– 144 –
what tall• to oae but ‘\he work did iJrf’OlTe long bour1. I waa taken out of
\he ,:ewf.f104t eaUrelJ’ dunnc \ta. Lond.oa necoUaUo••• •l•• perbap1 1 votaltl’
ha•• a,rcuect on.e or Ive o\lMtr ca•••• Ano\ber oa• ba4 beo atalped lo• 1,efort’.
J ••’ awq1 lnlt tlaa 8ollc1 \cl’ 0…ral bl••lf took U o•Hr. l\ .ta,. … ,. ,·•- . ; .
“tOlYtd &A ol’der of tbe 1ecleral fraAe 0o•111ioa au became an 1apo1’tu.\’ •.
I had Jtaowa Mr. lt4dle. the Sol1o1\or General, altboup I bad ae·rer
pNTiou•l1 worltlt4 wtth Id.a. • ha6 beea a … ‘ber — Obalnan – ot tle
Labor loa:rd vhioh prue4• \Ile Waper Ao\ lean. I beoau mch b•t,e!” aoqU:1ate4
vlth Id.a 4via& \hl1 peno4, aa4 al■o v1n, hi• ■’aft, yh1oa •• u
••o.iieat ue. Wan.er Gui.Mr I lual.lne •• hit 1eaio.r e\aft …-. .r.
Anold Rau •• la \l!ut offtoe — h• 11 MV a ••• of the Tax Oo,a.n ot \ile
Val tN Stat••• 1 alw79 thoqht Arnol4 oae et the •■’ lMZaecl Ma la \he
\as field in lilt oou\17. Jonualel7, he r .. tud ln the ottloe cbarl.nc rq
periot •• Sol1c1 tor hMral. foa a..me w.1 tber• “1th l\14clle u4 l b•-
11••• Oarl•• Borak7, al.Hioqh l’a Dot ave vbe••• he ,11en 1’ell&iu4. l
now? wa1 \here vlth ••• Maffia a.t.Ul lad. na oa the ■tatt fol’••
7•1’• •• aoaUau4 1′”‘1111 a, perie4. le•• a •••1all1t ta ulalDal Jl’q•::
0111a or tn Gtot1’01 GDDAL
l. Appelabent aatt Ooafl naaUoa
la Juu of 19G. ‘tUaJIGle• oocurN4 1a \be hps-•• Court v!dch nalll ••
ta ,ne appolnwea, of’ la•Uoe• l7raee and. Zaolteoa. Jack1011 t….atatelr
wl\hllrav fro• aoU•• wrk •• .lt\orne7 Gueral, p•cliq oonfinaatloa. Solt”!’
– 145 –
• citor Genet’al Jiddl• becaae AcUnc AUorney General, and l Acting Solicl”°r
Geaetal. Mr. ‘liclcU• •• zaoai.nated •• AUom-, O.aeral in Aqut 19.U• ·ut.
lo?;ctfftoe upon coaftnatloa. 1 •• .noainaled. •• Solloltor feunl. l•

·;·:, Ootct’l,e,r ud. took of floe la So..-eaber, 1941.
‘” delq 1a rq caee •• due to a pzobl•• oonfl”OnHnc \he Pres14•nt
about other• who desired or were considered. tor the poeUion. I did not
\e.lk personall7 with \be Pnsldent, ‘but had good naton to belin• ha va•
fawl’&bl7 ooael4erhc • aJllll prolil,\’1.7 would &J-pobt ae. Mr. 11441• trutlT
a4’riNd. .. \here ••r• two … he pnfene4 ‘beoaue of Gloaer per•–1 -,1a?
tloathip or othel’ reatoae of hie owa. Be told •• vbo t11e7 wen. lu, be
aleo \old 118 that be l\ffll’lhel••· had. a4Tl •• the Pretidu:, ,_, 1 ,,…
pllfied. tor \ha offloe.
h .. …., U.kel7 the Pred4en\ vou.14 appoint ae W11••• 1’• tUl’lle4 ?
Mr. Jeaa Aoheaon. The Predd.A\ •et word. to ae tbl’oqh Attorney General
11441• iadicaUn, Hat 1 could ha’f’e a oboioe of l>elnc Solloitor General or
A111•unt Seore\a17 of Sta••• the poeUioa Iha hel.4 ‘b7 Mr. Ache••• u4 tr.a;
….. ai.J ohoae \lie Ut••? \M iate:r•aoe W&I U vo’Cll4 &nolnl JCr. Ao!aeilOaae
Sollol\or 0.eftll. l wnt• & Mte to the .Pret14at, wldoh I 111ft to ti.
.lti\ene7 Geaenl, -,inc I tiho1:1gh\ 111T nperluoe ltetter qualiflecl • \o ‘be
SolloUor Oeunl lhaa Aeda’6at S.ore\a.17 ot ata,e. tor vhloh rea.oa I
preferred the tonaer. b11t that l voul4 C].adl.T aooe4e to hi• with•• am
4Np17 appreota\e4 the opporlnl ,, of a:pre••inc 11,11elf. Along a”bout tl:at
tlae Mr. Acheeoa am l luoW toge\ber. He kuw \he trend ot the Preel.-
4eat•• \hinldDC — or tba, aUri’bute4 to the PN114ent — am to14 • he
\bought \he loglaal ••-, vae for the Pree1dea\ to appoint •• Sol1oitor
Geaeral. I told. him l new of no one who would make a better Soltoltor
– 146 –
• General •ban h1•••lf ,. and ll:at l oerta1n11 woulc! undera\an4 th& Preeld.•n.•••
obolce of hla.

‘the S.11&\• Jwt.101′,17 Co•i •••• appo1ale4 a ■uco-1 ttee wl th s.aa,-,, .
la\c,h •• ahab’llaa aDA • d.a7 tor a heal’iac oa -, aoatu.tto.n •• ••’• »ti ..
Jead.dtu, -, old. friend• toner oh&iraan of the .Labor Joard., vae pr•••at.
SUUq aero•• the rooa •• Mr. John Connolly, et Dea Moine,, wiih who• l
bad roomed •• a 101UJC an. 1n Waahincton •81’ ,eara bef on. I bad. not a .. a
ht• la 7•n. At\er the ••••ton I au:.a. bow he happea«l ,o be ‘hel’•, .,.
tol4 hla bow cla4 I vaa ,o ••• hi.a. Be ta14 vhn he got oft ,u \rab. that
ao1’.D1a« la. Waeld.a,r\oa • •• a D&Uoe 1# \Ile paper ,,t thel’e •• to ‘-• a
hearlnc iu.t •ratng oa -, aollinattoa. a. tha11.pt b.e wlll.4 co• d.owA u4
… it there •• aQ’thiq he coul.4. 4o.
:lo one aue \e oppo•• and. thlre •• no opp011Uoa on the noor ot the
a. the lJa \ure of the Offt oa
!’be off1o•, oNa\M la the 18101 •, pew olll of a 4e■1l’• to )aye ••-ou
1peoiall7 n-,oal1’1e tor ,u 11u..,1toa of the V’aited. Stat••• 17 •••
tea u4 ,raAt tloa tbe lollot tor O.aenl ‘b•-• r•1poa■1’ble ….,. tla 4\lo-r­
ur Guaal for ‘1d.• 1u1..,uoa in the lapr•• C1na:ri. He •• olh•r l’etpOae1-
b1l1\1et, “bltt thie baa, … hi• aJutolal fuaotton. Un:U.l reon.’17 he va• ,he
••oo.Dll man la the ».pan••’ ucl beoue AoUnc Attorn•1′ Geaeral ta the a,\•••
o• or 4ieabUS.,7 of tbe .A.Uone7 Oaeral. Vaill 1933 he vat al• relJ)ona1ble
for rmewta« the propoee4 opiAioa• of \he Attone7 Oeanal, a■ I
baTe •xplailled. la 41■oua■bg the von: of \be Aat11,an\ SolloUor General •

– 147 –
Since be waa -pote nUall7 Acting Attqrne7 Oene-ral the Solic1 tor Ger..eral
Ya• connlted. a pod. deal ‘b7 ,he AUon•1 General ln con.aeottoa vitb. Depart•
11’8.l prcble111 bu\ ordtnartly 116 bad DO general ada1alehat1Ye duH.••·
Du.ring -, ,emtl”e the White Bou •e nquasted. m e, in \he absooe of the Attor:­
ne7 Ge1u,ral, te attend meeting• of the Cabinet.
fhe office h not quite the tame nov as before, having ‘been r educed
trom ••oond. to third -poaition in the Deparl211ent. llu\ the relatlonanlp of
tbe office \o ca••• 1a \he hpreae Covt bu not omnce4, and \hta ob1etly
gtvea \be ottloe l te eharactal’. I teli htghl.7 boao’l”N., ,,r■o.nall7 as well
a• from the atalld:potnt of • fuU.7, and was grateful to the Pretid•at for
aeleaUag •• tu Pres14ent •• kt.11417 41epoeed.. SoaeUM• I think perbapl
he •?eoted. me to 1-e greater help to him than I was. I do not lcnov. l
knov I wanted to help hia a.n4 WI da’l’O,ed to hl• •
The daff of the office 1• small — e.rountl aeTe.n, et.r.ht. or niae –
bu\ 1\ 11tu,t put tn ftul form the brief•• petition• and aemoranda filed.
with lhe Suprerae Oout on behalf of Iba goYenaent. !’be•• lnalude p•t1-
Uon• for, cenloar1 end oppo•111oa• of’ aeaora.nd& ta rep.rd \o peUUone
fll-1. l>T o\her1. U 1• :poHlble to •• ou\ v1,h s aaall etatt beoauee ot
\he &Y&ilabilt t7 of help of o,bar elaff• 1». th• Deptu·,aeat and ln other Departu11.t•
an4 acenotee of’ COftl”SUleAI. ?f, for eD1Ple, an u’1in.e’\ ea,e
reaches lhe Supr•a Oour\ 1 l wlll baTe b een band.led 4uring mo11t of 1 ts b1, …
toq b7 the an\1\Nd 41Y1.don in the Department. DraR• ot brief• for ti.
Supreme Oour, v!ll be prepared by tbe appellate section ot that d.1rlaton.
So, ,oo, vitb the lndey,end••’ ecenol••• lt a. houriU.•• am ‘lschance Ooami••
lon O’r a Labor Board caee l.1 in the Supr••• Oeurt 1\ 11 q”U1te pro\able
the oriciul dn,1′ o f brief will have been prepared. ln those agenol••• So,

– 148 –
oa••’.al’l:slna ‘GAder U• wace• ana hour• lav. fbe office of the Solto1tott­
Ge??. hoveftl’, .x•Hl••• \1l U.Mle av.lborU7 Ofll” tbtt i,reaenta;UOJle 1-
lhe ;;a..-,.. . Oout.
‘1h. a\e.ff’ :n.,, ‘be geod and ln41ttonal17 U 11. 1,. •••’b•r• ••• ao,
0Dl1 be le-117 competent but rigidly boneet. the offtce ha• ?1ud a tb•
rep’litatlon with the Oovt for the lntec:ritT of 1ta won:. th!:lt 1•, the acoun.07
wUb vbiob, lt pnnn•• lhe tao,, and tbe 1’ella1’11117 of 11• lep.l so:bolar1blp.
the Solloitol’ Ou.end a,bo’G).d not be o••r-saalou.a., He ehould be oo …
101″• Iba\ he r91>reuat1 •• trailed. State• •• a •tioa tn the final Jwllolal
tnlnmal. .fat.• …. , ‘-‘ he ••• aol pre•• a ,011\loa \e1ond tbfa beet later••••
of the couatr, at a whole. Whan 11,scattna •h• u.1,ec1 Statea ta
1Ull the t1n1,.a Statea aAA not eo•lhlng leH.. Wla\ ie good for U1e ooua-
117 ls no, alw.y• lhe aere wlantnc of a case. fhla n.1••• pro’bleas vbloh
are mo1’e aotl•• than la -p.dftle pn.aUoe, or y,erbap• nea la the United
Stat•• 4\tome,’• offlo••• The Solt.otter Gea.tral … ,1 … 1• oalle4 apoa
lo o,.at••• effoJ’J thai 11, I• •u:• the poaliS.oa ln IM hJ,ffU Oo11fl \a.\.
tu … ?t• • no••• la • J.ewes- oov.rt le •• lo • at.1take, and •.-U. ‘.
not \, .-,1t4lftecl lalo a 4nt.11011 ot tu Oou, of laet ,. … .-,. n. –?•II
\o ll:111 nepeaaibUl ,, .. , lte Oi”‘1111peot. A •eoatuatoa of e,roJ’1 p1it1
the 8ol1o1tor Oeaeral toMWllAi la the poet,t.ea DOI of aa a4TOoate. kt of a
Ju4C•• u4 • l• not a Ju.4c• — ••• 1Ull •• adftoa,e — and tbe ?•
-..,. c1eot4e. T•’• bJ nuoa of Id• repn1eata,toa ot •h• whole ‘Deople, 11• ·
4oe• qatte proi>erl.7 I ‘lhllak lake \he pos1Uea I Mft laiUcattd vh■a oe..,
Yinoecl. ‘the Supreu C.11.n 11 aot boud to aooept hi• newt. Vb.en t ••
• Sollo1 tor General \he pn.0’101 ot \he Court •• to ab up 1 tt ovn 111114 aot?
v1thatan.d1q a •oonteealon of error.•

.. 149 –
The aature ot hl• pos-1 Uon al •o afteci• aoaetlme■ ,he manner of 1).?
1ant.11Llloa. Where he fffl• \la\ ,be goftru9Sl\ ••’ pr•••a, a ca•• for ,. ·
ooui:J’• hoia1oa bu\ neYenhel••• be h not cl•r •• to the oon•o–•• of
l!Mt pYe,…..,’ • prmO\lt pot1 ‘1011. he •T ad.apt ht• ••tl:1Dd. of 1>reaataUoa
to the e1\•tlo.u. !o 1llua\n\e trom rr, esperleaoe: fhe lotM11111& and.
J’ia4a •••• were argued one at,er ‘h• ether. :Both gl’ev out ot the eftouaUoa
fro• the West Ooae\ of person• ot Japaae1e uoaetq. IQrSMI& laYOl’i’-4
•be orl«taal ••• eftou.Uoa 1\eelf. I follCht ••1″1′ hard to auWa
‘hi• •• aonetUuUolllll., laa.te4 oa tbe ■1litff7 J\ld.ca•• at the ti• \be
ao\lo• •• \Aken. !bl• •• ., 4at7 •• I taw 1 t. In the .Ilda. oa•• wbioll
l•tMtia,-17 follove4, tbe pl’Olll• •• dlttaeat. 111•• Into•• a J’ov.a«
Aaerlaan oUl sen ot lapaa••• 4••••• v1lo. att.r the nacua\lon. bad. b•o
••11• \o one of \be relocation. oeat.r1 and tbare bad beea cleared. ia4i’l’i411-
allF fl’oa a loJa]. \7 1tud.potnl. lat •h• va• aUll held. \Uld.er eo11e ns\n.in.t
of her tretlliom. Jetore &14 clvlng \he ••• eYacuaUoa.1 there had u\ beea
Uae for •ob 1D41T1dul olearaaoee, bllt. U• W eoae ‘b1 aa4 ab• W ‘•••
Glea-1. I tlloucbl ‘n .unit.Te “bnAoa of \lie CO’Y•r–nt ahoul.4 abolltlt.
tile l/!e&lll,aUoa• laYOl Ye4 la lier … vblcl’l nail•• to llo14 Ml’ 1Ul4•r ••
np•nl.S.oa. Oo».\NJ7 lo-, n ….. .aa,1ou aDll Jllitp•t. 1, •• fel\ tllat
pu’bU,o aooep\uce of a”bo1lttea of \be regaJ.a,toa• wo’Gld nqulN a hp•Oov\
4•oS.•lon. lie•••• ot \be at11n u4 111portaaoe ot the ca••• howeftl”.,
11 tNlle4 le •• tbat I tbo’Gl.4 pr••••’ the poet.Uoa of \he Vatted Stat••·
ht vben Ja1a. eaae on batl41ale1J after IP!ftM!a I told the Covl l ooal4
aot area• 11 vi th Ille aaa• ooaYlottoa •• the o,aer. I oplaine4 tbat ,.
••• crev out of the ••• •-••tOAt -progn.a u4 l vlahell to preaea\ \he
at,eJ” aa talrl7 ant! hll7 •• 1 could. fl’Oa \he atudi,olat of the goye1•11aenl •

– lfK) –
All of wtdch lead• me to aaolher co•eat. Whil• I baTe taid that the,
Sol.t..01-.,;- General ha■ • eouwlla, dt.tfereat re-,onld’b1lt t1 \baa a i,1’1fth
a\to,ril•T l would not vt.1h tt tboqht tbd the UalW 1,ate• ebl:nil4 ‘IIOi
pr••• lh oa••• Tl,orov.al.7 am toroeNl7, ul••• thve it eo• ‘”17 •’l’ODC
n&•o.11. to \be 0011.trarr. •• 111 .JD4Q.. Indeed, I think 1, wt.11 be foud. ta,
tu @T•nw••’ • • •••• are 1et1erall7 argued a• 1troncl1′ ae any. ud qaU,e
propei-17 eo.
a. !he Oft 1ce la lfartl••
l>IIYinc the periocl l.ae41ate17 preoed.lq am after P•rl ••I’ •••
lolleltor Gueral •• ct••• more lhU the ual ..•i•tn.’1•• re11poa1f.’lllllU••
· Ua\11 , •• Depa•••’ oo11ld be reorpn.lsed. ‘° 8’1c,rb 1 h MV Wl’k la
a aore J’qular •uer Mr. JUd4l• ••ed. me to bead up vba\ ‘b•••• kaowa ••
Ille .War l)l’9’1aloa. Later a new a■liatant attoru7 paera1th1? •• oNaeecl
for \bit l>tT1sion.
!he ,l\’9rne7 G&enl •• ••’ of \he 0117 the …,. a:t”teraooa •’ Peai-1
1a.-..r. A.naol4 llaui •• la bl• ofttoe aa4 aa1ven4 the telepllone rl.-q
la-, efftoe uan,.. Matral ltark •• oa \l’le “pllou oeJ.U.ng ‘he J>epa,t.,
of l’tldioe lo atnae ,_, the Vat ‘let fhat•• tad ‘bee attaelced \7 J-,aa
at Pearl llanor. •1111 aallecl ae at boa•• aDll t oaa• 4.ova, after oalltnc
l111Doll M. lhea, 11•• Jaae’bud. -, ••ore,,,• an4 anangtnc tor othez-a, la;;..:
ol\14.ta, fown.1-41 Sal tb u4 llllt.ie, ae l Neall, lo ptber lllllllf1iat917 at
the Depar\MAI. OD.• of ov tlrd reapoat1’blll U•• ,., to lq lleton ,_
Pre•l4•t the -p:nolualloa \l’lqlac the 9Ull1’ ooa1rel aot h’«t op•a’lioa.
A 4raf1 proolamatloa •• reaq •• par, ot ni- pre-war 1).-.panUoaa. We
• 11114•· aoae final rnltlone and Mr. Shea o4 I took 11 \o the Preat.4en\ bla-
– 151 –
• 1elf.. ‘fhle •• ln the late afteraooa or early eYeDin«. We •• the P”11 ..
4en\ ,., bi• i-ooa 011 the eeaoad. floor. MN. looaft’Ml t and their ••• ,.,… .. ·
au ?q•bl• .allll. able •Pa• w.,10». ven \here. the Pre•ldeni •• el\tte& ?•
1a bet with a rather larae pa4 am peacll vorldq 011 a oompoaitloa of ld:■
on.. whieh l a11W1e •• hit •••eace to Coner••• aeldnc tor the cleolanilOJt.
ot • a\aie ot war. l bad talked vi th the Pr•1ld.eat oa the \elepbon.• e1t.rlle.r
in Uw aften.oo11. !.be \ihile Bouse had called -.:r boae vhll• J: vae on tbA

., \o the l)epal’taea\ u4 al• lad aalle4 the l)epart••n.t b•fore t amft4.
n.a l Naolled the oftloe am u.1.k.t wl.\h the hea14ea, be 1po1te ot the 1.•
Mlliate a\ep■ ‘•”·” ••ul.4 \ab. ti. 1re•t•eat told •• pavall7 wlal
the aUuatloa vaa •’ P•J’l Barbor. &, wa• e.it…,oa1et1ed. an4 al.en. Be
ba4 bi•••lf wll ta llaDll noh1 thelaadlq ,.. ,naeaaou• proltl•• Ile taoe4.
·!he. Pre•ld.al reacl u4 alped. the pnala•Hoa. A• 1n.4toatt.Ye ot hl•
a\’leatlTeaeH ae well •• ld.1 4etallec1. Jmowledce ot o..-enaent he eaid• •ve
must not fore•• to ha..-e the S.cret&J7 of Stale ,u, the great ••l oa th11, •
whio? l». t.aot I alp\ ••• fo1″Cottea. a. lhea alQI •• to coae lo lhe
0.1-.lul … unc •- ttlcbt o1 olook. ht whea l &1’rl’fe4 at tlle Vldte …. lo
clo 10 llr. lll.441• W l”el’IU’lld am •• altl• to a,ha4 Jd•el.f.,
U •• n.eo•••’7 to tue lato cutoq, u.ct•• I.he nlhont7 ot the Jtl’O•
olaalloa. lho .. 1rho atlh• be 4aapl’fta. Ou Pol107 Oout.ttee W. !IOI ooa­
plete4 1\a claHltiaaUoa• h•rlng oa 1h11 pnblea. lfr. Hoover •*• • ••
acUa, I.none, Geaeral io ad.nee whether be ooulcl l•ecllatel,- take lato
outoa., oal.7 tbo•• vbo bad. b••• cla••ltlect la \he oatqo17 vbleh oalle4 to,.-
4•l.o\1oR or vbltlra.er lMI a.houl.4 go ‘be,oDd aD&l clelai:a 1e11• vho lllUt aol , …
ol&1alfte4. I lbollghl ‘-‘ ln Yi•w of I.he •1.,..llon a1 a whole \he 1.B. I.
■boulA uae 11• ov.a Jm1Jaent au authorised. ,u ‘1.J. I. lo take 1».\o au•toct7

