1pa’1ent, eav tba\
we vere ••lag la the ncht 4lreot1oa. and w.1 willing that ve ‘-• the
Uu we thouchl •• a.e4.e4. !be Preal4.eat •• ezcellen\ ttaroucbo•t tbe
••t•Ji• -.a4 •• ••t appl’ffiatlT• ot lbt realte.
!her• •• ao .. 1en.tlaut la the 0..S.Hee tbat when. we tile4 oar repor\
” ehoulcl eta, ln metao. to poll•• the pre,… I 4.1a1 t t..i atroa&l,
abed tbla. 1 would. ••• l>eea ob11p4 to altaa4o11 the vorlt 1171elt • ‘b•–••
allhough 1 vae willinc to ooaplete l t, I 414 not feel tba t after Joining
the Jw.Ueiaq l aboul.4 et-, on for the policiag. ln aq ff•nt, the- Pre11-
4nt 4.eot4e4 lo 4laohazge \be Oou.i \t” fro• futher reepoa1Utlllt7 bv.t left
the Jlnou.\lTe Ord.er la effeot, cl-nnc tb.e anel ••me•• u opponuttr ‘4t
can-, out the progaa• ecree4 ,q,011 •

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PeJ’bt.pa I vaa eoaethiag of a ‘b:rak:a on ,he Oollld. Uee cblr1ng Ule earlier
montht beca••• l 414 not then ••• bow to .meet the oonfll Hone which eenecl
to ••• to be •••eaUal to noteH. Te\ l ‘bellned the o1’4e:r tout tn prlaoiple
and 11111ta1’117. ‘1’he h1sto17 ot tlghUng b7 legro troop• when eegregated
fros the vh1 le •• an un.ea17 one on the whole. ‘l’be ato17 of the Ba,U•
of the hl.ge vas dilfereat. !here, Wider the prea.ure of emergency. legroe•
vho were &ffilabl•• whateYer \heir prenoue a1dgn.ments, vere thrown into
the tro.nt llue to ft,ht aloac 1d. th the vhtte bo7t. ••1 fought well.
‘fu7 wen tt.chUnc vlth the othlr •• ntaer \ban •ecrecat• amt tt.ah,1nc
ae people who had to t1cht aloae. ‘fhe noord was not u•uall,7 good. la the
latter elua.Uoa. There were U••• wbea ••mbera ot the Oou1Uee tbovgbt
we abou.14 put the :priaoiple1 lato etf eot •• • oolllll!Uld v1 th the baokl»c ot
the P1’ee14ent. Ve co’llld have d.one that, but 1 w1u d.etenlned to use •••rJ’
poetlble ••n• of ce,ung the •”‘1’ to aoe?t our reoo•ddatloa, •.
took1.a, ‘b&Ok on U now, U it uada, the arav’ .,…, 10 i11effioien\
1n tb11 reapeot so long, ? wad-4 to moh of the manpower of the Vau.a.
Sta\e• oTeJ’ 10 long • peno4 of Hae, v1 th 1aJu.et1oe to ‘both vhl t. aA4
lean. I11 to• –..r \he arm, ••eae4 \o 1,e t1″7’1ng ‘° proleot \he ton.er
b7 not aocol’dln« equa11 t7 or treatment aDd oppor\vJ:lU.7 to the laUer. Aa a
•tter of taot uUl tntecraUoa the vbl te ‘bo71 bad ‘borae a larcer share of
the burden \ban thtt7 should bave. In that respeot th97 too bad been •
treated. unequll7. !’he lecn, bad •• borne the ebar. he wae willtnc and
am:1ou• to ‘bear. And the oouatrr wa the loaer.
!he lecro•• realised \his. ‘l’heir 1•4era, an4 other• vho e,:pre•••
th$aeel.Ye1• realised treatment on an equal baaie would inorea•• the burien,
• reeponaib1llt7 e.nd. the eufferlng of \he legro, but thq welcomed thi• ae an