– 152 –
8.117 ,?ho• Ibey thoucnt were 1utfloienU1 daagerou,. vh•ther or no\ ou ?O”!”
ee••? ha.4 :reaob-4 t!le parttoulai- oau. », aottq pro-.:,tlJ’ onl” the ant
few ?81″• l)o••lble Jo’•\erla • pre•eated and •117 t.a•1• for ‘ri11lante
aottfit7 •• ,…,… • feeltnc w.• oreated \bal the •lta,10:n vat wll J.a
bu«,; lo liplftoaal tea:r arose ,o had to ua\ow.Jd eosicePa on: the l)U’t of
the pc,opl•. the aaH eY&oua’1on fl”O■ the Weet Coaat., bo’lfffer, va■ a epeolal
pro\lea whleh eho\114. be newed upan.tel,- fro• the nation-vld• enff1′ alS.ea.
Pl’Oll’&II u4er tb.e Dllpal’haa\ of Ju,10..,
Of cov•• -• au.a ••Id.•• ven tu• lato ov.doq lll•takealJ’. 1-,
pno.tve• were 1a•t1’11W to atf’ol’ll all. Aetal … • u oppol’tul’7 to IMoaatft
?e enor, al4 •••• paoeclv•• wn ..,., lalo elfeot pnap\lJ’: il» ptopaa
hQ&ae well otPA1″4 u4 1 tblnlt fuotloMI wll. llf1\bla the aexl
a.,. or ho I 1a111a,ad the :foraat1011. of renew board• t.hrotaehout the- oout17 •
1 -1.leA ,_ aenlor oirca.S.t Ju.4«•• of ttteral otrau.it court• of an•l• —
1 •• IIOl able to r•oh all of the• — to noollllftd. persoaa qu.U.fled toP
•••• board•. fbat •• tu \eclDDlng.. fhe penoaa ‘° reeaa9.114e4 toraecl
‘ll•• av.ol•• froa vbleh boa.rte var• •••ltlt.1W. u,ro11Chotlt \ta. eout’l’J”.
fbe won: of \lie • .,. …. , ta the a.,,. OoU’I ‘becan for ,lle u.,
b.tq l••• iapor-taat la ooapal”ieoa vl Ua u,.e nmftl of ,, aatloa,. I va■
ratur glad, a\ l.a1t teaporarilJ, Iba\ I eo\1.14 help •r• atno,17 la ooauotloa
wl \h iba war. l •• ., • .,,. oonaoloa■ a\ the Ulle Ila• of t.lM plaae
of ihe Ju,4.iolal’J, am ’11at •• could. nat aecleo, the 111Nal i,reoe•••• ot the
law, exoept •• the var n.eoeteliated. ao• oha.Dc• or ftrlatlea, noh •• theee
\oar.cl• to ba.Ue ,1ie aliea en•• -proltl.•. her:,oae dunn,: ••• 1>e1’1od. -••
cba.rlnc olher pel’lod.t of … rceaq – •• vllllnc to take oa more \baa
the ordlnaq re9Poaslblll ii••• aad. J; 4o aot Udlllc: lb.ere vas allT aegl..ot, to

– 153 –
&Dl’ tlpifloe.nt 4e,ree. 1n the work of the Solicitor General tn relaUon to
tb.e Supnae Cour,. fbe CII .. B vhloh wnld. grow out ot the var lhelt v•r•
ao1U7 10;? dtatuce .,. • h that the wrk before the Oo\lrt ooaliatecl
lar1el7 of peaoe-\lme •••• uUl later vhea h1portan, •var ••••• bocltikl
at the door of \he Court.
4. ‘1’he Staff
When I tint 11ook otttoe Waner Ganner — a..n able la,qer — wa• the
n.nkin« aa oa th• daft of the Solicitor General. He 414 Doi r••la long,
nr,- tooll ‘b•oolllng 9olicsltor .of the Departaent of Labor. all4 laler lollcttor
ot tbe Depuben, of the Interior. !he uxt ranlttnc aan •• Arnold Bau,
now a Jude• of the fax Oourt ot the Vn.tte4 $\atea and u autborit7 on tax
lav, though hi• talent• were by no JIMD.e 1111:lted to the one field.. Sou-.,
ht.t later, Paul hn.r.ul. who bad been ‘With Solicitor General llffd but who
w.• then tuchln& at Bana:rd. retur-ned to the eta.ff for tbe duration. Mr.
7reund, like Oardaer aa4 Bau, it an uoepUoaa.111 able laW7er, am I ••
fortunate to baYe hi■ help, a• w.1 \he Govt. Philip lb.an caae \o lhe
■tatt froa olerirebipt vl th Jaitg• Oel,..rl ICa«ra,der and Mr, luetloe Jtraakh.r­
t•r. Be hat raaialli to ‘beco•e an mmtnlall7 pod ad’t’ooat•. Walter Ouatna•
of Obioago aleo Jo1ae4 the auff. lie coaoen\nte4 a gr,od deal oa the ca•••
vUh the ceneral coo.eel of the Oo•1••1oa.. Stanlq SUYerberg and Dick
Selant were other ••ber•. at •• Oheater Lau, wbo had ‘been general counsel
tor lh• Securi Hee ud hQhaDC• Coatadon. Marrin Smith raauecl dur- .
ing m, tenve ‘bu\ ha• 1ince died, •• baa Stanle7 SilY?rberg, who atteT a,

– 154 –
ts.me w&.n\ v.Uh the Judge loaenu.n t1 rm in i.v Torie, as pl”e•ioual7 had Dick
Al•la Bockwell va1 1n the !aa D1Yll1oa ot the Departam\ of Ju1ttc•
wrum l bec,&Jlllt Sol1ct tor O.neral. ha’dag ooae onr from the .,lonal liaber
lelatioms Board. .U -, N<IW9at he joined the Bolial tor General•■ 8’aff,
thus \•gl.Pin,: another cf \he -pl•san\ aaecals:tton.• I baTe had vith M•.
While on the e\aff he we offered tbe general couaelehip of the Labor
Joar4 and re\urud to \he Boa:d. ln ,hat eapaoi ‘7.
Bo’b•r• Ster• al•o Jotaed the etaff .. · a. bMl ‘bee:a la the An?i \rud
D1T111on. I ba4 beoora• acqu.tn,.a with hi• vbe:n he firat eeae into the
COTel’mHm, 111 the Interior Deputaea\ whea I ,.., \here:. He ha• re•laed. la
the ot:flc• of the Solioi toi’ General ever t1nc11, aa4 tor con■tdt,rable pel”lota
bat been .lcH.q 8ol1c1 tor General. le 11 leaT1a« vl thin a •tter of veer•,
after eo•• tve!lty-one ,ear• of fine public ••”1oe. and more than ten 1•i-•
on the etaff of the Sol1c1 tor Gene’l”al. I am to apeak at & far.-.,ell luncheon
tor hi•.
ialph l’uch■• who lat♦r Jot.aecl the ta.nl\7 ot the IJutla:aa 11n1TeJ’ett7
Law Sohool • •• alto a Tert Yal:u.’bl• 8441 U.oa lo the staff a,111.ag .,- tunre.
ud ., goo4 fPlead s. I. hgrablul cave ue tor a while tn b■adlt of hit
fiae telent,. a• 414 LeoMrd Meeker, later to come with• in \be State »….
par\aent, wber• b.e ha• rea1ne4. AM I met raot fall to •aUon \he e:rc4’1′)t1o1Ulll7
fine won of llloMnl H. l>emth until he, like In.gn.ht.\m and Mecer,
left for the war.
M:, ftlv.lle ■eoreta17 con’1ne4 lo )e Mia• MUd.nd. hitebu•I• 1tbo he.•
helped • 1101″• tJlful I oan •7•

– 155 –
Qeca■ioaall7 the Solloltor Genenl1
• offtoa would brief a oate from
‘• cr-om:14 up, lnl\ quite general.11′ • ae prenously explained., 1’ bad U1•
ben•””‘ of a Antt ‘brief prepare4 ‘b7 eUher • 41neton. et the hpartaat o-r
Jue?o• or th• lece.l •tatf of the larlepeadeat apaq or other depai-t•a•
,m-ou«h whloh \he ca•• aro••• BotwUhl\andlag tbh •••1ataace w were n-.
tpou1ltl• tor the final formlation of \he &O”f’el’Ment•• pot1Uon ln lb.• Su…
pre•• Court. and ca•• the lae\, an4 ao•U••• qa.Ue e:ne•l••• r••lev ui
prea-.k’1oa. ot tbat po•illoa.
fu.Sol.1o1\o1′ haeral h reepoaet’bl• tor Ute oral aro-t• to •• la’!”:
pr•• Oov• on ‘behalf ot tu OoTel”llllat. lie preMat• oe1’1aia •••• -peno11-
all7 aD4 •••lcu ot.ber•. :a. IIS.gb\ •••tp u aa11 •n•I •••• tor exuple,
\o th.e a11iatut au,u,.e7 pneral t.a abllrce of that 41•1•1oa, or \e ■oJNOu
oa ita ataff 1eleoted i.11 001un’llta.Uo11. vUh the aHltlant at\ome7 general •
IA other ca••• he destcnate1 aeaber• of bl• own ataff. O.••• uiaf.ng
,m-oucb olher department• er ageao1•• of goTel”DIHnt not lnfrequentlJ &J’•
aHiped. tor arpaent to the 90ll0Uor or ceneral oou•el of \he deparwat
or ••••• or ,o a .1:1 • .., ot 1 le llaft.. Oooadoaalll’ •• Atto1’JMIJ1′ Bea.val
vUl 4••1n \o preaea\ a ••• pel’aoull,-. A,ton.q haeral »t4dle ar…,
th• laftl1lllee Ce.••• 4uri».c a:, t•mn.
Tu Solicitor Gueral alao d.eolA•• vhea ,he 11atte4 Ila••• eheuld ?
to a. otroaU ccnlrt ot appeal• at,er loein« in the 41 •trict cnri. It te
thought ibat at \hi• •tac• he thould P•• 41.reoUon to 11 Uotlon vhlah
alght or ahould l’HCb the hpreae Ooun. fhe dlTleioa of thta clepa-rtme11t 01′
the aceo, re9p0aeible n.lNllt• \he aHer \o \he otflo• of the Solicltor
GeaenJ. oa a ••ru.41111 whtcll unall.7 1nclu4•• a reooaaeactatlon. the til•
• 111 \he ca••• with thia •110rallda, 1• distributed. on aou rational

– 156 –
among Yal”loua u11beJ’s ot th• Sollo111or General’• etaft, who in tlll’il •• •
r•oo•emat1on to the Soll cl tor Gen&ral, wbo take• tt-.1 action.
• ij♦ ot. tbt ••• 4lftloult pro’bl•• 1• to d.eo14• vb.en oeUUoa• fol’
ca11,el’&1:l to the Sapr••• CouJ’t ebould. be tUe4 bJ’ ta cen1″11Mat vbe11 it
ha• ‘beea unn.ocee1f\ll 1n tbe lower oou.n. !he Solt.c1 tor Geneftll Cl••• •
1004 4-1 of -pereonal aUenUon 10 th1e. A re1,\Wl•t ,at a petitioa be
tiled. co•• in ••’ 1n1tanoe1 from the d.epart11Mlal cUri.11011 or the -cea.c7.
vbloll i..a lle.adle4 i.be oaae below, utuall7 with a NCOIIMD4a’1on. !he fll•
1• •••llU4 tlr.t to a •••r ot the •la.ff.
lb. 41ria1oa of wolk vitM.a the 1te.ff w.a INIA• on the ball••• faJ’ ••
po••tl>l• of epeotal qul.1ftoatioas, ‘4th recar4 aleo, bow-.er, to a 4etti-e
to tnia aew … 1tere la oeria1a cUNotiont. lf the ••• wel’e a ‘-s O&H ti
woul.4 ce ordinart.11 to •ua, Md aleo to Gard.aer 1f it were a ,OTerue.alal
taui\1′ \ax case. If 11 vere la the geaeral area et no. tacludiq the
Public tJUll\7 Bol41D& Oo11pa»7 Aoi. or eTen •o … ,,es-, lA’t’Ol’Yiq ihe Powel”
0o•lH1oa. U vo\114 pN\ab17 go tlJ”at ,o ObeeMr J.ane whea he wae 011. \lie
ataff; If 1\ were a Ol’lld.ml oa .. of a •n or l••• ori.1MJ’7′ raa1 vlla ao
a,Hlal or ••HUl’l 17• proltl•• l\ woul.4 proba\11 ID ftnt \o Kama liilt.111. ·
Jf ti Wl’e a ei:f’ll u.-..el’Ue• ••• -pliarU7, tbe ae■t.paut woul.4 “”17•
11 ….. •• \htt 7e&N v•at oa, vo\114 AO cloulti pt a look at it. If.a Power
Oo•l••lon •• • Diak Demth Y011ld oan, tbe AM’f’J’ lead, aa4 t.a other re-
1pe4.II loo. lt U wre ea Iaterdate co-.roe •••• thea it pro’bablJ’ woul4
co ,o Jal••• <>ma.tac•. there an a lot of •••• nol … uone4 altow thal
ouaol :’be al.aae1fle4. lookvell would ao■t UJrelF p\ a look at a Lalo,
Joard •••• 1Ull••• he •• 1nYOlTe4 ln ao•thlnc al••• lmt hl■ Weal■ wen
• not IO coatined.

– 157 –
I.n azq event ‘before ,he \net. or other doCWNB,. oame te • U voul&
otlq ot•r throqh Waru1′ Ga.rd.net’, or Jiau, or la\er Paul heund. lt, lt
ver•;• pe\1Uoa tor oarUol’llri 1>1 tt. &0Yel’aaeal l vould. ha•• ‘beo la• t.•
•’ .:a ?•ar1,- eta,..
lo 4oubt Solioitor 0.•ral• ft”t7 in. \he uota, of -pertonal Nf’t’iev U,q
giTe 4ocwaen\a lo ‘be t1le4 wltb \b.e Supr••• Cour,. Jl110a\ l.Dft.rlaltl7 t
atuctie4 •oh.
I. !reaeon 0.•••
•· ,,.,.,., •. 11&•• n.,.,. a1e u. •· m. <1042>
Io. 318 u. 8. ’81, theF• ha abert •’11 of Aprll s. 1948, ebovlq
4•1•1 ot certtoran ta \lie ••• of l\eaa •• laltw B1S11. a h•eoa

ca••• ft?llaJl wa.• • red4a\ ot lletrot, ot German tyapathJ.••• 4 hnu
a11iatoi- who ha4 bee oa-p”1re4 a4 ••• •o Oanac1a for 4etenUoa eacapecl aD4
naob.84 DetroU. Re toUDd Id.a ‘1118.J’ so•llr>v \o Hepbaa, so far•• l Jmov
vl\bcna.\ pre-atTUC••’• hepha.n. Ofll’ a -penocl of a dq or ao .b,elpetl Id.a
ln •w•ral wa,■, lael:a4imc ttae ob,atal.JrC of tn.atp01’1a.Uoa “b870IMl Datn1,.
7be .. oape4 GeftD aT1ato• Naehed Muloo. •• wen at war. M-,bla •• a•
1!’11•, aa4 be bl4 gt..,.. al4 and. oollfor, la tide -.-er \o ,u …,. a
aea’ber of \he O.naa A.1’1114 ton•••

Stepnaa •• lD4tote4. \r1ecl aa4 ooano,.a ot tJ” .. aoa. and •• Ma\ell.Oecl
lo 4eaU1 ‘b7 hanclac. !’be Ot.:rov.1 t Oo11r• of Appeal• atfiraed. 133 7. H s.?.
He peU\loaed \lie &a,r•• Oovt tor a vrlt of o.nionrt. aa4 \h’III tll• •••
caM t.o the oftla. of \lie Sollclt.ol’ Ge•nl \bftuch ‘• orlalMl 41Yl■loa
of \he Depar-.en.t ot J11.e’1oe. ‘the qu•lioa n• vbether ve abc,1114 oouur la

– 158 –
the p•UHon for certlorari1 take a nfmtn.l pod tion, or crppoae oerUorari.
“• deoU,-1 olt. the lat,er courae.
· .Arnold. llawa prepared a veey- canM anal1’ti1 ot the •••• to d.ea,aetrate
\9 the Supreme Court tha\, althoucb the caee vaa tmportaati. Stephan
had beeA fairl7 con•lo\ed. and. no attrcn of lav were involved. On thle
be.at•• we r«>Nseatad to ‘\he ?reme Cour\ that there wa no ooaaslon for
1t to HYiev the ease. ‘fhe Supreme Court denied certiorari. !hie left the
ooav1o’1on and aen,enoe of death 111 effect . It centorari ba4 been. gQnt-4.
it 1’ould haYe been ,h e tint treaiton oaee 1n the b1eto17 ot the United
Stat.es to reaob. the Suprese Court for 4ec1•ton on. the .. r1, ••
t thought the 4•th Hntenoe •• not appropriate. Denial of c.rtioi”arl
‘by the Supreme Court, vbich I eought. l n DO Ya7 lnd1cate4 that t or the
Court tboqllt tbl sentence ttwelf •• correct. ‘fhe tnaeon statut-,, fir•\
enacted b7 the firsat Con.great after adoption of the Oon,tttuttoa. perm:u,
cna\ latit:ade to the trial Ju4ge in iai,4ain,c sentence, rangla& tro• a fev
year• to 4•th. !ht.a deJaOnatra\ed \hat the Oongr••• conaidered thai th•
c:rlae tile.ht ari•• in ftrled o1rOU11•”1ace1 ot aeriou•n•••• tha\ not all
tnason ahould oarrT tbe ••••n1t1 pu.nla.baeat.
fhtJ Deparuent ot J’uetloe 414 :u, f••l juaUfled ta :reoo … nd1ac to
the Pr,eeldent co•utatlo.u of 1e11\ence. l aaked and obtal.Aed -pendadon
from the At\ol”ll•1’ General to preaent If¥ Tieva d1rectl7 to the Pretldent,
vhlch I did in the foJ’a ot a etngle-11p&oed. auonuidwa about a page and a
h&lf la lencth. Kr. Wend.ell :Ber«-, lael1ta11t Attoru1 0..enl 111 charge of
the fJrillllnal D1’11elon, and o,b.er• I ehall not nov 11en’1on. acned vi \h m.,

.. 159 –
lhe. –,ranAwn was eat· oTer to lhe Wh1 h lou•• Iha da7 befo:re Step•
wa• ‘tit \e butg-4 at aund.ovn ta ».tnlt, •• I recall \u otu-onoloa. M7
reaoti•••lon ,. be BOmwba, laaoftnte. !he Pnalhat, on. the aorntnc • .,
\be-?•?-• eze011Uon. called .. oa tb.e \elephoae, Mid he had read. tba
•-?•• •• lmprea ..4 ‘b7 \he latitude which ‘he etalute pye the HA•
tociq Judge. 1nd1oatlng OongreH tad oonaldered tnaton to ‘bt►- of dlfferea,
d•41″•••• a.ud. that he •«reed ttd• trMsoa vea ao\ a plo, a.gati:uit thfl! goveni•..
, • er otherwise the kl.DA of \naeon vhioh •hould oar17 the ••’ …. n
••••-• le •ld he W 4e014e4 ‘6 coaa.te \ha eeateaoe lo lite iaprltoa-,
–• •• l •• r•aoaaeade4. Re •14 he w1 ahe4 to·,.:…. • •tateant esp.J.aia•
lac hl• aolioa, ‘beaa.ff 11 111«h’ lte aln.nlllerat”4. • tal4 he would 4lo’-‘•
a atate118a\ to ••• hllT, hi• Hcrelal”J’. aa4 allk her to read U to •
on la. ‘phone; \hat he would velao■e ncge1\1011.s. In a yer7 tew minute•
Mlst “1117 t’ead the atateme11\ to ae, Yhleh I tbowtrh’ w• ezoellent.. I made
o.nl7 oae eU.111:h, ncce•Uoa, \hat w:bea he retarreA to decree• ot trea,oa it
might ‘be • 11\\le ‘better k, taf’ qml1Ue• rathel’ than d?H•. Al.tbouell
\here 1• laU\\lde ln \he -•••• for. tnasoa tbere la JIG 4lttereaoe ta 4••
PM• la tbe ..,.. •••• at la llolllol4• ••••· tbt, ngf)■tton •• peZ”bapt
11at-,ortaat, ‘bv.t Iha Pnat4ea\ aeoep\e4 lt •m l•IIU.84 Iba atalea….D.t with
\be ..-ounoeaen, ct tb.e com:ta.,toa ..
When he tolll me vhat he had 4eo1ded to do. he >ad. allk«Ml ae, •J’low, vbat
4o I do to make this •tteottnt• I told. hl• l woul4 ha•• ,he :proper papen
•••• lo ht.a. Mr. Oana.•1 •• of pea, help at thl• polat. Who tbct paper•
,,. … 41117 •1caecl 1>1 ·h• Pndd•·· I think 11 -· Mr. O&N.81 Oil lH,hlllf of
,1ut “”-“’91 Geaeral vbo aalled the appropriate otft.cial • the Marahal ta
• oharp of \he prepan.Uon• in Deti-ol 11, and ad.Tiled. hi• the Preaidenl ba’1

– 160 ..
,ti. ltlrai:lal. a• a preoautloa aekecl bl• aoanmloaat lo bani up, utd -14 ht
volll.Jall Mr. Can.al at \he :Dtparueat of. /ua,tce fol’ -rerttlcaUoa1
· w,ld.oh
•• 4.oa•.
fhe r•ction to the ooaatat.l oa •• taYOnble. !he metNpOll \an -pr•••
1B the Fa■t1 1ncl11d1&11 ihe lfew Tork ‘l’iu• and the Waehln,pon ,:,ape!’•• ooaaeDilN
\be Preatdea\1
• aotioa.
lt. Amur •• ‘lali\14 ISUII- 235 u. a. l (1944)
Wbile oa the qaeatlon. of ,..■on, 1 alght ••• on to the Amau
•••· Oraaer va1 a c1’1••• ll’rin« la In Tork, who ba4 aowD one of ·ti.
O•nu. •botnr•. fhe aabo\eu.:r had retUl’ll.ed to 0.l’IIIIU1 &114 af\er tu ….
begaa retu.raed to \be United. Stat.ea on a nb•rlae, land.1n.g oa the Maine
• ooatl. ‘fhe 1.:a.1. «o\ on hl• tn.11. Before hi1 arrest the eabot.•v got ta
touch with Oram•r. Oruer bad •o•e a1toolaUon. “1th hl• oYer a 4q or tvo,
1aclw.U.nc \uinc aoae7 \o keep for M• \Ultil he algllt need 1 t. Oru.er wa•
aHa )7 two 1.lt.l. aea eatln, ancl OOllftl”tlnc wlt.b the •’boteur in a J’e•tau ….
nat, allhoqh tbtt oon•r•ttoa •• .n.ot OYerhMl’4.

· YheJl 11 waa \l:lo’llgb.t \ha U■e bad eoae Ol’a•r vae a:rreetell, u4 •• 1adictt4.,
,r1e4 ancJ. ooaTlate4 ot ,Naeon. 111• •••’••••• •• I recall, ••
fort.1 or eixt7 year•• 1’• not now aun. On. appoia\aenl b7 the conn •iol4
Mtd.iaa., a lew lol”k laW7e1’, nov a –1>er of the VnUed States Clrcuu Oovt
of Appeals for \he Seooad Oircu.1,, repreeaat-4 Craaer. Bl• eon-do’1oa ••
atflrae4 b7 \he tJDi ,.s. State• Cour\ of Appeal• for the Second Olr011U. 0a
WoYea’ber a. 1943, t.he lnpn11e Oour\ gnntecl Oraaer’• J>•\1’1011 for oenlon.rl •

– 181 –
!be ••e cam♦ on. for ar,uieat oa the 22nd of Mat. 1944, ‘b7 Mt-. Mecllna o•.
behalf. of Craae1’, aJ.’14. b7 117selt oa bebalf of the Vn.t ted Stat••·
‘!here :were a m:taher ot quedloA• 1• lhe O&ff, but \h8 ,un.tnc p0?a•
wa• ??iheto? not certain ot ttu, over, aate ••• forth ln tb• 111tUo-…,” .
u4 At which Ora•r, va• conT1ot«J., ven alequtel.7 eatabl1•he4 b7 lbe ••••
11.li)V ot two vitne11e1 within th• raeamna of \he coaettw.Uo.nal proridon
:ln lbat ?.
So11• aapeo\e of t.he .a.ron »vr tl’la1 bad reaehecl the 9npreae Covt w.t
tht, 1Mdta of the ‘”••• ea•• l \1.tt l:a.4 Ml. lo olh81′ bu. ever ga\,o tit
the Bapre• 00111″1 lo &111’ ten, u:o-,, ,11e deaial of cerilorarl ta \he
••••• ca••· flle eov, tMr♦f’on •• faoe4 Ylth •• i,n’bl• of 4eot41ag
tor \he flnt ‘1•• the aaatng ot the \vo vlb••• nle la it• nlaUoaehlp
to an ov•n ac\ of tn,a.aoa. !ha Oou.rt N•• a\ ‘Uie end. ot the \era w:t tbou.t
ba.’9’111« dec:l4ed. ,he eat• and 1et 1 t o••r tor rearpant at the Oo\o’ber 1944
tel”II. In Ua order doing &o U requeeted other brief• a.ad arp.aen\ oa
elated. ae,pecta of the oa1e.
Slao. ,u …. .., •• to lnteffelltl lteton 1″eal’g’Ulellt, I 4eot4et. la
new ot the aa\ul’e of the farther 1-Tlefl111 4etlr-4, \1- taot Iba\ the •••
•• ,ti. ftnt oa• of ltt ldnd 1n the Sapr … Cov.rt. ud. of ll» 1111poJ’\aaoe
ef the poeUion tho Vat.led. State, should ttlke, that lt would \e well to
JD&k• •• o’bJectiYe aad ,1v>rough stnld.7 of the hl8’017 of lrea•o• all4 of \be
tw vUne•• nl•• aateclat1D& eT&A our OV1l CoraaUtuttoa, u4 to ,tn the 8up1’ell•
Court the bu.e.flt of auch a dwlJ’, vUh a “rl•f ••tUag fonh oar
view• e.• to tM appl1cat1on. of tu pl”Oper prlac1ple, to lhAt ••• a\ bar ..
Yor \hi■ J)UJ’pOle we “” fortua•• 1A olttalm.q the help of Mr. Wlllai’d
• Du.rat. wbo 1., now I ‘belt••• the Deas of the l1alTeraU7 of 1ftacoatla kw

– 162 –
SchQol, and vbo during the vai- wae a lav,er ln goyei•miu1nt eemce at tti.
Pen?? •. ··•.s. •• loaned to us am dnotecl aonlht io \he ..,11:. At a r•eult
we fil;.e4 wl,li \he So;pna• Ccur\ vhal ‘beoeae mova •• 1AppeD4loe1 to •rt•t•
for ::*he .U.lte4 State• on learpllfdlt, • a dooua•nt of aou fo1lr hwr.a ,ac•••
I i.bl.Dlt p•rb&p• ,be moat ooap1’ehent1Te etud.7 of the eu\Jeot • .,.r •••• ·
t’hiti atud.7 of oour•• •• Md.e affll&ble \o Mi-.. Medtna. le ad• a •tud.7 of
hit ovo ud cle’t’Oted himaelf Yer7 latellicen,tl7 to ,he taak.
•• tllea tllecl ou brief o n re&J’p.aen.\, ade&”f01’1JC to ooa-n.aoe th•
COUJ”t ••• ,d. \hln th• aeaDtng of \be \reason olauq the o1’•n aot■ had beea
pl’eYM Q” ho vttne••••• a.114 that \he 0011.riottoa ahoulct ‘be n.atat-4. the
ca•• wa• Nal’,ru4 oa •••’b•r •• 1944, ‘1’ Mr. Medt.na u4 11,Ftelf, u4 the
hpr … eov, rn•r•ed. the deoi1ioa 1 la a11 op1111oa ‘b7 Mr. JuaUce J’ackaon
of April 331 19451 wU.h a U.Heat ‘by Mr. l••tloe Doucla•, Jo1ne4 ‘bf Chief
luetioe I’°••• Mr • .Judie• »lack. and Ml’. lu■ttoe !eed, n.pportlng tH poet …
tlon of the cc,Ye!’DJM11t.
Da..-1.nc \he oou:rff of the arpse.nt lfr. JuUce loberte •• coaoen.e4
about aa a1peot of tu ••• vhlob. wat •• tu taine1• of tile comblol of
the ir1a1. ae 4i1uao, fro■ the 00111’1111.Uoaal ,ueatloa,. ‘1w Vat•• State•
A\tc.,raet, Mr. Corr•• who be.4 p1’018C’ltecl the ••• l ‘bouch’ •sh•ea.i,, well,
1atro4uce4 1 n e’t1.4eace a ••• of 1)&1’1!1.J)Mnialta which biMl been reoo•ehd
fro• the 1a’botev1, wld,ch 1 n4icated tbelr prepara’1oa1.. ‘ftle trial court,
o•er obJeoUon• ihat tbla vat pnJwU.olal and 1llflmmnator,, ‘P•nUW the
eTideao• \o ‘be reoet.m. J’uaUoe Jobert, •• conOH”JlM about \hit. 11•
qu•UOAe4 u •• \o bow l Jualltied the goYenae11t• • p1tttl111 all tbls •terial
t.a …1aeaoe. l replied Iba.\ the pan.pbraalta, ill the normal courae
• ot pl”8par&tlon for \he trial, bad coae into th• J)OHetdon ot the Uai\acl

– 163 –
s-.,.- Alton.er and I a11’Ulflf1 he offered 1 t 1n ••14eao. bean.•• he felt ‘1•
aho-1;4 not •u• the ••8J>onublllt7 for aol -placiac it before the oov.n •.
the atts.? ef Mr. Juatloe •hi-ts wa1 ‘7Ploal of M• c••fa1. alert•••
a’be11t ti.. f&iaett of tl’lale, par’1nlarl7 “hire ,1aere •• 10•• 1n4icaUoa
ibe goTeftlllM.t 111elf lllpt ‘be re,onln« to uatatr te.oU••·
h1’illl the f’trtt arpaell\ l blew the Court •• troubled ‘b:, vhe\her \be,
on?, &0t1 were proTIJll wUhia the ..uinc of ibe Ive wttae•• ‘l’\ile. t ••
not b7 -, aeaa• o erla1n abou\ Ille outao•• ‘but I Ud thlak \be co••naal
a1gb\ pr..all. !he fiMl 4l’ritln •• a elot• aa4 a ••1’7 latere1lle& one. ·
l etl:1.1 thlu \bAt nn.lat of ti» J,117 we, Jw.dU’1e4 ” tar a• tbe tvo
w1 t•••••• 1’111.e w. • aoaoera-4; ta other woJlll.e, I acne· vi ’11 the 41 •••••uc
oplatoa. ••la the Sol.lo11oJ’ General•• otttc• •• haa4le4 the later
lfalDI oa,a wal.4 perbap• arc- that the lapnme On.••••–•• noe4e4 troa
the AD.Ill 4ootr1ae. ht 1 t)d.M per.tap• ••• •• ••t•r tel” the Oov.n oa
the -.,11oauoa of the tw wi\Ae•• nale to \he o·Hn aot■• Wb114′ I can
un4erttan4 \be •Jo71t7 optnloa la Qru1r ll •• nner ooaiplelel.7 oon:t’1aoecl

tun 1• u ‘”•wo• for Ud.llldag. We oan hi.ft • orl•• Nall,-. to•
\!d.lJkl-., \be ••••• ••• ‘*• IOM aotloa. le ••’ ctn at4 &ll4 ooatol’t
lo \be ••ltJ’ wt,a tr•aoa’bl• ta,ea,. What h4t cto•• vt,h t.u, tatu., aut
be vs., ….. lq’ 1w people. It beOOMI a ••17 aubUe and OOJ1Plloatti4 qu.e•-
mat ol>••nel ‘b1 ho vU·ae•••• – •• \he aoaTereaUoa u o••n aoH Yaa
11 c1T1111 of •14 am oodol’\ lo the • …,, It 1, ••• 1, •• w1tune4 ‘b7
t’IIO w:L , .. , … who , •• ,1ne4 to 1,. ht .tn.ce tbq 414 •’ heal’ ‘h• collftJ’-

– 164 –
a&H,fffl, ‘•”• •• the \nu’bleao• quat1on whether U vat u overt aa\ ot
at.4 co.-tori vi u, ,reaao•ltl• ta\eat •
.,.r •• …. vaJ.klq don tba air.et wU!l \be -‘>ot..r. the •autt:’
.·/’: ,,,·: . aflef a –1 la ,u redavaal Jl&•I before he vae pS.okei up, and. there,,
lvo -1:1u1••• to \hal walk •
. ,a. •n•1 vhioh Oram.er wa• keeping for the ubotn.r •• recoYered. but
ther• ven •• \wo vilnt•••• to hi• haYlng re04tlve4 U fro• the 1abol8111′,
or …,.,. Ilia.nae ra,\U’l’it4 ur to hi.a. low•”‘•”• Onaer 414 aot 4ea,y ti.t •l’le:·
.bA4 •«-u ao •. Was tu lw wllae1a Nle a•oetar7 ta tub a oaaef
l 4o aot atteapil lo .1-.. DIUel” •• an la41Y14•1. l 4o•” know wJie.
, … ln ‘1• heart he •• &111.ltr. I w.:ltl aot -,. ,-., ht ••• Wba, l ….,
whea I a,q l 1111.llk 1114 ••id.lot •• JuUf1e4. 1• Ital I \hlalt on \he reoo.a..
•• 1, wa• Mil•• be •• como,ed wt \.Ida th• coaetUu’1oaal aeaat.ng of ina-
tto•• ot lna10a wen ••• •• ,ell Uoal …,one. . wre aomoted a.114
••••e& ‘beoa11ae tbq oau lato ‘ba4 i-.TOr wt.th the 4oa1..,.1 .co•enaeat.
It.lb. • …..,. u4 tobolarl:, nowle4c• of the hl.1\oq- of tnaaon ln ‘llclaa4
our toualen ‘b1 Use Couua,t.oa ltMll 4eltlterate17 •rnn,tld. th«, d•filli•
ttoa of ‘the en•. and alto -4• u ••o•••l’7 lo baYe “‘a wit•••••• to the
…. oTen .-,. n. Co.atUl’0.’1on ..,-a tbat •tnaeoa ap.lae\ the Unit•
Stat•• eha11 coaai•t u1z 1• 1•”‘7iaa war a&a1na, tllell. or during io their
a..S.••• clTllll the• a14 u4 ooaten. •
!)le ta .. n 4ea:lre4 k ••• awa, from u.- altf:lbuUoa ot trea1t0A te o•
• vbo •• thibklnc apl.n.at the klne, ••• vho had a tnaaou.’ble attU’Wle lmt

– 165 –
4tcl .,… Ofll’t ••’• fhe7 soqht al to \o cwud apt net the use of perJ’°7’ tn:
co?i1tlt•• ot tr•eoa. It oae rea.41 lh• append.lo•• which we tlle4 wt.ti
lhe ;?r,. one will ••• that. lone ap 1:a .e b11to17 of IBclud, ‘”• “->
,..,. ·••••• r’lale cnw 11p, •• w•ll •• the …. ,.it,- for the o••rl aot, •
«.ea.. tbe ,.-wt.In••• nle co•• back to the 11\le.
&. lioild •• Ditmm- 317 t1. s. 111 (1942)
. >¥11bd •· ll)ba. •• a ta•c1na\1ac •••· I u ut nre l eaa cl,..
aa ••–‘• ,1otve ot lt fro• ncolleotioa. l -.a \be •tllful affi•–••
of Kr. DJa’ball •• ••• lllaoa of \he aat1traa, 41Yitloat. •• of Ir. lol••’
hel’ll ot .,. ow staff. Ir. Tot\ u4 Mr. Ruter ot •• J>epa.-bllnt of J.pt …
ew.tv• Alao btlpe4 • «na\lr. the aaae an•• ml4el’ t he Aariaaltval AA•
Juatual A.ot of 1938. the auoueaol’ to ,u Acrlaultural Ad.Ju1’1aeat Act
which had beea 4eolaN4 uaea1’1tuU0Ml ta th9 fuou• AAA •••• ·’!he qu.et­
Uoa wa• vae•ber in \he •ttol’t to control ,u prtoe of vb.eat u •• wl ,bia
the power of Ooacn•• 11.Dd.er the Oouel’H Ola111• io ooa,rol UM coaa11pt1oa
of vhea, oa a tara. he pa1′,taa1ar ooat.rol wh.tok II’. ftllttml I01llht ·••
••• •aJo1M4 •• on• ,-. oo….,uon of vlle&t •• tel14 tor a\ook •” ohl..,
eu, aa4 \he llke, oa ld.• p….S.Ma. the rc,alatloaa ••” •n..t.e4 ••• tar
ta \he \eU.et ,., Ilda we •••••l&Jl1 la cud•• to replate thtt flow ot
••• 1nto the •rke\.
l do ziot Jalov vblllhet’ Jtr. J’U’lnln -· a ua of IHIUlll 1 IIIDUlu.•, ••
n.ipl’iael h lean tha\ u wt a11ta\ed. oa ,JM -, to the hpreu Oovl la7
otlMli-a 111iilal’l7 tl’1aat-4, who wlaud. to ba•• tile aoqt1\u.t1onal cpa•atloa
teat.a. I u rulmle4 et•• ot the eul.7 bJU4Uoa •llt• tu.a ap.latt
\be •uow Labor JelaUoa• Board la the J>iatrio\ or Oolubia. 1′ vat

– 166 –
ttlttd. b7 a 11-«l• w•a emplo7•• of a Gao1’81a l’llll. Su appMN4 t,i OOUI’\
r•?–,ect ·.’7 oM of tlwt ‘b1,:geet and ft.•••• lav tin• in lh• oo1lillf’7 vtlb
1,, pnac1pal offloe ia lew York •
.} ?I’ ,oYena•a• lo,, tJt.e IS,lllm:A ••• b•low U4 1 t oa•• \o th lupiell•
Ootl? ?•r the proY1•1on• of \he Aol of A’aca•I 24, 193?, whloh ,a•• a
11.;ht ot direct: e;ppeal lo the Court when a tb:ree-Jwls- dlelrict com\ bad
eel ulde an act of 0ongN•• •• unconati htional. •
. 1fhe cs•• •• al’pild. ttnt in the late Sp:rlJlc of 19’2 u4• U.n Qnv:-;?
%1 -· ‘” …..

for narp.aeot la tl» fall. fhea the Ootrt, la an opl!lloa 1>7 Mr. la•l:1 ..
laonon. n1hlu4 -. «oTenmtat’ • ,o•l Hoa 1 a •• e:draortliu.rll, flu
ttpln.lon. ‘fht ‘beautJ of \he o-plalon •• not •l11pl7 1a l te ual.7at1 of the
par\lealar ••• lnlt ia :Ua ru.ppratMl ud re•t.ateaet of tu powel’ of
OoacZ”et• under the Oeae,-ce Olauee. lt va• learn•• luei4 eD4 p•r1u1aalYe.
11 teatat•• the reaaou wb,J’ a declsioa 11A4el’ \he oo••n• powl’ oanaot tun
oa v .. ther the ,arueaJ.ar laclaenee of re&Ul,aU.oa l• local •• • .,.n.tel7
ooad4ere4, lnlt oa vbt!lhe!’ lbe leea.l t19u1 •• sdflol•t ett .. ,. •ttbel’
eeoaoaic or pb,relcal. u,ea latel’ltal• …….. n 1• the na•oatac vM.ob
ba4 been u•• )7 Ohl.et “••tt oe Ihle•• b lh• llma:a.td aid. IS:wmJt lltl
Ca••• and. 1a,er n17 olea1″l.J’ upoud.14 ‘b7 bl• la the L&’bor hard •••••
the th•• o t -, a.fl’DJlenl we.a tna-. the nbJeot aohall7 ffCl’llatecl wa•
a er•’ tnter•tate flow of vJs.eat, not a loaal 1nl.t a aattoal affal?. If ia
tao, Ooncre••• wt.th ad.tHl’G&t• lla1111 foua.4 that it •• aeo••…..,., 1». lh•
recal,at1oA et thl1 .,., lnlerata\e an4 national aothit)-. to taJt• )»14 aleo
of t.hia local ••••• of U t.hea lo 4o 10 •• wt.•hl• \be aaltoaal. povff.,

– 16’1 –
l thiu Mi-. :hl’bun bad an arguable ea••• beoaute of the ••17 looe.l
cba:raote.r of bl• 1-ed.taie colUluct. If.be deotaton •• an eslen•1on or ,he
coaeroe J>O•r, and \he Oou.r” appareail7 had to•• trouble with ii \e-cau1e
1, ,,., •” decided unUl argaed tvloe, ‘Ila.\ in. the u4 the t.eiatoa ••
,, • Jlaist.4 s11111 .,.31 .. &l •Hima s,1u 91>mamt\1a ,, a1 •• u. s. 289 (1941)
I re••b•r ••17 Y1T1d.17 J’u.•llo• IJ.aot•• act1.,. ,anicS:pation d:u.ring
oral aquaent of tbia •••• bu.t not the retereaoe 1114• ta \he caae b7 Mr.
John P. Jf’Uk 1• .bi• blo,npb.J’ of the Ju,uce. Bl• qa.e•UoaiDg •• IION
vtgorou.a Uaa la •BJ’ oaae I experieaoe4 S.n the hpnae Couri clurtac a, appea:ra.n.
oea, vh1cb exte.nded oTer a period of about ten 7ean. Ju■Uoe Black
• 11 .,.1!J 1104ere11e and diecerninc ta lalerrupUag argument, but la tld.a •••
be wa1 exceaaiYe in bta effon to t•r town ibe goTeruent• • potUion. I
for the Ooncre•• to ■olTe.
!he ••• ba4 a n17 long hlato17, too ooapl1oated. for ae to recall 111
acnrat• detail. U cnv ou’l ot 1111 faol lbat the ,o•eftlllent, tbrouch the ·
Mart ‘1• Ooaai••loa — or the ol.4 Sht.pplac Board. •• t, •• lcaoWll, enten4
tuto an arnnc•••nt wt th the Bethleh•• lhl-plnuldtng Ool’porattoa. am aaeootated
ooa,pei•• tor buildlq ahipa deemed neoe■1ar;,r 1a the p?GeHU.Uon of
‘1ie ft.rat Worl4 War. !he end renl\, ao tat” •• the begiaDing of l1iip’1oa
va, ooacen.e4, vat that, vhea the 1blp1 were lnul I and. thft blll• paid, the
reepoasible ottlolal■ 1n the goYermaenl deolcled the coat •• ut oal.7 exceaain
ba.i ao exorbitant lhat the United State■ bad oauae to recoup a pan,
• vhioh lt underlook to do. There began long, draw out p?Goeed.tng1 wl ih

• 168 –
ref.nmot• M u4 l’epol’tl of 1peolal. ••ter■ – a, OM pola, Own J,. loltert1
•• tp•elal …. , • .-. leaner au a Npor\ \eeaue he hftl’ ftataW. :taae
ca••·? oa lalentDe)i7, u4 ail.a VS.th a 4eola1oa of \Jt.e cU1tl’l♦\,
0011,♦ aA•—–• to th• &o•enaeal. fte 411tnol oovl’• ANlaloa vat n–. .
talu4 )y Ille \hi.rd otroa.1,. haaolt lU.d.d.l.•, vhea Solloltor Gea•l’al.• p•U’
1oae4 \M lapr•• Co,a,rl tor wtt • ot oer11S.o,an • vld.ch •• cn,ated, aa4 tll•
••• …. oa tor •IWDll•I la the hpr•• Cou.rl at,er 1 lla4 lteoo■e Sollol\or
, … ?. l tuen W u. •• 1′ wen, u4 •J:C”l414 1′ tor •• &0ft1111MN1l1 a..j
1Nl•rU’lk Woo4, of tu 01″&ftlll fln, npneealecl IN ‘le\lllell• Cf’011P•
I W laa4 ho lalenatt.-a a,•neaoea vi lb Mr. Wool la La.,. loal’t la-
JatUoa oa.e• – nl be •• •• ta. \be Wec•r Aot •••’ •••• vbloh na.W
llMt lapNM O..rt. lfe oppt•e4 oo aao\ller la tbe ol4 lapnae On.rt of la
Dt1tnot ot Col:ubla, u4 laea la \he Onrl ot Appeal• of U• Dla\riot o’I
Oolulla. – h, ltllieb.u va1 Ille flnl ‘1• la whloll w app•Nll oa
oppo•l ‘- e14•H la l!Mt llq,r … Oo1Ut. • •• aa ffll’t1Ht11 a’t#le a4Yeoal• a.Iii
I aocalre4 aa a4alrat1o• all “‘-‘”‘ to:r ld.a •
. hrlaa ,_ OOUH ot ,u …… , …. of ,_ IUtlOff — l \ht1111: , …
tt• a.. – altel .. a “‘9•’1•• et taot. J 414 •• lit.ft \be ….,.,. ..,,,
uA •• ,.lb& •r. Woo4 JrMv ta M8WI’ .aa4 ••Ur’ Pft t. I \o • ….. ·
vh!ob •• a ftS7′ oourt•u lldal — taa,_. ot eJ•JlJ18 -, … …. , …. ,.
It •• a ,…,. la,s• reool’tl., lN.1 I 4o •• es••• •• lla.Tlac tlMt aatver. It
-· … of ·- •rcuae••· I … la ,_ laprea• Gout 1rldeh l Uftl’ tel’
bapp7 ….. ,.
11′. Voo4 aqucl ••17 a’blJ’, ‘tipl’CnldJ aa4 “”ha ••roac TOtoe. • -..
oanflal la Ide pnpaatloa u4 bev ht.1 ••••·