– 309 –
inoiden\ to equallt7 ot \reataent. fbe7 realised \oo that ‘by puttta, the
pro&:rM Qt_ -.Ultsatlon of Mlll)over oa a •1• of equl \Na-..nt tew, ..
croe1_ ia 1AM lllCht aohal.l.y l>• la the •NT, tor eoae u .. at 1••’• ?•,.•••
. . . : .
oa’G.•• tu, eouita•, … , 1\udan1 •• aa eqWll l».■1•, tbo’a.ch tho•• la •Vf!ftlltt
b•,?_,…,.,. r,epo1111ld,llt7. h.\ \hq w•re aot 1n’-Ntte4 in nab•r•t
\he1 …. · latereeted la appl1oa’1oa to them ot ,be …. 1tudard1 appl.le4
; . ;1_. ·-. -·
: Iii talnaeae l -.., ,. l bffe p•nou.11se4 \htt Coal”-• ”°17′ IIOff
tlaJJ abo’l’iJ.4 b• 4ou, olll Ulq aoh that ooul.4 ‘-• aid. abott othel”•• -panl•la1’17
Mr. X•bDrtbl’, ou’r aoalleat enov.U’N •””‘-“• and. other•••”
of the staff. Jurtbeaoi-e, tbe vorit ot the Solld H•• bat b•ea ‘4,lcl oalJ
,.., tat atud.polnt ot t!le an1171 \ecauee the pro’bla then•• aoi-e tltftt …
oult a.QA the Comai u .. • • coatl”llnlllo.a •• PMt••·
A.t• · \o the a.ir fora, leontaq S,,.,.ngtoa . fona1’t · qv.lokly after the
Prea14eat•s lzffutt•• 01’4er vllh a pncru *•h left n17 little for \11 to
do. We •tood allt• while 1 t •• p11, 1».,o etteo,. A.1 atated ta ov r•orl
ve lla4• a tev ncceaUoa• at ,1 .. ,,., oa, bu,-•• all’ fo1″M onate4 ao
••rin• pN1-1-. l uA•r••• •• whole aaHer •• vone4 o•t pNt’7 Nll.
ta?:•• tone. I ••1114 ..,-.at•• u 4ef•NM• to ,11e 1t0•ltloa et lb
•l’llf’ ,aa, lhei•’• ••a… •n Uttt01llt p11>ltl•. i..,.r -b-•n w•r•
ta-.o-1Te4, ud tbe 1taactud.1 ot eati’U..oe were hlcher la •• alr force.
!JMt a.a..-, •• eoaewa, UttlOlllt, but apta ao, •• moll •• •• ,m ai,v.
•-ti:pat tatct eft•ot a ,… … ,1, ••t1fao\017 paper pellq. !he ao..s.,, ..
lutlt”‘-‘• llo,,..,er, that aa.;• • plaa aeec1e4 10 .. a44l tla■• -‘tu n&”7 ,,,,. _l•
alto c\14 •• 1nTOl..,. •• Idell • peneau,e of •ec,o•• •• the an,. ll 1-

• 310 –
tol”l-1.lT, ••’ ot the lecro•• 1a the aa.,- had. b••n and wen in I.he
1te”9.J’d•• btaach, ao\ la the c•n•nl eenio•••
th Ooaid\tee made recollUllda\lon■ \o the a&TJ’ •• tollov■t thlt tt
Mk• ii 1tteauou• eftol’t ln 1 tt eal.1•Unc a4Tet-Ut1DI to -,bae1H 1 \a
….. U polio,, 90 \had th• …….. would. not be t•rtal — &I lugelr
1:hq. lijtl. been — of lan4lq oDl:, la the •’••rd.•• liftlJlohi that the Da’f7 r?,:
cal.I ‘°’ … ·u..-e ••moe a . … of hero NHffe ottloe1’a to help in a
lf91ft teonl\l»a pnaraa. ad. that as effort l>e 1114• to (el •” letl’Oe■ bl
eobool ucl•? the to•oalle4 Jfollo-,, pnpaa of \n.illta, ottioen la ooU•P•.
vhloll l!IAI tallln, l>eh1JIC1 so tar aa •.,n•• veF♦ oonceraecl. Ye alao reaoaa­
aend.? a olllllll• vht.oh vo,ald pens., oblet attw.r«a \o J>Hel•• the 1-4• ot
cblet :,•••1 oftloer. Ye toact \bat in thA atewa1″111• bruch ot the •TT•
fflJl thoqh a •ecro beoue obld 1tew.rd, he we.a not clTa the ruk ot
oMet pett7 officer. In ..,.ry olhe1′ l>ranah of the … .,, 011.e who becaae a
ohlet a,evard became a ohtef pe\\7 otf1ce7.
low.Tel”, the •”7• ao tar at w oo\114 aaoeriatn at Iha\ Uae — am l
tbia ve •••• naaona\17 aoftl’&te – ‘kcan a z–1 lntecn.Uoa pollq.
I to •’ ••• tnfonatlon a■ to vulher ta U.TJ’ la up ‘- “-‘• wl th
tb.• •• aac1 &ii’ tone a, tld.e If.lie. · It bad ‘been aMll4 o.r IM a-, oa
p•llo,, lteae.u1e 1 l earlier pul lato •ffeot u. lat .. aUoa polloy l”eatou.’bl.J’
taU•tao\ort \o the OollllllMe. •• aent a teu tnto ,. ttel.4 \o Co to
•-•l’&l •T1 lattallatloa• ‘° ••• st the7 ve:re cotnc ahea4 wt.th the ,roe••
… ,-. ud NOe1Yed. ••• , thal u .. ta-.ora’bl• NpOl”t■• fhl• w.• al■o
tn.e et the air foroe. ht lure •• aot the …. 491N• of tateJpla7 be•
tveea Ila Oolllli Ueo and nt1poa1l’ble J>•Nolmel la tM •”17 aa4 al r tare• ••
• vUh the arm.,, ‘because then dt.4 no\ teem to be \he neoeeetty. We u1ed. the