– 189 –
l•t J:da la \he loltl>J’ of la llqflover lolel aft•r v• ha4 a…- ♦AM
or twl•• acata,, .. •’he? la Labo• loaJ’A ••••• aaa atte:r he hat act• a
Ntrit&1tor.Ja .. ,,…. ».al lltl&aUoa. ft.e h’bor ht bid \hen.., … …,.
l&la’4 17 tu lapN11e Oo11.n. I w4 I lad. beea tl1appo1a,ec1 lie •• aot ta
Uota ••••• le tallecl u4 •14 he ba4 beea. la tba SqhffJl\tl ••• u4 W ·
woa ‘bJ a TOie ot et.ah• to oaec ,a, he had \laea beea. ac’1•• in \he .W ••••
allho118h l 4o rot t.h1ak be -4e \he •?•’ la \hat oaae – I attnlnlte
tlaa, le Geers• Wlaoha P-,per. at 11&8′ prlael,all.7 •- which Md ho wa b7
a wte. af 11a tct •1uN1 \lat Ila lad. 1hta &!Pel \)le hlte7 Coal Ao\ aae
u4 .1184 wa lt7 a ‘t’OM of II.Te ‘° fou. • aoao111414 )7 -,tac wt\ha 1nc,
,1a,. la the w.ber leal’ll … be tlloupl -,,.. the .,.,. wul.4 onu •.,. . Ille
U,M .•
•· !b. pre\l• 1A \ll• lst»e11 ••• •• · ••’• JtOtvt lh•laattnc tbe • …..,_
tto• ot 1.aoi’41aa\e p19ftt1, the •fll”llllellt tad au tale> the •tter with .,,
q .. opea •• ha4 AO aoa•••-1 right lo NOO’llpHD\ of l)l’Ofl ,. 81’ ••• ,.
pat&? fba O..n ta paenl.1 I thldt, Jut ….. te thlak 1, ,….., tor
ti.a _to pnteo, •• ….. ……,, ,.,.. •Q4J••'” pz,ett •• pat.A wt tbnt nm- ·
\ldi o.f an,.•••• .. •• a4,. •• ta. Oo•J’t ••14 •• tM.u, vt\llott ‘fle1-Uo ·
ot -, el.Mr ooatn.etul o\ll-.tloa. Of OOV9e, •• ,,..,…., • … -.
-. ooail’ar:,, Iha\•••••• a aoa\n.ohal •tola\lea1 u4 alto, … .,….,t …
17, , .. , Ille uoul• ‘*•• •• protlt• wr• eo aooaaoto11a?l• \lat Iba
pTenmeat 1be1114 obtala relief, •1P•otall7 la •• lt•b’ of l t• mceaot••
4v.l’ba lhe •r N4 Mar Ml.ple•u.••• ta •••rt.nc tat. arruc … at• wl lh
pn•’- 1a4•••17′ k NftU l t• vai- n-•· fM oaae •• arcul, •?,aapi,
•••• tJHt 1eooat 4q after lhe attack at Pearl •rl,or, a• w nn •’•riJta
• t!M Seoond ‘World War. d.ving whloh tbe Benegollatioa Aote aa4 o\her lecl•-

– 170 –
la,ton. Ao 4ollbl applied ,he l..S,1laHo,a aeede4 ,o aw14 ,11e erila \he
co••—• ?• lahen4 ln the hthlellea •nA•aUoaa.
a. h1111Uere1 ,.. JII.IIIA ••••• 320 u. s. 11a (1942)
:· .
·•. · 1:, tA Ooto’bel’ 1941 fen, Wt.lllu Sebnetd.en&n petl Uoaed. \.be lapna•
Covt tor wn, of oent.onl’i \o NTlev a d.eoldoa o t the Circuit Court of
-‘.PP-1• tor \a. llath Oircmi ‘• v)d.ah W. neteined. a 4eo11loa of \!Mt cl11-
t11.o, oov\ 4eaaw.nltdn, bla. U9 ‘I. acl fiOO. u Aotlna SoU.olto1″ Gu.e.nu.
l W o,neM!ll put ot Ille vrll. -na. oaee •• &l’,u4 ,v1.oe, Ille 1ft00a4
,s.a. Maroti. 11. 1Ha.
Scla•lA•naa •• a Oollna11t, a4Jd tlt417 • al all tt••• •••rt.al to
Ille •••• ,-. 11aile4 Ital•• laatt.\utell pro0Nit.11g9 to ., ….. hla ct’1••·
thlp. oa the poud. ••t ,.. lMt •• atunU.se4 be won ta1 .. 17 ••• be
vou.14 bear tne fat\h and allqi&IMht to the Vnlte4 Sta.tea alMl that fo’f’ the
Hfl’ll•t.•• pel’lo4 he had ‘beea aUaohel to \u 1>11.aoipl•• ot lhe 0o••’1 ’11\lo.a.
!be po1t.Uoa of la co•enaeat •• tllat So!ael4enu. baA ••O’IIN4 hi.a ot.ti•••
hlp llltrPllF, &14 u., the appll-.1>1• ., •• ,. -••n•• Ntftealtoa.
1 iJd.all: •• uaahnllaatloa .. .., .. , of tile ••• •• le ,, ol’llltnal
tl’fi11oa •t ,. ».n., of l•••l••• tllolllh the oan •• a et’Yll eae.
hepU• the IIOMIIOlatve of ‘118 4old.-.at olll.n.oter ot tt• work. ti&• 41.S.tloa
•• O,fta nwpoaal’blll’T ta aoae n1a,e& t1eltle. lhl• ••• •• hu4le4 b7
\he Vat.lei ftat•• .A$1on.q•• o ffto• la Saa 1ruo1aco, 1a ollal’«• IJ&u ot MJt.
•••••1’• 111 .,,. ova offlo• Mr. Cheater •• 4note4 ••n•• .. \1• ‘1• to
the •••• aa l 414 al•• I ah.Uel l t oafffllll.J’ la l)Npal’lllton. of the ‘briet
and at,awa.14• of 117 oNl &1’1’111•••• 1 •N4 ibe eshl\t. h -1 -… -pntt7
tllor01J&h17 aocpala\14 with Oo111111Al8’ l•olliac a, ,1:ru m4eaoecl – the

– 171 –
Mlllf-•••• ,u4 v.n ‘1J.JC• of the relnaat perto4. loha•l4enu. •• aet bel.»a
“UJ••’17 t,w ta lJ•lac label.a. a Oo–11, or bJ’ haTlDC allrtln:,,leA to
hl•f;’tU.–• vldoll were aot la fap hi• ova.
? 4t••not oo’U’I, •• Hae ••1• of an ela-otate nool’4 •• to tha …..
…..s:.-:Pal’\1 •• l t wa• Ibo nova – l h \-3.lela, 4oolrln••• u4 •Uaot1.11
aa4 Sou.a14•raa 1
• ova ••H•l ‘1 la Ill• pan7 – fou4 ,., he hail ol>talAel
hla -il••–hip lllepl.11. A■ the oan de’f’el01>e4 la the appellate 1u•eo..t?
tap ta el’lt1oal polat •• that lolmeltel’IIU •• aot attaoW. \o ,lae ,?
olpl•• of \lie Ooaelltulloa aa4 Uutnfen W o’btalae4 ble otUsa■bl’P ill?·
1111” “* – -?· – -· …….. .
. oa•• oaae to I.bit 8apN11• On.l’t at a W llae, tf ! aq -, eo. We
Wl’• la the NJ’ – ae a •lier of tao, lhe tti’■t arpMal •• ‘1ao1t 11ia
tlMt 1114111 of the battle of ltaltJtlft,4. !here •• tr•••••• po4 wlll. tllea
la ta aoul17 tor Bll11la, aaa a &Nl.l &4.S.raU.oa of lt• fight acat••• the
ooaoa eae-,, Ian hl’IIUI’. l vaate4 the oa•• ,., o..-er. J •• a 1a1, 1Ulllllq
•••• the a4Yl … 1llt7 of tla. ,;e’f’eJUCI, al tllal puUealar •aeat, tql. ..
la OU 11lf)apl trllnmal all tu t!d.llp \:bat aet4e4 to lte aall aloal lo.S.•i
luda, u4 pt, l 41t aol. waat to pill UT Jt…..• la p,eautlac \he o ….
I -· ul a\1• ,o -?-s.a • 4el&y. …. WN4e11 lfllUd•. OM of lolm.e14•1’a&ll’ •
oou.”1 • wn14 not a«ne, u4 the Old.et l11.e\toe •• aot vlllia, le poelpou
,,.. ….,…., al••• taotb. d4e1 ooa■-w. Jeton tu:ln, ,. .,,.,. ,rp wl th
Ille hld haU•• I had.,,. lo•• le11••• Uaae-r leoreta17 of hate,
•••• •• d’1aaUea. • llloqtat IOU ular’ •• 4eatra\le. »efon U.1e arc-­
., I alN a4Yl•• tile Pna14-I ·–· \he -··· d11p1, ,. 1., hla DOY of
1,, eb111aotv aa4 poew.ft. • •• •’ 4lelmt4 ‘7 l\ u4 tllnch’ ,11e

pntat.OJL •• _, ht• own •
.. 173 –
. JII’. Vllk1e1 a tint •–•’ X IMqa\ •• ao, •11>eolallF 19o4 – ; At
aol …. lt •• W. 11 •• a ■laure upaenl a, l 414 aot thlak ii••
pal”llO’DlarlF etfeoHT• or wll ro1.UM\e4 •••• Ila •ooa.4 •l’&”WN•’• hewnr.
l lho111:tlt vat eaoellul. Ia .the tl.H betwea ,u ho azpaeale M ba4 4••
TDte& hiaaelf to aon oanta.1 prepan.Uoa •
.. 117 ova r-1.&Uoa• vltll Mr. V&ki• wer• pl•aa•. Be klacllr ••• woMi
‘;(‘;”· ·.
,, . ··•: ··.(.
lo .. :.lh-..!a Mr. lf. 8. L&”O•••• ot ti. 1w Jt$ ft.111, tJlat lf l ••..,. :··
lie *cl lie gla4 ‘e noo•d4 •• ‘- \IMt Pnaltl•I to:r the thea m1tl11C -?
eeaq •• tl:ae .., ….. Oovl. l 4e-,J.r appnol&ted tld.• •f oottr•• ‘-‘ .’¼\ :.·,·
•••• ? aa:n11A aot •• ld.a •• do•• be nueate4, u4 eo -.u Lla•u,e •
. ,J 4o aol ,….. • ., pal’llnlarl,- , ooauat la Ullt Solloitor haem••
offt#e a\0111 Jlr. WU.We’• -11 ata•t la &14 of \be 4•f•••• I al1-ll’ –?
al? Ala . fer• kldq the •••• la \be •••• tlat a cnat ••nice S. • per-
} ,:: .
. .
fo.; lq’ ua of 1twl11C, pn•’1••• ua a1t111,,-, la tutra.a ,q, upop111-,
081lll!I .VMII Ma’l’laal. …. lavtal lll••rlF of aa lDAlfl.cb&al l.e la ……..
-,. .-i1n.oauoa t• lllat 1 Alaacn• vl.111 ht.a••• tld• •••· I W a
?la-, ova–. lf -· •7 M …… lt, alie’a.l ht.I ……. h IMi-,..
oo• ooariUecl ba •• r.l&h\ abo’Cll thl• oaee. h\ I.I 11 baNll.7 tor ae to
pn•• t!Mt.t po1Uloa, Yhea lie ba4 I.he laphlle Co11.r\ vt\h hi• ta Illa••• M,
41 NgNeMlll la 110 n wt ‘h lhe Oo1tr\ ..
Wbea \he O&ff •• flral arpe4 \hff• •• • •–1′ oa ,11e Oo1ln v>d.e>a
•• ts.Ue4 \7 Ille appet.•••’ ot Mr. JuU•• a..ue1ce, I ‘b-11.,.. 41t.rl .. \he
NMU ua b1for1 na1SDeat. lb-• .ru,t.o• Jacateoa u,c,aa11n.a. hoa••• ot
ao•• oon.n.ectlon .t th ,u preoee41n.p llhen 1M ba4 , … A\ton-,, ha•ral •

– 173 –
·.X hopllll a a ev TOie llt.gh\ l.te helpt.l to ,n. I ha4 4etiat.\e bopee of
prnallJ.ai? .i11ao11p tna ille l’HepUu -, fli,11 arpaeat l’M•ln4 tn•
IO• ♦f •• Jutt … I Nlll.1•-1 th•n •• a ••ri••al7 4t’ri4e4 <Inn, … ·
•?• ‘1le qae1itou aa1ta4 vere of Ille eon oa• wlooM■• l,a.1Uoe »lac
alke4 abo11.t Ille l’l&h’ of NTolutloa, wt ih a refenaoe lo ou ova ld•tol’J.
I nteJ’l’e4. to vtaa, 14aeola ba4 al4, ul ihe aoUon ot ov forefather• –
VHN COTenlHll\ -· failed. of t ,. tuo\1oll then 1 e nch a right, lna,\ ti 1 •
aot • rick\ of la otll1a vbloll la …..-1N1 ‘b7 tile law of the &OT•nMat
atteo,… II l• a ltaela ncht of Ille …. ‘i•lnc to rewlt ecal••• ’71’allft1
aA•r oatala ot.HII.Mtaaoe■, ‘b,a\ •’ • l’lcllt wtea a..,…, ta •st.•••o•
ncoot••• ta Ille ot,taa. Solm.e14enaa onl.4 aoi olat.a \ti.al ,. Valle
ltat•• ••• reoocal•• • lep.l. ncht oa Id• pan to n,,el, e.cata,, il:w
v.1,.ea. a.., ••.
!here lad. ltMJL ••• weakn••• ta \.be pl-4111t11, whtoh 1 will •’ atiaspl
\e &Dal1W•• w!llo 41•ble4 •• a po4 ua1 1n. the hpna• Co11.n fl’O•
argalng on tu ‘ba.•l• of laoll of tru ta1 th aliA allectaao•1 that ta, fa.lee
1tWUriD1 ta ,-., 1’•1P”‘- !be. ■tftll&lb of ev ••• •• Jd• laalc •f attaoh­
••’ ‘° Ille pl’l.aol?l•• et ,-. Coa,u ••to•. !be Co1lrt• • optalcm •• l ao”
noall. ll• ab•taa .. ,.. ,vo Wapa ,., •• mteaoe 414 •• ••ta’bll■h
OOllYlaalngl7 … (1) … , Schutte-.. J)itl’teu.117 belt….i la ‘h• Oft1’­
‘bro• ot U» .,..,..,.., ‘b1′ tone ol’ Tlol•ee, a.ad lherefoN, oa \Jal -,ha••
of the •••• 1, 001114 u, b• aa14 h• •• net a ttaeMCI. – tile prtaotpl•• of
the Coa1tlta.Uoa1 (2) \hat a’bteal tone aal Tloleao• •• ba4 tile nett, to
1Nk peaoef111 •hue•, ev •n.4111••• u4 lav uoov.nplll tnectoa ot tllftcht
u4 peaoeN obua• •’814 b• a4YO•’•·

– 174 –
l 4o aot think 11h11 aet the cov•ftlllent• • GaH l>ecaa1• Ua.n are oertata
basic -pl”lalipln – ‘hov«h reooanlala« ot oou?•• tblll we •1’ Obl.JtC• the Ooaett.,
ittoa – vbloh are prtaolpl•• ot tu Coa1t1 tu.lion. ti. •ta.tut• ta
Ara?• of ••nine b7 -,tac, •tn an aot requtnct. lo be aHaohe4 to ur-.
thlac bHa••• 19• are penlthcl to a4’f0oat• ohange of ffemld.nc. • A1
Chl•t Ju1Uoe Stone pointed out tn ht• 4.l••••’• there ar• aoa. prln.ol])lea
ot the Coa1tttattoa to whlob on• m1t at·,a aUaomeat la orde• ‘\’lllld.17 to
beoo••· a aat11Nl1•e4 oiu-.
J .launt Ille ldfel’ of the 11•• •• against the IITeftlllftt vb.ea ,ae •••
reaoW. the lapnae Cout for aquaeat, aaa 1 blew aft•.,. Ille .,., of .,….,
tlorarl tbat IMH •• 4o111tl of 1alll1D& a •Joni,- ‘INt I tllo’IICht ta the eal
the Oovt WRl.4 a,ne tiat la appl,uc lav to the faot■ ‘1ie eo•eftllat
ehftl.4 pnftil in thtw ••••
the 4.t.1■eaUa, opWoa wa• v:rl tte. ‘b7 Ohlef Ju1Uee Stone, wt th l111Uoe1
lo’ber,, and 11Uktu.ner ooacntn1ag. the m.Jorlty opinloa va■ written ‘b7 llr.
Jut\lo• 1111’P)q’, Jot..S 117 111111.oe• Blaolc, Dougla11 IN&, aa4 Jv.\le4&e. Jbo.
lullu .Jaok.oa. •• I ••• ea1a. 414 •• panlclpa.\e, gl’d.ag >d.t rea1N>a1.
then••• quwUoa t.a tu ltlaaAl4tlllD O&H of ptlt . aaaoeiatlea
or 1.u.t&Uoa; 11 vat a qae•lloa et pn•f b.,-oa:l all •lglllf1oaat dcna)t of
aotul -1,enhip, a.ad a.ot-1, oolfflaaecl. vt.lltq1 alll kaovln, pariloipaUea
la ,he Oo.-…1■1 d.octriu an.a Part,. Ae the opiatoa of Old.et lulle• Stone
potn,• 01d, Sobne14enaa •• avaN of u4 a14t4 la proaoUng 4ooll”1aee
which d.e110n.ttn.,e1 laok of attaolaaul to Ute prl110lJ’l•• of the Coaeu tatioa.
It ia d1ff1nll to auv.r the (h■Uoa whether l tbo,ip\ tld.e •• a
ol1’1l llben1•• ca••• conat4ering hov 1, •• 4eo14e4. Ia a 1eaH i, •••

• 175 –
beoauee it 1a’f’01Tad bow far a peraon my P• without restraint, 1n ‘belief
and t4″tOcaq. there •• tbe 1utat• vldoh authonaed. the COT•,.., \o
teek ,..,,w.ralt.•tloA upoa ••,•’• P;IHf. It bu. bMD. u•ed la prior
…. ,. loaa lteton ,he Collllmd.•’ 1,na aro••• at a “Mele for 4aatural1•ttoa.
&D4 had. bee nata1Md. b7 \he lapNJD• Coai-t. Ooaoed.ing at t willlag-
17 4.o that ,u ffid.enc• • · -‘ be t\l’OJIC aZLd coavlaolq to Ju•Uf7 tiudinc•
a4•’1a’• fo’r 4eaatunl.lsaUon lUMlel’ tbe \en• of \he eta\ute, I a11 of \he
oplatoa ,11e eTi4eaoe lu •bl• oa•• •• nftleleatlJ’ e\rong and con’fin.e1ng •

– 176 –
Our prepan.Uoa, had not contemplate a ••• en.cuat1on of ,>ereon.e of
Japl!lneae aoe1\17 reeid.1ng on the •••’ Coad. rue prograa originated in
\he War Deparlm.e.a.\ after Pearl Barbor. General De Vitt, la 1De41at• ld.11-
‘8.ey charge on U1e Welt Ooast. ncommen.ded. the ewun:saUon. He wanted treedoll
ot a.o\lon w1 tbout ha-vine •to look oYer h1 • aboul.4.er• to aee lt the ••curl
t7 of hl• foroea and. of the area •• en4an&•H4 bJ persoaa ■711Ptlth•t10
to Japan. ln orderlnc the eTacuatlon he aeted unde:r the &\ltborl \7 of the
aoab1Ae4 poven of tile Pres14en’l, a, Ooaaader-in-Chlet • a.n4 the wr pover•
ot Ooagr•••• On :re1trwu7 19, 194a, the P1’e■ldent proalgated aa uecatt••
order wblo.b No1 ted. tbat the n.ooeaeful prosecution of the •r “4Uind
eYer, po•llble protecilon acataat e11piona,ce and •bo\age to naUoul de-
• tea■e aaterlal, preal .. ,. uUll Uee, et cetem. CongreH had granted to

the Prea14ent,
\!Mt power to n\horlH and di:reot the Secretar)'” ot War and the
mtll \ar,r ooaenden dest&nahd. by h1a, when be or thq a … 1 t
neo•••l’7 or 4ee1rable, ,o pre•oribe llf.lltar., a:reaa la n.oh
place• an4 of noh nt•n• •• he or ,u appropriate atli ta17
(IOll!lanrler -, de\ena1Ae, t:ro• wbioh an, and all -per,oas ay be
•xcl?ed. am. w1 th N&JUtO\ lo which the righ\ of •• ,enon \o
enter, N111ala la, or le&Te, 1■ au’bJect to whatner rea,rloU,u1■
the S.creta17 of War or \he appropriate &111 ta17 OOIIMnder DJ
tapo•• a\ hi• 41aoret1on.
!hi.a •• folloved b7 ac-\ of 0ongn•• of March 21, 1942, Mklng one who
nolaled an order &Uilt:, of a lded.eaeanor,
if lt appear• that he mew, or ehould ha•• kno,m. of the extaten.c
e and extent of ibe reatrtctiona or order, e.114. it h1• act
•• in Tblatlon thereot • ehall be go.11 v ot a lliademeaDOr.
On March 87, 194.2. the General pre1arl’bed ce:rtain a111tar, ar•• and
son••• ldihin vhlch, a• a atter of mllltar., necee1it7, there wen requ1re4.

– 177 –
to be eat&bl11b.ed certa:t.11 regula.Uoaa perta1n1ng to all eneiq alien• aJ:ld.
all ,person• of J’apaaeae aaoeat17, 8114 tu.i-\her, after March 27, 1942. •a.U
aliea Japanese, all alien Genl&lla, all al1ea Italian•• ud all p?u·eon• of
Japan.•• aace•tq reatd1q or beiq wlihla the geographical lla1’8 ot the
d•s1pated al.11 ta17 area shall. ‘be la tl?ir plaoe of reeideaoe at a c ertain
hour.• Thi• wae the curfew, vlth the ceneral encuUoa order to follow.
fhere wat .uo pllblio hearlflC, eUIIIJ)t before Oongnedoul. coal t\eea,
on these quetUon,. M7 nooUeoUon 1• tbt.t lhe llilUa17 a11.lh1>1’1Uea, inolv.41118
\M oinllaa• in the all1 \aJ7 ••k’bllahlllent, aaecl OoDCN•• tor
the•• powen. 1 oamM>t ea, CoJ&Cr••• •• ‘GZl&vare of what •• likel7 to be
do••• ‘IN.t lhere w ere ao h•rll!IC• or a4ata11\raU•• tiB41np la the eseoa.i1•
e bJ”aAah of the o•enmeai.
Oenenl ». Vitt•• reooaaea4aUoa of the eYacuaUoa. va• eupported b7
the Seo:retas-y ot Wazi, MJ’. S’1J11oa, aa4 ihe Pree14ent· d1d aot Teto 1t.
Though the l>epanmea,.i of lu.aUce w.a oonaulted. I had. nothlq to do vUh the
utter waUl at ita 1a,,r atqe I wit aalced ,q in.tonal opinion aa to ttMt
con1tift.tl0Mllt7 of \Jae pro,.o\. ? AUeme1 Geaeral. wttll la•• Bowe
a, hie ptin.ctpal a4vt.■er, had ‘been bandlt».1 the aaUei” 10 tar •·• Juetioe
waa conoen:iecl. X, noollec\1oa ia Jove w.a qaUe oppoa«l to tbe eftao.ation.
I do no, belie-Ye the Dapa:rl••• 001114 baTe t)NTen,.., 1 t •••n it the
Attorney Gueral a4v1ted that lt would b• unconat:1’1:ltional . :au,. that
aeid.•• when atlted I espNHed tbe ‘f”iew that vhll e hitlor, vould probabq
de1110n.simte that ,he program va• wmeoe1a17 1, would be ooa■UtuUonal lt
the alliU.Q’ cle•e4 lt a •tter of atlite.17 neceeait7 at the Uae . t b•-
11••• Mr. J. 1.dgar BooTer though\ he oou14 handle the 1ec:nuit7 problea oA
.. 1″18 –
• the Ve8′ Coad with&ut the eftouation.; so the dec191on to CB.l”J”J’ it forward.
was \hat ot \be ailita17. wUll authorising legielatioa..

‘l’h,ee oa••• r•ohe4 \he hpreae Oottn testing \!Mt consU ’11.llt,Aa.11 ‘7 of
the procna. ih:&UIIIM •• Dal!IA sw,,, 300 v. s,. 11 (1943), 4.ottled
Jue 21. 19431 uph.id. \he curtev,. !he opinion •• written ‘b7 Ohlef lu1Uoe
Stone, ‘With ao dlaeent, but wi\h e4’J)an.te concurrlnc ophdon1 by Mr. JuaUoe
Dougl••• Mr,. Juttoe Mu.1’1)h7 • arid Mr. Justte• lutledge.
!be ••’ an uoa1 … •• laaat•• “‘· JlmttA bas,,. 323 v. s. m.•
(1944). whlcb f’e&CW \be Ooun fol’ &J’IIIIIMI w1\h II bat ID40. 323 u. s.
283 (1944). l.ll’.IM!D 1aTGl’N4 the ftl.141\7 of ‘be cene1’8l ffaO’Gatloa ,,_
••lt• and .IIMla,. the ftlid.117 of nt&lai-.g ••• regrala\017 aathorlt7 o-ver
Ml•• lado 1a Uie nlecatioa center or lf the ehould be penal tted to leaft
s.,, altboqb n.’beecp:&en\ to her eftcuaU011 ud relocation the hid llMD per-
1cu1&ll7 cleared Ulld.er the apy,lia&’ble rega.la’1ona as lo,al. to the United.
Slate•. Jlr. Milton Jl1•11.Dhower I bel1eYe had become the Direo,or of the War
BelocaUo,a .Au’11orlt7 when •M• oaee N&Ohed tbe Ooul”t.
the lapr•• Collrl on Jaxroa17 18. 19+1, nttaine4 the 0011a’1tatloaalit1
of the ff&n&tloa ln ltUPMID- ,, oplaton.. b7 Mr • .ruuoe Blame, w.•
ban.4e4 dow Jana17 18. 19″, v1 ,11 ll’I”. Juatlc’ll lhtrplQ” and Mr. Juet1oe Jaok-
9011 4111ea11 … 1eparatel7. In Jaisl,. arped. wlth &cnn\a. the Ooun
1tna.ak dowa •• u.oonatltuUonel the ffi\llatio1H aougbt ‘4 ‘be cont111Ud as
to OU ill Ml’ •1 ha tlo.n.
1 al’C’Ud tba lhne •••••
1 ••• ao 4etinlte recolleoUoa of a117 olff.Tage t.11 • ow. eta.ff as to
the CU”fn •••• IJn)lrtf:•ld • l>u, tl»re •• a e\ro11g ••nU■ent 1n •••
qaarter• la the Departaeat tba\ \he pwr,:maent “”• wroag 1n kr.ea!in. M:,-
– 179 –
• ow ·.teeltng waf! tbAt hove’t’er undrH.1ireble I l’ilight thiak the U.H eYaouatton
hatl been, and bov.-v-er wmeoe1ea17 I ldeht haYe ‘ho’Olhl 1, to be fl’Oa a
11111 t&l’J’. eta.ndpolat. the author! lif’ •nrcieed throao Ooncre11. \b.e Preel•
dent. •• Seeret&17 of ‘War, a.Dd. the l’eapoatl’ble alli\e.17 comu4ara vae a
co111U tutioul au\b.or1 t7 at the till• 1 t wae exerch.«. I oonaldered. 1 t ,o
be 111’ u.nequ1Tooal oblil;!lt!oa to •eek to mstain \heir aotlon ‘fd\h all the
abilit1 I could maier.

!here waa ooaeulta.UOA wllh the Wai- Depart.MA\ abou.t the luiefe. ‘t’b.e
Depan•Jlt waa arn’1T ln\ertde4 ln the c&ffl• parUclllarl7 lcaa,\a, &DI
helpe4 u•. ht Ju.et hov lhia wa1 workecl ou.t I 4o nol aov. ,. ….. r. We n­
Wnel ooatrol oTer the oaH• ‘bu\ War •• b7 ao IIM.llt uo1’24ecl froa oonnl•
tatlon a.Id eoopen’1.on.
IDCAM\R va• o”niov.al.7 aa btpor\an,t •••• bat l 4o aot reaeaber that
\be Court MJ’1’l!H9″4 ooua■el parUcu.larl.7 at. 1 h pre&entaUoa, lhouc)l a gooi
any appropnal& qu.ection• vere ae1ced. In Mo.. however, Chief Juatice
Stone h\11ed1atel7 indloattd. cn•e uaoerta1At¥ • to put 1t aildl7, aboui \he
goTern11ent keeplJtC 4111 n1,n1ate on Mi•• Wo, a c1\1Hn vho ha4 ‘beea
cleaNd froa • loyelt7 atandpotat. Be tboved a Tel7 oltlal’ aa4 cpialr: fffl-
111C agatnat the 1o•emmenl’s pol1’1oa and, ot ooun•• w&t attar•• a’bov.i
1,. I \l’Joucht to 117■elf, “Well, I vlah ,01l ootald pt aflel” ••• of , …
whoa l’•• \Mn tr,1.nc to get to cil•r thla atte-r up vltllout ….. botbertq
yoa about 11.” Retuning to ·1or1al&• I Nmember \he Chi.et Ju,Hce’•
gr•J lnt•reat 1m. 01&:ri:t1tnc tbe poae1’ble ate.tutor, bat1• tor the aotioa.
I e-mphae1se4 lh.9 u■e ef the ooa’blaed. wr power• ot tha co••nmeat la the
mll ‘ta17 ai \uation which enated vb.es. \be !lo’1oa •• ‘8.na, potn.Unc out
that the Tiotoq at Mtd.wa7 hat\ nol oonrrecl. I de■oribed lbe Ii t’Gation at
– 180 –
• 1r1ntt,17. •• I could., ln.olwliag the olou oall a, JUdwa7 am the thin berolo
llu ?oJ(? baalt the ea-.,, without whloh v• alght ba•• bad lo 4•r•a4
•oJt?:?l’ ••’• perhapa eTell la Oalltorala.

, Oa• aipt au: wh7, whea aoUoa of tb11 aort va1 ,a1cea b7 aoaeoae
4ellpaW ,,. \he Pna14eat •• a allltary •Ue1′, am the Pl”eti4ent ba4 a
ttahh1’7 ban• for aoUoa, lhe oout■ ,ook Junt41oUoa. It lt a par\ of
our ooatUtllUonal 17■ha ,bat \he alllta17 ouhld.e the ana of aohal ••
bat an .-o.’IIJ•ot to o1’ti1 atborit1, l.aol.1141.ng lhe Ju411llal athorU7.
11 thla ,iw. ll•a4ari•• ot Ille oon’111ealal Uai le4 sta,••• vh•r• war w.1 aol
aohal17 ltelDc ooncmote4 la the ftel.4, am when •rHal lav ha4 not ‘”•
4•o1Ne& – al thoup lbal l ltelf •Sehl aot ban ae4e a 4tttereace …. tu
otu• •r the al.le re1l4ut wa• e’1tle4 to Jmtolal p1’01♦ottoa of hi•
ooa•’1’-Uoaal rlghta •
Kr. JuUee Jackaon vat trov.1-let on oona,1\’a.Uoll&l cro,m4• b7 \he
Oov.rt • • aanotloala., of alli taq cleoialona. le ••••d ‘4t \h1Dk ,bat vbere
? (IU)tUoat ba4 to do vl th tu oan,lag out of ti. w.r pow•r, the oovt,,
lae\N4 of -,11o1c11ac 1Ulllel’ tu eoa1\latlo1& u,- 4epl’lfttlo11 of ll’bert,.
11-1114 ae, lu4t off eallNlF aa4 let lbe at.lUa17 p uoheoke4. I lo ao♦
..,… ao.lcl the onn 11pllel4 the eouU’1lUeulltT et •h• •\llorU:,
uwot…a u4 therefor• ntu• to ohedl: lbe alli t&JT, Q” utulnc Ja.rit4totloa
t!Mt Oou-t a,nae• a.u,boJ’l,7 alH \o ouok the lllllta.17 if 11• oolld.uol
abou.14 ‘be ’11lOOlllU”1’1oaal.
Waa there UT 1D4loalloa of raola on \ta. pan of tu l)eople of Oallfol’llia
T Vbal 1 9a7 at \o \ld.1 l• with uoena111,7. 8oae part of the
pre1n.n on General I. Wl It 1 lld.u was other lbu a1ll \a17, 4ue to \he
,uuatlon l.n Callfornla. panloularl7 ln eouthera Callfomia. J’or r••••
… 181 –
• urelatel to the oonduot of var aoae people were uxloue \hat the •r power
lie qll!4 t4t •1 •• wbat \beF oou14en4 a ,.1’11117 ual••lra’ble 11 tuUoa •.
hi ?•• •• io aaoele \o •• Pnt14eat u4 \o aea lllte •• Stiiaaoa a ……,,.
tloa ,_., tbere •• u…-,k aillta17 ba111. W \he people of Ca11terat.a

a• • •1• oauo, b7 aq aean• ‘be aoov.114 of 11lterlor ao’1•••• then pnba’b
l7 veN esHp\1on■• .bd. \lMJre •• also a ‘belief ill –• qaar\er• \bat;
\J’OulJle w1114 al’i•• ta 0allfon1a 1:a.,wea tihe racea. h, ua, w11lt\ aot
ba•• ?•’1f1ed \he ff&outloa.
>1 U•-n4 ‘he Ima aa4 la:rllllG oa1e1 vltll ,11e INdcleal ‘before t.l’IU­
U, ….. . I walt4 bt.at o taov Mv I telt aboat lhe •••• u4 wla I ld.Cht
oocnu’. Be -.4 aa laW11s•• paap of the •1 tua\lo a, but llade DO -..nt.oa
•• to thel:r pre■eatatlon. Be apoke of plaaa tor•• na•••• that. he lwpal
vo1114 writ °”‘ for \be •••MIil 11to4 ot all. a. wate4 \be –•••• \o tlDll
ooncutal .boa•• 1a iltfena\ pana of \be ooutq am ■bo”” a \hcn1pihl
aad. tJIIP&IAe’1a tatenat 111 the pio’bl-. fh• vhole en\es,:,1’1•• •• aa •torlua\
e OOBeeqaeaoe of Ill• w.l”.
fllen •• a po11p ot •••• vhS.oll Mffr reaoba4 tbe IDpnae Coun ta
vlaloh ,_ …. l’tae., of IUUOtl -· ., .u. Yl ’11 the … ».,anaea•? ….
ta.,.1 • 1..UY14″”1 uol1l1loa on•” vhen, ‘U4er ..tln ol’llen the ••
…….. la oel’•ia aoae■ – .,11 la 111• ••• alllll la tu •••’ – ven p..,. t­
W lo enter an 1ad1Ylctaal ltaltaa. for nuple, to l••• Ide bue u4 Mft
lalo tu lahrlor. If lie d:t.•e4 \he Deparaeat of JueUoe •• Nq:a•W to
pro•••’• Ma, tu ■ta’1ll• ll&ld.as a nolaUo a of ea ol’4ez• • ortatA&l off••·
the,,…,. Ga.enl ntuecl lo pre1.-te onatu.1}¥ ar, of•••• S.a-
41’t14ual.•. Ba took \be ,o•l Uoa \be ordei-■ wre ot noll 4ou,N wlS:d.ltr
aACI, 1a Nae••••• ao laotln, 1a m4ea11al tuppor\ •• to aeoeaa1t1 tor

– 182 –
en1.-soa. ,aa, the ol’ialllal lav wuld ao\ be la’f’Oked. \7 tu ••1one7
; .r.
” \ ,
1 •• :-.)llity \o d.etud. \he ord.el’I •hould the bAS.YU,al attec\e4 file. a –r· . .
otYS’l’ao’tlloa tor an laJuoUoa.
l!d.1 po11’1on of Jtr. 11441•• la vbloh I Ml.7 l”‘fJPOJ'”4l bl•• oa:ue4. a ·
.coot d.Ml of dlsau1■loa ,.,v.. a the .Altornq O.Unl. 117aelf, au \l:ut lfal’
».,ar•••’• 1AOlu4tng ‘t7n4er 8Nnta17 Palt•r•on, u4 tlnall7 Searetar,
s,,.., •.
I W pleaaaa, penoul ztelaUoa• with Imp Patt•noa. Dartac ••
41..,.•tou oftr \he uoluloa o1″4er• he tall to •• ‘Vb.ea you wen 9-en.l
Oo1allH1 of Ille lia’bol’ »eal’\1. aad \he Labor loan llll4e a 4-otatoa on aa dld.alatrattn
noold. 101l t.aelete4 ••• the cout■ l••• al••• vlllt the had
411. lev Illa Var ».,anaeat Mk•• a 4•oi1loa U4 yoa vill DOt take it 1-alo
When he •• Un4er S.oreta17 ot War be to..,,ha, toreo, to be • l•w,er
or J…,.. am , … .a. to •• lo ‘bl* hit 4.at, al.ate\ laft.riala17 vat ‘• •J.Jppon
,.. allltar,. l 414 .., baft \ha …. l111Pftllloa ….., …. su….. ..
416 •• —• 111 a&ob ,..-1e . ve flaall.7 wat to Ida. Ile tal4, ‘Well,
,ov.n· l• a naaonable pel1’1oa, aat. I 111 \)at.de a,-., l ,, • u4 we ?•
wreat t prnae4 aQ’ •”• tfM Att•IMI’ Gea•ral look Uae ,01lUoa tu4aaea-.U.
7 lh&I ael \1-r tbe leorata17 ot War •• \be Ua4er S.o,eu.17 ef Vu
va• •lll•f law otftoer of \he U.1114 ha,••• ,,, the Altone,- O.ural vaas
1, •• tor !ala to 4eolu whlob •••• 1bou4 be 1a1Uate4 la the OOU’te.
the.,-…..,. General ul1 l weal o••r the vale 1l’11aUu wt.th•• llt.uoa.
After Ural the pl’e1.ue en Iha A.t\one7 Geu-1 Nl …. aa4 w ooaUaull
to 4efen4 a, beat we eovl.4 ,1:1.e ecraJ.17 ntta ‘bul affel’ 1.alUate4 a
– 183 –
• ol’ildnal J)J’DlenUoa. lo la41T1d.ual uolu■loa ••• reaohe4 1h41 tupn•
10. la:1A111 “‘• naa? 326 11. s. 13& (1941)
. l’Jle llur lrJ4ctt •••• s.a 011• of 1,1 laporu, aapeo••• oaa• to tu
otflo• of ?• Soliollor Goeral at the Oolo’b•r 1944 ,.,.. Bna.«•• peU’
10A-4 the Su-pr … Onri to reYln, on w1t ot ceritorari, a 4eo1eioa ot
\htt OJNUit Collr, of Appeal• foa- ‘h• lfta,h 0ll’OUI wbloh ba4 natalael a
4eot-1• ot \be 41•114al oovt la Oalitorala 4-,tac a wrS.t of llalt•• oo.­
:,u. ll’ltc•• ba4 I01:&lb’ tide nu4J to pnnal 111• 4tpenatloa •• an all•
foal ·’7 tu .llhfMJ’ teul’lll. after appltoalle aulm.1ta,t.Ye proHl.ue•
u4 bean.ace, lo baY• lteea a Oomal1\ or aftt.llaW vitll eo-111,11 a,,..,.
qua\ to ht• a\17 late •• vas.,.i hate■• the a4a1Di■\ratl•• phaM1 of
• Ula ••• ve:r• quite ..iab on.te. Jue• hart, a toner •’-•• J,:a4&9 1a lew
Tork, ha4 conduotel Hae ‘ba1lo a411la11\,aU,.. llearlaa arut had deot4ecl a4-
nrae11 ‘- Jrid.&e•• ,… hart’ 4ff1eio• 1114 ll•a l’fflew4 ‘b7 ,i. ..•
et taipaUoa. App-1.a, vbloll teed.A.a. u law• of •• :lrtq… !lle .A.ttol’DeJ’
9••nl• !Mtwftr, 11114• Ula flMl 4eo1a1oa, la .,. • ..,. .. naWataa lllllce
Seal’•• follewtll\\ ,, ‘- oov.1’1 pnoe.Uap. The Jllatl’lot all4 Olnatt Ooun,
tou4 ao bu1• fer llold.lac. oa Ihle ooU.tellll attaM. ••• the 4Mlal•a of
\he 41tcn’lle, Oea•nl abo’Gl.d. lt• ••• a114e.
!be lapNM Oeut. boVffel’, 1’n•ne4, ta affeo\ laftlt4aUng tlae cteporlaU.
ea order. !be n&IGII glftll, •• I noall v111ae11., aow ?•na41aa ‘1l4t
4•ol:■loa, .,.-.”4 •• ala• or•• 79&r■ aao. va• tbat •• pro°”• of law
bl4 raet lt•• aooo1’Cl.14 la tbe alaialttatin pnoe14lnca beonN of nU.uoe
– 184 –
• ln pal1 upoa oel’taia mdco• of a haane.7 t,:pe wltlcb ‘llhe Ooun 4….a too
ua4f,..la a ‘ba•1• for cl-,ori&Uon. ,:>,·’-
_ :? ,-.rpae!ll, a.n4 U.• tlri.flon ot th• Oo’Ut, tallUMl prlurllT w,ea .?
pl’lafllple aclTOct&lecl \7 the IOfll’UC\ kt to1Ulll DOI applloa’ble ‘o7 lhe Qo-ai,1
<C; : ,,- •–:
4en.4e eJ:14 therefore wa1 oonolull•• on the covt oa a collatenl attack.
the olal.7 ba•1• OA vhloh ,he .Utoraer Oeneral • • 4eo1alon eould he aet aside
va1 tel” the Coa..- to ooaol’14e lbat the “14noe •• to tllaq lt ••••
na1lt .-rl?•noe, OW’ \ha\ aenou pl’Ocedural e:rnr ba4 oonrN4. !hl.t •? . –
n)alanoe •• vat tbe Co•1″ bel.4, wt. ,h • ft17 at:renc ctlaNllt ‘Wl’lttea \7
Cbd.•t lu1,1ce Stou.
!MN W 1:teea a pl’fft.011• 4ec1sioa ot I••••• Lao.&• as lleal”lag ..,._
lur vllaiab the Joal’4 ot llldaaUon Appeal■ appana’17 took at tbe ca14e.
• ‘-r appara\l,7 oonolu4e4 \hat \be procee4lq before luqe Seal”• W :a.et
pro4u.oe4 eYld.enoe ef aq createJ” ao11U.t although ,u heAtlYe breach ha4
throw o•’• a• S.t “”• tile Lu.41• procee41ap u4 lJLlUated \hie •v ou.

la arurveriac a ••••tloa ot couael to• Dndp• la nt•rl”lq le ti.
ffl4 … •• ao• ..-t.4••• X albl IIWha, •• tt.t 11 •• ut a c11e1t. • 1h11
ti. •3•il \7 of \be Co•n Ml4 1, •• aet eacn1cta. DD.nae the a.rp91at JuU••
»laok 1how4 Jal• ,ND.4 ot tboqttt. Be wnleNc! vlMt\ber \be . • .,…,
1hcnll.d lake a potitloa. where •• l1l>erlr of an ta41Y14ul vat lAYOlTel.
,., tu ,au 1’111• 1bo11ld e:pplJ ••• tor esuple, t• a Labor »oan …
wllel’e the oovt• wn Nq’ld.nd \o leaTe ucUatu\-4 \he ftJMU.ap et tao\ ot
t!MI Joar4 lf wpporte4 ‘7 a’i■tanH.al mc:\enoe. n •• a aoo4 …-,,toa •.
“-• Ille ,eur of \bl eptatoa \he Coa:tt tell a 4itf•nat ap,,roaoh ….ia
– 180 –
• ‘be -4• to \he ciu■tion of •T14••” vb.en 1\ wa• a aatler of d.epo?laa a