– 311 –
aucceH of the alr force and the n&’f7 in per8Uad1n& the al’IQ’. Amr, vould
arun,er that 1 t, prob lea was more oompll•t«t. But \he aoceptallo• of integrat
·?on b7 the air toroe and na…,,. a.nd 1h ,,orlt1ng out to tne d.egrff. thd. in
opere.Uon, added veicht to o,ir argaaent• vlth the •1’111’•
· I WJders\and the govemaent used the progl’all in Us 0Teraea1 pl’Qpll- . . . ? . .
~. ? . ?: ; ..
ga!Mla OAIIPaiP \o help offHt Co..mh• propaganda agalnt\ natal polio,
vt•? \?e United States. There were ao.ine sugge&tlont .made during the wodt . ,_.,,._. ,: . ‘ ”.:,f::””.?–
. .• .
of \be Ooallll ttee that somethi.ng be eald 1n our report about \he dett1n.b111t7
of doing aw,q vtth •ecregaUon •• a aean• ot offuUt.ng OolUND.18′
propqand.a. ln1, I tbought that vh1l• DO doubt our 8UCCHS would. baYe thi a
We were prooeeding on the ba•1• of priaoiplea ot our ova, a.nd_it •• a
little’ uata.tr to th• wlk. to put it 1n ter:u of a ooua,eaotioa to Ooamn-­
i•t pnpe,;anda, although the.t.wa1 a.a 1nc14ental adftntace.
· 1 think 1nteg?t1on ct the all”. fo·ree aiad the &1’117, am \o the degree
111 bas occu.rred ln ,he •”1′? has ladireotl.7 •Ted f-ol’W&rd 1ntegat1on 111,
«••1’111. It w., the tire\ blg break am 1 t euooeehd.. 0u1′ Ooaai tt.a was
wUllq to la7 add.• eoclal prob1••• It •••ed. ltetl•r to hol4 \o the maapower
pnbl• as w did — eqwal.1 tJ of tr•tment an4 opportual t7 of the aea
and woaen ln tb.e ,emcee – aad to •t.7 •WAT f:oa 1Jbe qu.•tioa of ctauce,, ·
club• and the like. leavln, thla to take •?•.of Uaelt.
trblle the Oollllittee wa.1 1et up •ta the naUoDal af.lUa17 ••h.bl1sbment.”
1 t was c1-,111an. We vere Naponuble to \he P7es14eat, IIOt to \be Secreta17
o! Defeaae. !he 0Ja11 on• vho could gS.-re the OoaltMe order• vaa the
Pnt1Aent. !hie cave ua preetige arul 1n.4ependenoe; it va, cl:laoera1nc oa
the part of the Preeld.ent to Ht 11 up that W&J’ •

– 312 –
the Comm1 Hee papen I am 911.re ven lett w1 th the Detenae Departunt.
1nclud1nc a oop7 of the tranaoript of the hearing•. I also have a cop7 of
the he&rlnp. aD4 other paper• which aaaumlated in .,. OWll offlce. So• of
the el’iUoal oonterenoes vere without U7 reoord..
(Roat of the papen l aoO’U’llla,ed a• Oba.1rllU ha1’e ■tnoe been ••n• to
the l’ruaa Llbl’&1’7. at lllclependeaoe, M11aouri, atler oorrespond.enoe betwea
Pnai.4at fraun and rqaelf.)
Lt. Dual• I>. lel1011, tJ. S.B., wbo va.1 a. tine help to the OolllllU,ee,
ha• wnuen a.a iaten1Un,: ‘book, •The la.tecraUon of the •ecro tato lbe
u. s. lav• – ill wldoh be reters to \be Oolllll Uee. Mr. X.ee Stollol■• in
: ?; h11 ltJrulttm-oqh 011 the Color lroa,• Aon llkewiae. ‘fhe pre•• rel•••• of
the White Sou•• ot May 23, 1980, aDtl letter• ot Pret14eat ‘1’JuaA to •• ot
l’al.7 6, 19s.>, ant September 21, 19,0, about the Ooaad.ttee•a work are