Jbt. i… Pr••- up.eel \he …. tor •tt4ce•. MlH Carol lt.ng uA Jfl’ ..
Jlto!iilt. fla4e’91a appear OA lhe bri•f • I lldllk Mr. Gla4etda allO • ..,.,….
enl.17. fbeNI WN “brt•f• fllN uiout nrl•• ‘1 the ANn•a C1•U :t.l”bel”­
u •• lh)ton, the Aurioaa Co•l1’1te tor the Proleollon ot the Jonlp :Ion.
u4 ‘b• .Aaerleu Lecioa. Mr. J>N■IMA1 …….. , -· a aln,q ….
•t•rnac to \he •11l.alnt• of \!Ml Hf>OI’\ of the oa•• to ntnall -,
noolleotloa, t, •’•’•• ,i. oov.r, WA Uat ,apoa \he reoord ,, flaUq of
?ftllalloa •• \&HI on too loo•• a …ala& ef ta ten. Al• IMl’lt ••
lhe ?•Uoa, vldoh ••• lJaok aov lbal I ■ff lbe qlla”bu, wlle\bu the a4.ala1•,
ra’l,ft Maria«•• ooD&t\\a,.a. aooor4lac ‘• the l’fll•• vbtoh W , …
laid d.own bJ” Iba prop•r a1tlhoJ’l.’1•• adalal■lerinc \he law. lllportul 1a
oou..-,Uoa vi ,h lhe a4.lll••l&n of oerWa mcleac,e. fbe Co1&1″1 hell 1 t wa•
•nel” \o abl I apiaal Jntc•• oe•taJ.n tmht)l’ll •’-‘–‘•• la Yiol.aU.oa of
the nl••• 11..Ur. 11 •• lboqhl the ••• w.1 aot properl.J’ pto”4 wlltr•
fl’14•o• •• s..a.»ro,•17 reoel’fed aa4 when u •• apenlallft vJllttlaer llae.
fla4lnc wo1114 la•• , … … “‘ tor Ill• a4a1•atoa of •’ti.Anoe ta nolaU.oa
of tlut pYemlac n1•••
I\ la•’ a oomaolq oplaloa. eltbngh l ••’ -, at ,ae … ‘1•
th&t iu p,oot acat••’ 11’14c•• va• aot coaYiaoi.ag either. the … aaata••
Jl’l4ce• oa ••lMrehtp ta or afttltaUoa wS.,h a.a orp.alsa\loa Urat ‘bel1ffe4
la the o•enmov of tu o•eruea\ b7 to1’08 el’ nolooe •• aot ••ruc1 ba\
the appi’alul of,. met.enc••• a a,ter vbloh l tboueht ,u law left to
,he A\ton.e:r G•enl. •• naoluUoa of \be taohal latM I llao’Gght tlloul.4
not be d11″1rl,e4 ‘by \be Co\\rt under the extatlug etatuto17 aahelle. f’bllt
– 186 –
• va• the ba.ala oA which Chief JuaUoe &to••• vitb .Rol»erta ara4 hankturter.
dt•••••c. !he Chi.et JuaUoe •q1, •!’he !1tome7 Gttneral ba• hit tanoUoi,:1
and. Jhe oovt• \heln in au.oh oa•••• Our• 1• a ••rr l1a1’ed ou. In ihi•
•••• ov holtioa iva• oa the ?ll•Hoa ot the lone tetUe4 n.le tbat
in i,r,1,-1? the tao\ findiq■ ot adala11trati•• officer, or acend•••
oourtt are vt ibou\ au\hort ,, io aet atide \hail’ f11141nga it the7 are eu.p …
portecl bT ••l4ence.•

.. . . . . . .
. Ai lhe •rlier perlo4 YheA the proaffdinga ap.lust lr14p1 M4 beea
laiU.•1-4 .be •• an lUlpOpUlal’ labor lead.e1′ oa the Wee, Ooa8′. When. lbe
••• N&oh$1. ,ne 1a&>r•• Oou.n 7ear1 lat•r he and hi• ulon wen Mklnc a
fine ftOOM of coopen.tloa la ehlppS.ag oa the Ve■’ Coa1, durt.nc the Var.
And •• la hl:mti4tml the 1u•cmaeat la the Srq:,rw Ooul”I vaa al••’ in the
mldd.le ot the 4et•n•• b7 \bit So•i•’ of St-allngrad. vhloh the ‘Whole couat1″7
vaa applaudiag. ln ,11e Jll4Q. and lar:mln ca•••• hovewr. I oou.14 noi ,.
,here va• aa at110lphere a4ftl’H to the ,OTeJ•.ma,. fhe ••rencth ot arga.•
••• aptut thtt •••naenl in ,ho .. •••• •• that vldle ‘lbere l• &N&I
powr la lu rl111 ‘8r:, h IS.a• of val’ l ,, enrol•• 1a tho•• ••• •• too
cll”&sUo, tn. torol\17 •nae lllaan beia«■ v:llh1a the ooatlnatal Vatted
State, vbeA the 1nter1or •• aot a baHleground. Jue•• are bDau be1AC••
In olo .. ca1et tln’Olflng the llbert7 of 1Dd1Yld\’l&lt 111poD4erable•• bcn,eftl”
subcoiaeoiou.i.11 are izd’lueaoea vhloh afteo11 the Jwtc•• • Tlev ot the law
who the law l• u, clear and espliclt •

– 187 –
u.. laaa “‘· bi us\ l»lt•• 321 u. s.. 91 (1946)
. 181111 •• Vllto4 IS,,111• 4eo lclecl MIJ’ 7, 1948, vae a JtNCeouUon ‘b7 ,u
trnt{.a Ital•• oowt.a« ou.l of \he 1d.111DC ‘b7 a depu’7 •hentf la Georpa ot
a llepo who• he W arre■W aa4 va• \akin« to Jail. Be b•t Ida to 4eatll.
!he· on• •• nbJeot to pro•••Uoa uder •tate lave but •• Uaited Sta\••
11141oie4 ,ne 4ep1d7 sheriff under lhe clnl richl• 1’8.’1:1.\e on the theo17
ibat. U?• aotloa of the 1\ate officer w.a attn bu.table io 1taie au\horl \J’
am ooaaUtuled. a Tiol&Uoa of ,ia. tll41•1dual’ • rt.chi• proteolecl b7 U1e
Jouleeath Aae.nA•nt to the OoaeU tutlcn. the eoa’t’iotion ha4 \eea atf1mt4
‘b7 ,_ 01rn1, Oo11.l’I of ?Ml• tor tbt ntth Clroait.
la ,he lap.-•• 0ovl the oa•• tv.n.ed oa the aonat1t11\ioultt1 of lbt
e\atute, lf coaahv.ed to peral.t n.ob a proHn.Hon for Tlolation ot ,the au
proc••• olauee of the Jouneeath .lid.•nt. lfld.t •• a ••rlou ‘1l••Uon
beoa.uee of the ve.p••••• ta l11p11Ung orhd.nal ret1pa11ai’bllU7 tmder the oi’f’ll
right• •tahte \o • TlolaUoa of 4118 proo••• of lav, vltllout olbtl’ speoitloaUon
of ,be on• oharpd.. the Supreme Oov\ eaetalne4 the ftl141 \J’ of
,a t\alv.t• 1na, NTeree4 \he partloalar oomo\loa oa ,1w cro..a that 111
•PP171ac ,. e\a’1l\• 1, •• n1ea,1a1 for the trtal am to ia•tru\ ,u
Ju17 MON pneleelJ’ tllaa 1114 beea 4ou o• th• queUon of lalen\ and vUNa••••
el•• there woul.4 be uooae\1’1:LUoDal ft&’U••••· !here va1 &lao
the qa.e1Uoa vbe\her the aoU011 of the d-put7 uen.tt oould bet a\lrllM\ect
\o \be •’-‘• w1 thln U1e meudng of the 1ouneen,h ••ead•••’·
!he aWt coaa14erecl the ou.100 .. fa..-on.bl• to \be eo••flllMl1′ beoaue
of \he baelo »nuipl•• wbloh the ••• eetabll a-4.
I thlM \lie caee was haadle4 b7 the Ortllinal J>i•idoa &D4 tbe Olril
• lli.ghh S.oUon. I do not nraeaber aocra.rate].J’. but 1 noUce aow. 1.n looklna

– 188 –
a, tu ltrl•f wldoh waa tiled 1n \he Sapr•• Cout, ,at U •• •lped. aot
oAlt )7 \lit Soltol •or Geaenl -., 1t1 •••1•’•’ ••ton.e7 Gu•ral !oa O. Ol.ark,
who •• lh• ta Oba.I’&• of the Orlld.ul J>lrleioa. ‘b7 Kr. ld.ahl la that ,1,1-
·. •,_
aloat, .ulll ‘b.7 ftctor ••••• vbo •• in \he OlYll •&ht• hotloa. t\ •• a
ctitftoal, ••• to arga.e aa4 e’fOhd • gnat 4-.l ot dl 1ou1elon betwea \be
Oourt all4 a,Mlt.. Cou.14 a orllllnal •ta.lute be phraaed •o ‘broacU7 a1 to
MIi:• a erS.me of a T1olat1oa ot 4ue proceta v1 thou\ ta.nher or •r• u:p11o1t
4ef11lltloa? low vou14 a penon tnow wlla he•• ooad.Utag a oriaef a. .. ,
w.• Ula &.,.\7 1herlff’• allep4 erla1ul aon4u\ •ta•• aoUoa v1Ulla ••
•eaat.aa of the 1o\U”‘hn’4 ANDdm.att &.,w ao’Gl.4 I.I be sald \ha\ ao•loa ot aa
uplo,… of \u •’-••• •• ot a nid.l.S. •loa ot a 1tate1 wlaiob •• 111..-l ••r
1ta,e· law, 1Jlo11lcl be atll’ill•W lo \u ata,e 1., .. 1tt lb. JuUce ?
ter •• parlioalarl7 oono•ne4 ah\\t ‘111 •• h ca.un.e4 whether u 1Uecal
aot of a ••••• otflnr, Dl••• la IO• 11111’ a4opte4 ‘b7 \he it.ate, eotllcl be
at,l’lbuted to the •’-••• Ou a.newer aade d.unnc arcuae•t •• a retenue
to the old. ••• of II ada ftm,1&1 la 100 11. s.. when the … •taluM.
or lt1 pnd.oNaor. •• ?4 ta lh app11oat1oa ,o th• ooll4ut of•?
of a •ta•• 0012.rt 1a upl’l’f’lq u 1D4lri4ul of l”lpta IO’Dgh\ to ‘be pnt•otel
‘7 0.a&n•• Uller ,i. J’evtuatll …… ,.,.
fh4’ Curl’• oplalea aaavere4 \be ooa■t1htlonal. qu■Uoaa ta.,.ra’b17 ‘­
the ,onn.aent 1a u op1a1oa \J’ lut1Uoe llo’CICl••• Ju•U•• la.Ueclc• la a
upara,e oplaloa OOUIIJ’N4 la the renll. luaUoe )lupbf UaMD\ecl – bt
w1114 ¥Te a:fflae4 •UnlF – -4 Ju■tt.e•• Boben•• hultta.n•r u4 lack••
411uated. b•eau.•• tbe7 veuld. aot ha•• ••• the ••• ‘baok for a retrial,
‘bu\ wnl.4 ha•• »ld tu ••••’• acoaaUIIIUoul la lie applicaUoa lo th•
faot• ot Ud• •••• hnllalleatal.17 1 tblnk ,u 41Y1eloa wi.thta tbe Ooun ••
– 189
• 4ue ·’° 4itferal ‘rint aa ,o the dlTicU:0.1 llae between what ■houl.d ‘be l•ft
to tbtt ••’•• amt *’ thov.ld be paattW to the ta4eral ., .. ,,…, ••

i:’lhe l’eporl of Iba …. 33& v. s. 91, ahon that t.t ,.. arca,e4 f•• t:a..
pellllone.- b7 Ml”. , …. ‘I. K.-ip, ‘but tlo•• no\ t1141oate th&\ he •• a p’Ulio
ott•a.ai.. ao be p,01,a,1,1, •• pl’iftt• oouaael. !he report al10 allow tllat •
\ri•f •• filed on beblllt of the Bat1onal •••ool&Uoa for the Ad…,.oeaea\
ot Colona. People •• aaln• aulae. atped. ‘b1 Mea•s-•. W11Ua• I. ladle,
!b:a.rgoo4 llardall, ad Leoa llaa■oM, 1Mlt ao lUi.et ap-pean to llaft \eea tllad
\y tile Aaerlou. Oldl M.ltenlH Va.to.a aoit ,. 97 tecolleotloll -· ….. u:,
o\htlt ‘P•ntotpatloa ta •h• ••• at ,M 1ap, … Com lffel •
. la• the o.n aoN latel’eata4 tu what tJae •itoitor General W. to ..,..
\ball .oo••el to• •i-. Sonat l 4oult 1,. .11,er all, Sorew■ •• the t.a4l’fi& ..
-.1 i»Yol•H4. Oe,nal.1117’ the Court Vtll inten■ted ln. bl■ rlghta a• Mfllloe4
‘1>7 M• oou.eel.
· In •1ew of what the Oo\ll’t ba4 alnady ·m1a. 111 the SatliA oaae, I 4H.
DOI … .bov f.t .001114 4rav an U.COA1Uta’10Ml lln.• 1a lsn:n,.
hr1JII tht ..,…., l •• alked it then vae u,- 1tatut• ot a oi’hd-1
•’-” la wblol’l ,.. 1taMa.t of Ol’Ullul.UJ •• • ftl,lle. 1 nf•n« to
,11e lblt,. Aot. wt.d.oh appll•• onaS.Ml aaoUeaa ,o &Ae vbo na\niea tnAe.
I &J’C’lle4 \bal th•N m\ be viUta.l oenAu.o\. S.re win 00!1411.ot Yhloll
PY• ooa,.a, \o Iha etan.te and •• of a eharaoter t.a.. perpe,n.’9r new ••
111-1. ie waa’\ ‘bel-, ,nppacl ‘b,- • ‘NP• ••’•’• ia” l’eapoaatltUJ\7
for eoaethlnc he at.pt •’ lmow ,., 111-1. Be lligb.t not ha.,. Jtnowa wbilh
pal’tiaa.lar 11a1u,e1 .a.. 11111 Yiolattac ‘ollt he•• ••ilac lmowtncl7 u4 wt.1 …
tall;, ln • crlai.11111 au.tt .

– 190 –
· Aan.millg •? erldenoe ebowe4 that Soren beat the poor an o•er Ille
hea4. vi th a olub ‘1111111 iu. •lled. h1a – tba, •• aot ianooeal or aoaenllltnal
oo••• vhf.ell.• natut• lllpt crab bolt of tr., •n. •fat.r ..-. …
1, 414 not ••• t.o • to aalr:e a 41ftenne1e la a oonsu ’11.Uoaal ••a•• tat.
wua he •• -.,1nc hnw, be 414 not know he vae n.olattng a panJmlar
fecleral 11&’1.lte.
!bo’Q&h l felt JHtrfful.11 wt,b J’\’1.1\lae Mutpbr. that ••n should m,.Ye
–• OOIIJ>l•t• attlnuoe, J ao mot 4Ul’l”el pant6lal’1:, wil!l ,. N’fttl’Ml
of tJalt ooa’ficUoa oa \he narn,w CJ”D’UA of ia&4equa\e lneln.csUoa• to. the
7hi• •• tM ttn, eo-oalled ponal-to-ponal ••• to r•oh \h• lrq,Nllte
Oovt. lt aft>•• u4er the Jalr La’bol’ Stan4ar4• .Ao,, a t \he pr1:nte nu of
tapJ.e,-•• npretntlll 1>7 looal ulou, ‘• nOOYer ooapenaaUoa tor U••
1pe&1t bf lda1n la ,-.ftltac \Uld.erpoul to •• ho• t.btt taoe of ‘111 alM •
VMre ? aotul.17 ld.aetl eoal. Va• W • –•• tor whloh \lae aplo,-.r
••’ pl,J’ 01′ waa U tn.Teliag OA 1h41 -,l.0,…1• OW tlaeT ftae Vall .. Stat ..
W .1aterreu4 la the Dltldo, a.v, la npport ot 11.le poal Hoa of t.be ….,
? D11trlol Court cleoUe4 the ••• \o the emplo7eea• e4T&atap. wt.,11
ao• 11041tioaUoa no, bere iaport&al \bl• 4.ol■lon wa• afttne4 ltr the 01r­
cult Court ot JppNla. The Silprue Ooun gl’Ut.ec1 oenloan ‘bNftee of tbe
iapor\uoe of \he …,.11011. the aquet \here •• dhi4e4 \etwa repre••
atatl T•• of \be uplo7eea and 117•el.f npnaenU.q Uaa 1Jnite4 ••••• \e-
• cause ef ,u la\eneatlon ot the Wege an4 Bour ])tT1aitu1 of Use hpam••
– 191 –
• of X..,bor. lb-. Cn.mpton i:h.rrla of Blriain«bala preteated the arg,aaent tor the
eepl,07e1H•. (Be 1• related. to an 014 be, Georcta, feal17, fl’leaA• ot the
Jabr1.J The Oovl &ftlne4 1A a:n. oplaloa ll7 Ir. h1Uce Murplq-. !!Mt?• weH
aepal’llte ooAOUrrln, oplalone ‘by Mr. JuUcse Jl’Ukful”ter u4 Mr. Ju1tlee
Jaokaoa, w1tb Mr. Judloe .Boberta vritlng an oplaloa t’or nY•nal tn whlch
Ob.lef Juat1oe Stone .}ob.led.
The case va• area.eel 011 behalf ot the p•U Uoal.ac ooapulea b7 Mr.
••baa L. IUller, toner Oo•ernor ot 1.., toa. GoMrDOI’ Klll•l” va, the a
au well along la 7•n bu\ ot ttae physlqu u4 ot Yigonv.e … ,a1 aapaoU7.
Be arpe4 \ha hll JIIDv al.loved ht.a, vlth hi• brt•t and othel’ ton.a••• ta
Iron\ ot 1:11• oa •h• leolern. bid l lh:tu lie aeYer reternd to •»1′ et the••
pap•r• or •• aot•• 4u1nc bi• copn, u4 atron.1 .,.a,.
l ,bimi: th& case vaa an arguable one at a matter of etawto17 coaatrue-
• Hoa, “but· I aleo think lhe .let aon,a1ne4 adequate etand.AJ.”4• t.o -.ppon ou
eonten.t1oa.e.. »va thowch thle particular pnl.>le• bad aot ‘bNA fore••• bf
lbe Conan••• 1 t •• a, vell to leave – the court,, in the flr1t 1.aetaace
at l••’• t:be ..,uon vbether or aot lb.la •• oompaaat,1• work wUllla tbe
4eflm.Uoa• tu ••••• 414 eoawa.

Was 1, tair tor ln4ll.•ll’f \o ‘It• nqa.t.1’91 lo ••• ib1• ftaaaota:l ,…,.,
wltea Congre•• M4 aot …. n, to wt \e a -pant.Ollar co••l’llll 4etlaltloa
iJlto \he ate.,l1’ef fld.a 1• no\ •••7 lo atver. In. light of the tea• of
the ata.tute, howner, l “ould. aot ,, lmbaalq cne:ral.17 ha4 a naht to
oemplaia of ‘Utain•••• Jor lndv.et17 c••nl.17 •• not affeotecl ‘b7 tu 4•o111on.
!he cleot■loa atfeo\e4 allliac •apeolal.11. alUtougb perhapa ao, exolu.11••
17. Aenalnc tat the ca•• alteo,.a. a 1tplfteaat pan of l•d:a.1\17 l
tMu the qu••’1oa •• la a ooatl”OTerlial area of diepute to ‘be fa1r1” N-
– 192 –
• aol•ed. b7 11tiga:’1011. lt would not ha.Te been lair to ■tn1nc emplo7••• if
the •tata.te had bee ooa1t:n.ed. to aelmi thia UN 111 the • * week.
· .Jv.•U••• u4 Jwlgee, whea ,1i.7 feel atroacl7 a”boat a pnaotple, aou-
.,, \l11e• nppori ‘h•l• Ti•• \7 1\al••••• wb.loh ••• to lay iova pl’lutpl••
‘hro-4 the aeM1elUe1 of the panlO’lllal’ •••• !her• 111.aht b• 1o•thln, lo,
Juet14• Jto.s,pll71 • c,plalon alon.g theae 11.n••• Ju, rq appl’Olloh perao..U1 a•··
a Ju4ce aad. 1 \hlnk geaeral.17 •• an a4TOoate bat been u.1a, ,12.e oaN 4eo14••
the aate u4 aotldag aore, thoqh wbat 11 ea:f.t ‘bqoad. thlt •lchl lte utKI
later ta al”CD,lllll, to extend Ille uop• ot the aeoi1ion.
I •a aot .. ,.,. ….,.,.,, to …… , on Ille qa.eeUoa wbttlter m••1•• •t
llut pnacl.ple 4eo14tl in ‘1111 ea1e 1114 lo cU.•tonlo:ne ot the at.tale. I Ile
thiu ,_, … 1, … ,tt.. ,l,wll ….. AOI’ ,,.. l•IUIIU ••• “” noh 41•- ·
torlloaa. Qua\tou’bl• a,plloa.ts.0111 ld.ght 1:t.noe hi•• bee cl•• b7 ooun,.
• but in the td.aba of ooal or 1roa I thhk oleal’l7 the ttatv:le tho’Old. haft
beea ooa,tnti to appl.1. •01earl71 -, ‘be toe atnnc a word. I aeu lo
,. that u» 1tatu•• eboul.4 .ba’f’e ‘been eo•••rucl a, u waa. ‘!’hat l• • 41tterea,
Cfl9•’1o• fl’M vl’aat Ooacn•• at.» 4o •• a .,,er of l•telaHoa oa
ta.nur cou14en.,to• of \be 1 ••••• ‘lnal •• t.h• eta tu.le •• word.eel tlut
Oovt 1a a, o»lllioa 11&4• the oornot 4eollioa.

13. JlQ • • Jggt JU T • D9.. 316 tJ. S. f.47; 318 tJ. S. 40’?
‘lhe•• tvo oaut, ••· IN an4 ea& of \he Ootobtir, 1942, tam, laTOl….a
tbe •1141 •7 ot a •’•’-Ual n.•lt•r of eo-oallact obala ltroa4oaaunc Nl’Qlatlon•
pro-.lcate4 ‘7 ,, federal 0.–.al•Uon• Co•l••l••• fhe1 wen••cued.
o• ‘be.bllt of the laU.onal •l’M4oa•ttnc Oellp&JQ’ b7 Jlr. Jolla ‘· Ca.bill
and. on bu.alt of \lw Oolubia Broadoaatlng S,1ta by Mr. Ohal’l•• I. Jmche•,
– 193 –
• Jr. IaTc,1Ytd fudara•tall;y vaa the eoope ot 4lacntlon the sup,…. ?
w\1.1:4 allow Use 1e4enl Ooaaaioattoaa Oo-i•doll la lqlac 4ow «••al
J’Vl.•• .,.. ff&lll,atton• to p14e tua1t17. and 11aD4afll• tor the Oollll1••t?• .·
ltwlt lo tollov in graAU.ng lion•••• fhe opialoa ot ,ht Govt, lt7 Ml’ ..
JuUoe l’r•Bld’tarhi-, tnah eaob. ot the detallecl npl.atloae sepH’lllel7 aa4
ra\her tullJ’. Mr. Justioe Nuz,phJ’. Jou.a bT Mr • .Tua\ioe lober\11 41•••184,
on Iba crot.md the Oolllld.aaton 1uul uou4ecl lt• ••t•tol’7 a11thorit7.
fho,ach -I y,r••••• tu O&H for the Oo•l attoa l aa not a’bl• froa
119JIH7 lo SS.•• a al.•1′ u:pe,Ut.oa of the l’fC’lla\lone. ‘-7 had ‘•• ,,._
malplecl alter lone heaftac• ad ooaal4•nU.oa. and wre 4••lllled. ‘° eeta\•
111h · t’-4alll• tor \Jte Ooaale■t.oa ul tuaatr, •• to lloeaalac for Obit.I.
bndoaaUag. 7aeT l.&14 dow idt& tl,y priaclple■ to ,ona i,rograaat11,
eo••rac- of “broalcaeUnc. ttlllq ot 1n•1ru•• an4 oYerlapplng of pn«na•
• an4 ataUOAI.

fbe aUaok I thtll.Cht •• toelllld. to fa.11. the l:lroa4caaUnc oo.mpule•
atlUel a *”1′ bur4u. la tl7lq lo pe1’e-4e the lop nae Co\1.1’\ \o 11:llttl tut•
l ta .,…, fol’ ’11&1 ot -the OoJllll1aloa. Ot · oov• lhe Oov, ebe1ll4 pnteet
the ·t.aau,17 .. 1.a,, a1’11J1&17 •• e,ur tllecal aeUoa \Ill 119n wa• aa la,.i
11ceat u4 reuoulll• •tto,t on tbt pan at \u Ooalaatoa, after •el7
Nl an4 elal»oa\• heal’iap, lo ••’ a 1>111’U.o pro’bl•. 1,- ew. effort, •• 1
noall \be onl •JIU•al, •• to ••• to comnoe \he Ooun, oa con.eH.eraUoa
of •oh prlaotpal nca1a,1oa1 ,11at U •• N&Honable. t’b.e Jin\ ……,_
., cu.eattoa – upba.S. 1ed. onll.7 ‘bT Mr. Cahill moN H11111 b1 Mr. &che• –
414 ..,, ellolt IIUOh lateNtll oa lbe ,an of ‘h• 0ev,.
ft.Mt •• waa not •• ••1 ou fol’ ae in pnpaatton fo’I ?nt. fld.a
– 194 –
• wae 4u• ‘\o a, peraonal proble11 f.n ud.en\and.lng the Nf;\’llatioa• la thelr
appllcaUoaa to aa 1D4utr, of whloh I he4 •17 11 tUe :tr:•wldC•·
. “”·· …… • …. ,. •• -· ••ll OM I heart hl• ak4t, -· a .,.,.,.,,
tair, .. CIIIP»l• preeu.\aUoa. 1 UYer heard bl• father &J’C’ll• ‘b•t l ha.ff
h•lfl: atori•• about. the \Umn.all7 toro-1\11 obara•••• ot hl• a4Tooao7. a. ·
wa• a gN&\ ‘PreaS.4:lac Oblet J’11’1oe, a llnac per1oattloatlon of the off1o•,
during teTeral of the 1ean ot ST appannce1 ‘before the eo.,,.
14. lat Auala• !lllUl:r oa••·
t’ba AlldUI ‘1aDU: ••• •• l’Wn:&l>le hoa••• et tu aatve ot ,..Alui. Oollpan, ot Aaerloa. •• “11 a• tor other,……. Snenl ,-ra
Vffe •••– la \he trial la tile l>lalno, O..n for the lo11tllen. Dl1tnot
of .. ” Tork. In th• ea4 \he ilttl’ict juqe dell Yerttd a length7 oplnion,
• prlao1pall7 eral, hol4lq tlla\ the 0o’Nl’Dll•I had ta11e4 \o pNYe that t))e
Oompu, had Tlolated the Sher11U Act. le acoord.lnclJ 41aatseed the n.1,.
Vu.er Use &l>J)lioa’ble atat,a.te tluaN •• a 41:reot appeal aftlla\le to the
Sapr … Oo1lrl. la •1ev, lao,,…..r. of ti» loac hl•’-17 of the ••• la ti.
Depanua, of lv.1uoe. w1lD ,u appeal na.W the ..-… C..n t.h•n .
no ••l”IUI ot the Ooun a’tallaltl• 4u ‘- c111q11&1lfloa’1.oa■• Cldef lutl.u
St.one ditquallfte4 I ‘llll4entoo4 ‘beoanu a1 A\tol’UJ’ Geael’al he ·•a-t lal\t.ale4
the oriclMl iaTelti&alloa. l belle•• Ju■H.oea Narpl’q &ad 2-114 u4
J’a•ao• .or Clan — I’• aot now •re vhf.oh – felt 4ttC(11Al.1tled beca••• of
eoae pan1o1paUon ta I.be O&N la Ul• hpartaea, et ha\ln.
!be •’?•&- •• ta.lm:a vp with the Ju,4101&17 00111111••• ot Oencre••• Ml’
ovn opl.Dion, •• 1a Iha lldll l•tlm ••• when a 1tld.1ar 111•’10.n aroN .
011 a wu of oertlonrt troa lhe c1null ooun, •• that a quoru.m ot tl••
– 195 –
• •boulA l>e pent ,,ea ‘b7 ••••• to 41apoa• ot a ca••• A -parliamenla17 quo,..
nil ‘.of a oovt of ala. l ■ ft.,.., kt lhe q1lOIWI of O\’LI’ 8DpNM Oout had.
b?<llnA •• ab 1)7 •• 014 …. , •• enaotea I ‘ball…-. vhta ,_ Oov.tl coa•
1t1\e4. of lea uabere. V.. Ille aaber■hlp 4roppel . le Ill•• \he ,tatu.\
017 qun.a •• •• obueetl. 11 1• a talr S.n.f•r•ace that ol’igiul.17 aa
hletorlaal aoa14ent left thll qu.ona at a hicblr muaber , …. fl•••
l>o,e .to the ettll i,Nmdllnc aaoephera of Oo111re11 oreatec1 b7 Uw
Coul flall’ there •• nluolaaoe to aake a leciala,lT• obao,p afteottq 1h11.
lapre• Cout. 1n the n4 Ooacn•• eaa•’• a 1tata.te vbtob proT14e4 la
c … al ••nu 111a, where a 11–.uoa of I.bl• Jdn4 &l’ON ,. ••• ebov.14 l>e
Oe1″tlftt4 le a 001l1’1 ooapoNd. ot Ille lllne nalo• ol.Natl 4’Wlc•• ot IM
olroult wt.Ilda vlaloh tlle clietno\ eout that 4eot4.C lhe ••• •• looat.i.
the 4.eo:l■loa of lb.1• ep•olallJ’ ooa■Ulute4 oourl va1114 lt• ttnal, wltbout n•
• eort ‘° the 8apnae Covt. fM .U.aim ••• aoool’d.iaal7 •• heard. bi’ tu
thn• ■eat.or Ju.a•• of the Seooa4 Oil’CD.U• J-ce1 Lea:rae4 &.a4. Aup.1tu1

7M reoelll •• a ••n•• …. I l•n• 1111, Lawreaoe Aape7, la
obarp of Iba oa1e 111 tu ·• ton: otftce ot tile Aatl.tnal DiYllloa, new
the …. IJlon’CblJ. hi ta &HOl’UAN vith l!le wt.au, at ,. AHoneF
ha•al. l tll••••• \he utter “1th bl• aad Mr. Ber… A.au a tent .l\\on.-,
Cleaenl la obarc• of the Aatt.tn■’ Dinllea. It•• 4eol4e4 l 1hou14. arcu
lhe ,••aalltl oil• lmnd.Nd. peroea, aoaopol7 poa,. vblob •• falrl.7 euo-,U\
le of 1-,ara•• , ……. ,.
!he Oftrl allowed lw Ml UT• for th1 a,..,,. 1 ••• oal7 alHMlt
ou taour Ul4 Mld oloaeq to the pol.al ,na, haa’tlte of the peoullar faet
– 196 –
• \hat. ,u Alulm:ua 0oapd1′ of -.noa ooaett.\utec!. pl’iol’ \o goven:uaea\al
eai..,- la\o tu …. t1el4 anac ,. •r, a Jlu4Nd p•ro•t •aopol7 ot
nrcl;A .1111111. .. ti. GO? •• 1a nelat1011 of tl\e Sbenan Aot •• a •—
:/;:: ,:

polJ”l?l. -1•• ad4e. ••• J.’P•7• vltb «r•t aill aDl a tlae gra1p of t!Mt
c••\’ ‘ • • , detail• of the go•enmeat • • •••• M4• an ouletaa41.ac arp.aa I oa o,ur a.tp•
ote ot \u ca1e. ‘fhe oaN •• well arped., too, on bebalf of ,he .,…,,
the liala burdea fallin& upoa Kr. S.llh of Pi ttalnlrch.
la u op1a1011 m ttea lt7 J114p Learaa4 Baal \he ecru, nau.1..a iM
eo••–•••• poa1Uoa \ht.I the ooap, •• la ‘fieleUoa ot the Slaenaa. A.et.
1na, w.t.tbllel4 4eo1atoa •• lo the , ….. ef a final ……. lt••••• ot lhe
•••••1’7 of coaatcterllC \be tlapo1ttioa to be 11114• ‘bf’ tu VuW Slat•• of
tbe alulau plaa\1 ooutn.ott4 •• pan of \be •r pn411.o,to• p:nCl’&II. 148
“· act 416 •
l eea, to nov J’llllge L•l’Ud. . pertoaall.J’ ••1’7 pleatan\11′ o••r tu.
7ar1. .lo\h he !Ul4 Jwtp Aupat’O.e &.n4 ver• extnon.lnarilJ ttu .twlc•••
lfhea anaa,:lac f OI’ \he … J’lal ••nlcea ot the lapr•• Oo•rt bal’ la. boaor
of JullM lranA•t.t, l alDCl 1-.ne4 It.ad lo ct•• … of the nloel••• le
N..tf.17 aaoep\e4 ae4 of GOVM 4eliTvecl U 11Dwall7 ts. .. paper. Ill t•””‘
leo\toa •• ao\ ea’1nl7-,.,,. •••’· l ooanlW Mr. J’u.,uoe ?tut•r.
who •• a ftl’J’ olo•• fll•Dl of \be lraa491t tu1l1, dl4 -,.rbap1 o\ben. ‘bu.\
lure •• DO pa\ion la ., ow ata4 a’bou\ ? happiMH of the ••leot1oa.
us. Nbo •• VPIW hd•lt ? U. s. 849 (1944)
. 11’1• •• lo. ’13 at \!Mt Oelo’b•r• 1943, ten, the fire\ ••• la vhloh the
Jeho’fllh’• v1ueen1 ll’1pte4 vs.u. the tJ’altea Stat•• la \ha Sapnu Oout •
– 19? –
• U.10\llh they bad. l»•• oftea i&’f’Ol’N4 \here WMler .nnm1olpal or elate NCUlaUoai

.. fbe ••• an .. U4el’ tlLe hleoU•• halatac· u4 S.moe Aol. •••
w-… a J.-ft.11•1 W,llae11. olalaed. aeapttoa •• a atat,ter tna Jliliw.v
o.l’ otur. ••”ioe. le •• elaH1flt4 •• a ooa■oloUou obJeotor u4 •Jd.•ncl
to NpOrl tor olril, ».oa-11111\ar, 4ut1••• le retv.aecl to Nport •• wat
1D410,e1 for YiolaUoa of the •’•’•’•• la ,he renlUq ortllinal pl’oteoa•
UQII, he IO\lChl lo 4etu4 bl• fallv• to nport OJl Uae IJ’Oim4 that hi.I
ola .. lftoa’1oa •• 1Jlffl14 la “-at be•• a alal•l• u4 ao, ••rel.7 a••,.
•••tt.o•• ol>J•••? ·&114 •• •.UNl.7 …,,. !be cU•lrlol on.n la n.l■taao•
M14 tlllt 4et••• aot ••Ua’l• ta tile olt.at.ul prooee4lrc•. . l4r, fo-4
Illa pil’7. Illa oonlottoa wa■ atf11’M4 la ,u ell’Oa.lt on:n et appff.1••
after vbioh \be lap nae Oourl araaw ••nloral’l •
!Mre •• a •••••• noUoa la ,11e hpartaea, of J,ia\toe whlth &&ft
lfffhl at\eaUoa to OOAeoieaUou.e ol>J••••r• la the effo•t \o y,rn•\ •J111U.
flabl• ,n, … ,t.,a• .. DJ)l)Nealft –nr••· l ‘\hlDk •oh a .,.o1a1
1″‘1P nat \ack •• Ille UM vllea Barlaa J. Stone•• A\torae,- a.a..i. •
-4 •’•• a …… , laten1\ I.a ,11a pn\leu of oouol•tloue •’J”‘«>”•
the lapl’IIH 0.vl \lpWl ,u GOllTieUoa, ftllq \hilt lalh l:la4 Ml es-
a,a1\e4 bl• n.t.•• … ., •• w .. u.,. a.mo• .1o,.
I.en open•• \he •••tloa, ll:l’f’Ol… la nlt••..-• ltU.pUoa la the
Sapna• OouN, •• to tbt Nlle41 a•U.a\le after Np&1’tlnc, aoo99\aaa•• u4
1m••Uoa, 1f oae •’111 ola1M4 t.bat bl1 ola••lf1oatloa vae lllepl. S.e
the .. , ….. ,
lalbt •• lllponaa, la •lataWnc ,11. u1ep1t7 of ‘h• 111.eoUn S.r­
Tloe q■’u. It tu d.eo1■1oa bad ,oae \he ether •7 the 4001’1 wo1114 law
• 198 –
• b•en:opea tor ea’b,tt.nttoa of ‘lhe aoune tor the Seleo’1Ye S.nloe lJoal’tt.

I • .,… ,_, OtHl,IN•• W a rich, to 1 .. ,.. ,11. fl-1 deoleloa wl\h ‘1w
ltoa’4a, ••lr1:J••• oJll.7 \o 0011.n lal•n•Uoa ‘° prohot oont\ltll.Uoal. dch•••
< aa4 ‘•’ n.oh OOD.atl to.ttoal tlaht1 OO’ll.4 le pl’Oteo,.a lhn’Ulh MIOJI’ to
illa•t MU.U lt o:u vu• ftul.11 lallute4, whloh h&4 not oocv.rNd. la
1allio’• •••·
J’ueUoe Murph, cu, .. ate4, aa4 J11.1tl.o• Butleq• filed. a ooaoa.rrl111
optaloa u o l\\er pri•rll7 lo oo••• u,oa ••• pa.n of ‘• •Jori ty eplaloa.
!he oaae vaa arptMl t•• 1albo \7 Xr. Oo.S.ngtoa, aa aeooapllehel •••••
-wt th oouttl•ra’il• upeneaoe la lapffM eov, 11 uaauoa oa belilllf et
lellDYllk•• Wilu••••• 1’be oovtrooa wa• a’1ler GJIO.te4 vs.,h :,oac ,-,1.
wboa l ••llUIICl to ‘i• a411ereat1 of Ille 1fl tu1•••• pl•tant u4 well 4na”4
,ou.c au ea4 ..,,… vho oaae to U.tlell “1th at,e11Uoa •• reapeot •
16. lolHMtl!I Wm ,!l&Db
!he •uonai War t.akr »oald W ‘ho onate4 to “* a4Ju•bleat of
lalto1’ 4lepal•• laterf•ftlll wlth ,_ vu .,,.,.,. OTer a OOH1len’bl• pmocl
of H.• a ,oo4 4Nl of tire.t.1• ma , … nea ‘ietw• ihe ulo•• n4 Moat­
,…17 fuel at t. t• Woap allil ollM1r plaate. !be •••n -• \efore ,-.
Joe.I’d.. an4 ti MA• aa ••1’4 to whSell lfo•tcoaetJ’ Wa:NI. ?,,,. to aoo•••
fhl• brougbi abou\ …. anal lalenapUoa of Ille -.OJ’Jlft■ Non’-9•1″7 Vanl
operaUona, aDI tllnateae4 f’u\lleT latena.p,toae, ooaat4en4 bT tu h••l,…
4eal am hit •eouldo a4’ft.aera – t.aol.114.tnc Mr. ,1asoa aa4 I al• tld.ak Ir.
IJ’l”IX•• – t.o ,bna,ea Iba var efton. After ,i. Joan. -4• 11• 4eo1•loa
th• oupaJll’ 1,, 1, be laao• ,ha, 1, wo’1114 •’ 0011pl7. the Preeuu, ti.r•upon.
on Ille reOOIIMDUtlo• ot hl• a4naen, S.nolllilltnc Mr. Wllllu Dan••
– 199 –
• Om.1n:an of ,he Jql’ll. iane4 aa SnouU•• Orller 41reottnc the officer• of
the .An!J te ••• po■1e .. 1on of the plaale, vhS.oh •• do••· AppnolatiJJir •. ·
–··–· Ille lepl 1••··· 1DW1Tt4, , .. Uat\14 n., •• alml\aunelJ’ ftb-

. . ail\,cl ‘• ,”41141 ‘7 of 1,. aetloa ‘° ,a. fe4•Nl 00111″\e. I vas b-ioq•\
la.to; \be aue vh811 lt w.• ln the 41911’10, oout tn llllael•• at Ohlaaco,.
ltetor• Dlt\riot l114ge Plitlip L. Si.\111-.n. !bl• wa• a n1 t ia1 Uate4 ‘b7 the
lat.led Stale• •••ld»c a. 4eolanto17 J’adcaent to \he efteotl lbat \lw ottielal.1
of •the Uni ’84 Sta••• who lad. tu:ea po•N••lo• of ,11e Moa”8••1’7 Va.a plaa\•
“” la.wflallf la po11•11S.oa. l wo1114 Mv r••’-‘• the w.ralac pot.al of ,.- ;
oat• \o lt• vha\ur l!Mt No.a’&oHl”J’ W.14 wllol•Ml• aa4 Uetl’lklt.oa plute
and. faolllll•• 001114 l»• co11elneA\:ii111dfP’ ta .,ro4uottea• vt.,MA \be
-. ‘·’>- — .
aeauna of tu War k\or Dlepv.’•• Aot.
1 ? bad. ••rr 11 Ille \o do v1 lh ,n .. “”‘” aHl &«eJ’ ,u n1, va•
t1114. !be the Al\one7 General•– H to Co O\ll with MJ’. lilch Cox,
Aatittaut So11oUol’ Oeural, u4 pnse.at .lhe •JIIUNtni tor the Um. \eel Stat•••
!hie followed pn\tF o1o••l7 upoa ,_u ilJIIMI ••• to vld.ch l ••• n ..
t•l’N4. I MTR f•l’ oeaforta’ble .., tu u-cuaq ot-, pnpan.Uoa.
BoWT•r• l tld.u . MN wa• ar&U4 ….. lel.7 OD beMlf of tie 1Jat.le4
hale• ‘bffa,He la UJ’ .,…., •• Octa •• \INlll pnparecl &Di ex\l’IIIN11′ altl•.
J..a«e Sa.U.lftA, bownr, •• ol,. l». Ill• new that tu Pn■iuat W. u- .oee4e4
b11 poven. In. .,, oplnlon l \ w.1 a olo•• ca•• Wld.er \!le ,-.,ute ••
a ••’l’I al>•-.nUal lepl Tloto17 for ,, Viii tacl. Sta\•• …. later wbea lhe
OiNUit Oovl NYene4 ,_ l3tdl’iot Oou, ….. ,a1 …. Iha ……… ,. I
414 not parilolpate ta Ul.e Ct.nu\ Cov, arpaeat.. M7 nooUeoUoa la \ba•
Mr. O.s aloae luuull• lt there •

– 200 –
/,hfof’e the Oircu.lt Cour,•• 4•olllion the United sta,es nqueated. the.
Saprne Go1:1n 111 1,1 411oreUon lo le1U a Wt’it ot oeniorari to b,tac •••
••• ,,etoft it vltboui •vaUli.c •11e 4eolt1on ot \he Oil”Oldt Ooun. !b.11
•• .\·a. proaod.ure tollovti l a the m•?nt aDd tuoa.e hid ktam· ?cluri;q
the abial e\n.Uon ot Pneldent IJ’llaa.a, vhe.D the lapnM Ooun took
\he ••• a.t,er llldc• Pl•••• 4eo1e1oa vat o:ppealed. to our 0:t.rcvJ., Ooun but
‘betor• •• .bad pae•ecl. upon t 11 ••nu. la the tmakoun: ltd ••• • hovner.
the Sapnae Court refuted h Gel’Oll• U• power to take lhe aaee pl’l?I” ‘- a
Oll’O\Jlt Ooun 4eo1•loa. 1lr noolleot1oa 1• tba.t vheA the oa1e agata. hlle
to the hpNU Court po•••••iu ha4 lteea al:Nul4oaed –4 \IIAt Go,a.r\ ooa,t4en4
\he••• aoo,.
fb. PNaideal of MoalpMJ7 lut •• a 118A ot .,.17 etro.nc peraoull\7
and coanottoa•• and ttdte 011t1pokea 111 bla Yiev• about th• wbol• atter •
? ••• •• a ratlMtr notortou oae fn11 the publio 1talldpolnl.
% • relliD4e4 of ,i. ftnl ••1nr• du \o labor–MU.geaet 41ap’11••
t.a,ern.pUnc or \lnatenlnc pl’04wc’1oa Yltal to the .,. eftoJ”t. t, laTo1Ttcl
\be 1J’orth A.IIHi.oaa• all’On.fl plut la Oaltforata. ftd• -· Wlla I
•• Ao\la& Sollol leJ’ Geaenl, ludon Pearl la.rlol’, Ull before .aa•••• et
Ille lecl1laUOA ooaatNe4 1• loueMrz Yan\. I trev ,_ flr■I cl.nft .,
tbe hemUYe 01’4•r UD4er \he &\\\bol’l ty of vhiob the Val tecl State• …-.
po1u11lo11 of ,11e llol”lh Aaartoan plaat. Aft•r •o• nnitloa• tt wa alp•
\7 ,ae Pr.aid.at, ea41q tbl t’lrlb. ‘1h. aest laetanoe, l beltne, wae
,1ia,. et tlw 1e4en.l Shiplnul41DI 0oag,., tn Xw J••••• a nllel41aq ot
Um.te4 Sta••• lle-1, wheM, la ooa,n.1\ vUh Iorlh Allerlau, the auc••’
•• cle.-4 at favl ,. ProcluoUoa for \lie •”7 va■ l8’01Te4. !be Oo?
woald aot aooe4• to the reeo …… Uon • ot eovermaeat ottiolal• v.bo 1••
– 201 –
• alu4e4. u l ao-w recall. lm4er Seoret.a17 of Wa:r lob•n H. Pat\ereon. ?n
all ?fo.na al P•?•••loa fall” the plaa, •• •1e1N4, 11 ending the ,1i.,.,’.””‘
eael,. ;ol” aolual, laletnp\lon ‘6 pro4uc’1oa.

l?. I.uat -.. NW haStl• 121 u. 1. 414 (1944)
!hla aml U• 0011paaloa •••• loa. 3’1f ud 3f5 ot tbe Oclobe1′, 1943.
\era, 4ec14.ecl the ooaell ta.Uonel.1 t7 ot i.a. lael’CeD.07 Price C.a,rol Aot of
lMa •• aaen.4-4. tab• wa1 proaNatetl oda1:aall.J’ to? ■ellla& abo•• ‘• a,•
pU:oable pn.c•• 11:ncl b7 lbe Prioe A4allllalratf.oa. • aoucht to 4ef..« ea ..
tbe croad. thai the pl’t.oe NP,lt.Uoa va• la’81t4. lown•r• lie W. fall• tct
follow t)le p l”OOe4U”H albori•• ‘b7 th• 1\at111e to.- a •tacldac o? aee1d..
aocllf1oaUoa of ••• ffllllatl♦a. ftme •• ca” l• rmataoent, ot lal)o.
!he hpreae Oo’U\, ta ea OJ.11».loa bJ 0Jd.•f lus’1oe Stone. vi th Kr. la■-
ll” lobert,. Mr. lusUe• latleclce, and Mr. luatlee Ma1pttT 41•HaUnc. 11:pheld.
the ftlidi,7 ot ,be .•ta1na.te alld the aoUoa ot tb trial coun la ntue1nc
to pent, \lie acov.ae4, la lae cri.lllaal pl’Ooeedlq 1 t,elt’. to Nq\\ln
\he oout lo 4eten4a• ‘•• w.U.4lt7 of•• 1’lo1ate4 n,lllattoc vldeh • W.
aol ••lack• t.11. tit. ••-r aalber1 s.a b7 \he Pl’loe Qoalftl Aot.
the Coftl’JUMIA• taMll tu pe1,tble bnatclova of \he ¥bole pnoe atl’il.O•
tun ul••• tble ‘dew prnt.11-4. 0oll.ll’9•• ba4 att911ptet to 11 .. a r…,­
la an IMrgcq Oovt et Appeal• to vhloa reeon ooul.4 be bl.4 tor Nl1ef ‘by
oae ta tan.a• poa1’1oa. A:q per-toll acCl’1•’f’94• aheuJ.4 hla prot••• \e 4•1•
‘bi’ tbe a4at.al1trator. •ul.4 go lo tba, oov.n •ffklac aa taJ,mcUoa apt•••
Ilse replatlon or pd.o• HW’Dle. ft.m.. eo..o–•• ••h\ ulfond. t7 1n dHl•
atoat am the pre’t’Otio& of v14eapree4 <lla111p\loa of l)rioe coatnl wbloh ·
woul.4 follow 1f cll•trlo\ oovl• all oYet- the oo•t17 oolll.4 pa•• u:poa U•
– 208 –
• ‘falidf.t1 ot the ptioe• fued. 1rhe llaa ca•• pNaa.\ttd ver, difftcralt
qaetllons of 4ue pl’Oo••• whloh I thlatc atcht ha.Te ‘beoa 4eol4e4 a4••n•11 to
the)JOffnt11ea\ uoep, tha\ ,u ooaltols wn of eaez•geao1 om.raote7, n•,..:
la& {, good. part “fOA \be var power•. l aa not u. eooaolll ,, ‘but I b-1.ine
11-Nt would beve been ••11.oue econoll1o “l)heaTal iue to \be iaflat1011&17
ettecta ot wr pro4uotloa, bad the Oo”ltl’Dller\ JlOt ‘been n.t\alned in thl•
I •• tl’O’ll\184. a’k•’ \he CA••• but tel, the control• vei-e ••nntlal ••
a 111u• •••I’•• Juttlo• lo1’•n•’ 41•eeat- le pereoaaiYe, aD4 tJO 1• J11aUo•
la\lectc•’•• bu, 1 lhlllll tbe -.Jorl\7 4ff1s1oa, \7 a wte ot llx h th:Ne,
we.a towt4 in llChl of \I.le ?r powr• aa4 I» uaatn& wblch nat lte al••
\he due pro••• 01.••• la the ooalul of \he proaNU.tlon ot a wr. !hat l•
not lo 118.J’ that the Ooa1,uu.,to11 oban4ea, l>ut ooll41’1oaa cle affect queatloa•
• ot 4ue p10oe••• !’be OovefflMll\ ooaehteall.7 vi th due pl’ONH oa ate ••••
ln 4efen•• of th• alto• whloh are not o\hems• aT&lleble to 1,.

18. GemSo P.. 70680clu cOt1o\ ltolleAz•ld ‘PC•• Ota• 1, 94’…. m..
fhl• ••• onglaate4 ln ,be ••a.1. ‘fraA• Co111t1•1•• u4 I ltaltne ••
\ha ftblole for the ftnt S.,na• Court 4eoleloa bol41ng laftllcl a eooal.1114
ba•lng pola\ •7■’• of price fix1Jll. !he 0011pule1 had \vo pluta
tor tbe –factun of ciuooae or oorn •Jl’UP• u.a la –.faoturiag ctalUl:y.
On.• wa, a\ Argo, U11u1•, “1. thin the Ohloago mtch1ac d11hiot, an« tbt
othtJr ., 1aa … Ol\7, M1H01lr1. fhll Ooul’I ..,..,
v”PheetUu\ lro nthe•r ‘ 1dal l&lJ••a• tat re at 4ell••n4 pri.M1 vJd,oh an OOllp1lle4 &ff OOIIJ>U7’ • Obi.., l)rio••• ptlrov.a• lOblheoaco fn io1rh tlaaa rataea f C1roal7 C ahit oactbao to \IN plae• o-f lel.1••17• whe\her or not the ao\u.l lellflr,

– 203 –
i& fro,a Ohloego or tron Xansaa Ci t7. flm.s J>lU’cha.sen ln all
place• o\her ,.ban Cblcago pay a hieher price tball do the
Ghioaco puroha••r•.•
!he que•tior.. •H vbethei· this conaU tuted 4tecJ’llllnat1on acalaat the
plll’Oha.&er who bouch\ tho prodtlot wbiob. haA bol’U lees tranlJH)r\atioa coat
\hlu,. he ‘W.8 r•qt11N4 to pay. Sec\loa ll of the Clayton Act prnea\a dlto:r
1Jl1nat1on l? pnc• ‘between d1f;t’erent purobo.aers, am SeoUoA 2 pl’OT14e•
ti., it abal.l “be UDlawful tor an., p ereon. •ncacea. in ool’!Ull•r<M • • • to <11 •orlldu.
\e ln prio• ‘b•\ween dU”.fer.nt purohaeee of ceamod.1 tiee• of Uke
cn4• and 4\lall 17 where the etfao, lf0\114 be tub1ta.nUall7 \o le••• 0011peU
!he oaM pN•••• aa 1ntene’1q qw,a’1oa ot •tatuto17 a0Ju11truottoa
ta tho light ot ihe 1-,telatiTe hittoJ’J’ ot \he acta, – vhe\ba:r Ooncn••
1o.teAd.e4 to exop\ a. ‘baeinc point a7a\u •••nit 1t a.llOUD.ted to pt”ioe 41••
or1Jdaa’1on. ‘lhl• was p erbaps the aoat d1ff1cw.t qμ,esUo:a. It •••olear
the tacts made oo.t a. caae of price dleorlatnauon.
Whe\her a ‘bati.DC polnt qetu bas aivaatagea Yhioh off••’ 1 \t 4lsa4-
fta$a«•• l• a q11e•U.oa. 0a oae 11d.e 1• the pNleoUo.n of 1atlut17, la
llntacball. ••••• iaa., ot a ditJ”Qp\loa of 11. On ,ha other halld. if the
.,., .. 1• DOI 1:1.1-4 lh• teDduo7 le to a.14 lbe 4nelopmen, of 1A4••117′ la
parta of \h eou,17 vhu• the ooaftlllq pv.ltllo oan ” ne.checl vltll low
•nn•ort&UoA ood•. l’N& u eooaollioa dud.poi.at. I 4o no\ attempt to
pa•• Jud&•at, ••••.,. leantng1 are towari •»> poU.07 of Ooacr•••• vhloh
bat beea aplaa, Jrioe 4taor1alna’1oa.
So•• 7•1’• aco ‘h• Ooaa111loA 11114• a eareful. tlu.47 of t.lM ., .. 1 idua-
117 and t1suecl aa tlabon.te r,porl, ooa:l–.1ac U1 baslna poiJlt •1-‘••
the Oolllld.aaion olab1e4 ‘• luua,17 1111.led l t lato -.’budontn,: tll.Pther lepl
– 204 –
• •••’• b7 plltll1••• ot compU.anoe wltb tbt Oout••ioa•• d.lnoU•e• but, ••
•”•r of tao,. •• later Ooaai••1oa, …. to feel, ,hel’e va1 ao, ooapltaaoe
aa aa”olpate4. Ia -, .,.., tha, euller voJk ot th• Ooaalt11oa la \.he
,, • .i 1AA••lr., 414 aot bear “111 tm, ••• vq or the o,ur. the eo.t•atoa
ftllWecl tu ceunl •ultJeot 1n tht.1 Com Zml-1101 ••• and to1:11ht 1, •U
‘he way Ulnugh wt th ana, ‘tigor an4 ooaf14eaae. ht I oauot uave1t aa ‘9
11• applloa’1on \o olher 1D4ualrie1 Uiouch \btre w.• the Nrller ••• l•
the $DpNM Oovl 1Jrfo1nnc ‘1’•• …. , bul.111117. fbe •7•’• taTolft4 ta
that oaM •• ut oo•-•• but Ihle l thlak •• not ‘beoaue ,11e Oout
t.bD1&Cbt U ,o ‘be aoa-Uaorlatu\017, bu.I beoa••• Ulen vaa ao u.r•••bl•
‘lba ‘1111 2niut• … •• 4lf’f1oal t tor •• aa 111• otller •OOJUt■l:o
•••• wen, auoh •• the laS&tPtl BroMM1Hnc 0&M1 but ‘befon l • .., 1 t
• l tld.ak 1 u4e1’■too4 1 ‘• vhtoh wat ••••Ital lf I •• to ‘be ot ulp to the
Oour\. 01u,. a4equatel,- prepared \he oa•• ••• aol cllfflcul I \o •JIU•• T•t
l •• fiftl reelatan .. In• the Oout du-tag the fin\ part of tbtl &J’C’l’llltl’\,
•Ul Ille Oevt \\D4er1too4 lh• tao,■• fte Goll.H vaa ,auaiao,a11 •XNP’ iha\
lu•Uce tto\en• 414 ae, putiolpt• la tbt 4eot•1oa, u4 111.atln Jaoktea
ooaourn& la’• Nftlt. le appana\17 W. •• n••na’1oa altout tu hxi
of ‘1l• optdoa.

19. Op\4N •• JJMSd iRltl
!ht•• wn two wlre tapphc ••••• ••• 912 u4 980, a i tae 19’1. tent.
In eaHD.oe tu7 l&m>lYed. ’11• C(llettloa ••’her lbe ue ot a 4etH’8phou to
noon a oo&Yer&tloa la a pri:nle l”Do■, w1 th ilt.e ncc,1’11.lDC u..a. •• ffl4eace
1a a orlal-1. pn1eou’1ora, ‘Ylolatet the 4etell4aat 1
• npt ad.er the J’ovlh
– 205 –
• ?n• mt to be nbJeo\ed to an ur••o•ble aearoh or ••i1Ve. the
•••• ••• baft oo• up tuo111h ·tile cn.ataal Dt.T111on. tb.e7 an•• ta .an,
To.-. Mr,. lola t,. Dahill•• \he 11a1,.a Slatn A.Hom.,- vbo •lcne4 the 1•-
4lo-.,. l 4o ao, lmov tlMtlr blelo.,., — bow tbla MUI of cettlac the
endeaoe· origl•ted..

the ao011aeil were oba.l’ged vi \h a cea1plra07 to nolat• oeriala. pro’ft .. ·
non• of ,. h•rup\cy Aol. !hey J:ta4 met lA a J’Oo■ ln lw Tork and. “”
tber• aa1d. “° .baTe ‘bHA 4houaing ,m •••••• !he reoel’Wlla, of ti.tr 411-
natto,i •• ob\a1M4 b7 ? Jll plaotnc • UtUe eleo\rl-1 b.ttl’UQ\ oa ·
,hi n•aia.e of l.b.e wll of Iba rooa; ,,, ta1 ta a.a -4Jolalac rooa· wl\h •
wall OUIIOA lo tu rooa 1a wbioh tu ooa..-er•tton oocv..rnd.. flat 4..-toe
ptcJc.a • •• ooa•enatlon by aeu• ot the aout •n• ooain« ,tiro1ap the
wll •
!be oa•• •• a,cael. for the aon.H4 1a the hpreae Oout b7 Mr. Jen..:
at.ah MahonQ’, a toner a,Jor of Jew York Cl t7 • and. a ffl”T Ttcoro•• •• la•
pna.i..-e a4TOoate. lrlet• wen alao ftle4 for petitioner• oa. behalf of the
•11ona1 ,.. era’1oa to• Oo.aaU’11.Moaal J.t.bent .. MIDI qgty; uct •••-1
tor pett.tloaen w•n .S.lae4 ·,., O….. t. haakel. ltr. Jlanltel 1• tt.et1•
ftacl at ,t•• with •• •noaa 01Til ld.)ertt.ea Ualoa. A fonlla)le •ffon
wa• made ,o MT• the Court o•ernl• \be Ql•a!af •••• tu 1DTenaaeat cletc4e4
the a4a111toa of the wideaM mier ,1:ie 01at1Md 4.of. ■tea. la vhioll
,u oplnloa w.1 1>7 Old.et lwaUo• fatt. fb.e Co11n hl4 tbere hell mcl•aa.
obu.1ne4 )y vinlapp1Jll \o be a4al11tltle ta Ille J’e4eral lkt•rl• aotvlthete.a4-
lac \he Jov\lt. A–.1••••
la a.a oplaloa by lb-. lu.8’lo• lt’bota the Oevt held \at f».US.I 0011-
trolled, u4 affirmed. the comc\ioa• vblcb bad b••• o•W•e4 la pan b7
– 206 –
• the · “” ot the n1d.eaoe. !be Ooart waa 1mvlll1ng to onn,tle SD,••IMG • ,.,._
lac Jt l’.184 llMD. tbe n.bJeel ot proloace& oondd.era Uoa lt1′ the Oou:n. wt th
the ,at101:ie “1.en of the luatloe, olearl7 u:pN■ael. Mr. lu\lce StoDAt u4
Mr. “1.•U•• huktane11 ,ta,.a Ua\ ma ‘h• •Jontr •t the Oov, beea
Yi?ll.DC lo •”•nl• m.u•ud \her wottld. baTe been bapp7 lo Jota in d.otnc •.
ht •• \he •Jort.17 had 4eo11Ae4 to do Ihle, ud •• •we tbillk \be oaee t•
ind.1 iltS.Jl&’D,1tba’ble in p rlno1ple fztoa the OJ.11iw •••• • there wae no oooaa1oa
.,o NJ•’ aov the d1•••11aa rien ta Plalttt4 wt.th vb.lob th.,- acne&.
Ml” •. lu.1Uo• laclcaoa cllcl not parUoS.pa•• and lb-., luaUoe llupb7 41 •••••
fl&Ol’0\\917 ..
1 tel, Uat •u oaee •• ooatl’Ollf4 b7 Ql.utw • llloqh 1 tboqhl
mul .. 1\eelf •• qu.•tttou.blt. X -4 been gnatl7 t.11pna1e4 b7 \h• 411-
•••lna opS.Aioa• la SllU!MO· l 4.td feel, howffel’, t:t.•t lheN •• enovgh
• to \41 ta14 lD. f&ftl’ of Plu!u4 for the CoT91’Wll\ to ••• to uphold 1,.
‘lu Sol1o1tor O.aenl 1• aoaetl••• ooatreatea vf.lh a. attu.tloa vmn tf u

flr• a Ja.4c• he alcbt MYe a 41tteftlll T1ew fna llat he upn•••• a1 aa a4-
…. ,.. If l ba4 ,, …. ,1 ,u .. ,. , .. SD.u\MA -··· I at.pt ha.Te acne&
v1• ,, cliuaUac 1’1 … tllee .xpnaa.t. a.i la theft ca••• I tel, l w.•
oalleit upoa to pr•••’ Ille ••nnaeat afttlabl• .,,…,. tbat I could
ethleal.17 and. falrl7 bull4 t.a ftpport et Ille goTeraraeat • 1 peat lioa.
I felt \.be Covt wu.lcl “be 41Ti4e4. but l do aot r.oall \bat I felt bow
l\ voul.4 41Tl4e. I would aol ••• ‘beea 1urpri•ect if the 4Miatoa tact gone
ta other w:t.
Jaatloe 1111.rph;r 414 not atev ,he uae Ylgor tvtn« onl a….-, •• 11
met•• l>J’ hie 41•••’ – he rarel.7 414. le v01114 not often lntel”l”Dp\
arpaen\. ll• opiaiona, how..,…-, were often Ter, ,111.o,ou,. I would ha••
– 20? ..
• gun•• he wuld be qaln.wt ,he goTenaent tn \hie ca•e, because of hit
C•M-1 a,pNe.Oh \o \he 901″\ of pro’blea iATolTed.

When. I •• Solt cl iol’ General the Department of the laterior had 1111 Uatel
with ,ha Altomq Gttaeral the •tter of i-eoeYeriraa tor the Un.Ue4 Sta\e•
the •-call• uael&Dd oil 4-,oal t,. !he q’tle•t1on ti rat ••l”IM l ‘believe
ta ln.lerlor, when. Ml’ • .l’b• Jona• •• 1a Uua.t DepanMDt. At lea.at h• ••
on• o.f tho•• aotiY• 111. the otter alon, vl Ill Seoretaq Ick••• I approsl•M
\he Uae a, ltM when ,he prolal .. oaae ‘° ••
I thla t he quaUaa •1114 ha.Te a.rleen recar41••• of \he war. there
W ‘bee 41•ou•1oa oTer a longer perlo4 ot u-., p,:n,S.ag n\ of the 1acN&••
la the 41’1.lllna tor oil Wider the •••• vhloh I tld.u ‘bca,11 about
fifleea 7ear1 ago.
At a oertai.D po1n\ the Attol”!l87 General refen-ecl tu question \o ae
for d•loe a• tea ,-bether he lho’L’ll4 au\boJt se ,u.1,. the problea becaae aore
\\!’CU.I beoauee ,11en va1 leclalaU.ft ••1deraUoa of cruUDC title to tbt
ital••• 1ater1or vat 1trorcl7 0ppo•ed lo thie, aJllll thoqb.t ,-., lt ,u
••••• were ltUpted Oon«N•• ahoulcl net lec1slate, 6r the Pr••lcl.ent -,pn••
lea1tlaUoa, ut11 lbe oo•rt• laa4 pa1■e4 ,spoa ta qu1’1oa.
•••roh 11.1 Justloe bad -,ne fo….,rd ln the 1-a4e J)S.?aton lUld.er
·••t•\aa’ At\orne7 Oneral Bo:raaa ll. l,it\ell, VbN a &r•’ 4-1 of data
bad. beea prapared. .1 •••1P• ••• JfeDr7 G .. Xngm.bu, of 97 e\aff, to u.u
a speoial 1″147, uelac ell Ille aatenel. a’f81lal>le. Be llad• aa lndepe4ut
ual.7•1• of ‘\be lepl quatlene, la relation to lhe taot1 a’f’alla”ble, am I
then made u lndep•ndeu\ eh.d,r ‘Wi\h bia. I conolwled tl’utN •• autficleA\
– 208 –
• ttueaUoll to JuetU)’ the United Sta tea t:n 1n1 tiatizic 11 t:lgatio.n to obtab a
Jud{oial de,endaatlon1 am reoomemted to the A.Uorne7 Gen&ral that tbta ·
be d.()ne. 1 414 aot oo■e to a definite oplDion •• to bow tu.oh • caee 0\1Ch1
to be d.eo14-. 1,7 \he C0111’ts. the lUoney General authori1e4 tul t to ‘b•
f’lled.. 1 ncoa.ended, and. taltlally this waa done. that eui\ be inttlhted
in a district court of the ‘On.1\e4 States rather thall tn the S’l:lpra&e Oout ..
Sa1 t was filed in one of the 41 •’riot court• of Oel.ttornia,.
Before \he aate prooee4ed. ••t7 tar I let, for the work ln hl’UJl7 ..
Later t:he n.lt ln. Iha Dlatrlo\ Ooul”t •• vitbdr1n,n aad ,, .&ttome7 0-aual
— then .U\ora97 General Olark — au\borlae4 an. orlcl,raal 1111.it to be fllel
la ‘•·hp NM .Co,a,rt. !hie \eoaae the Teh1ole tor \be 4eel1toa la.ter rtnl-
4eN4 b7 the Oov.n. tcJ reaton for •11i1ce•t1nc tha\ the nit be f1le4 th•••
in the D:1.atdot Court •• Uat 1 felt the quettion1 lligh\ 1n the end. ‘be
• better naolT-4 b7 a proceaa of Judiotal progreeeioa \hroue,b \he oout,. I
learned later tbe.t aome p10cadural d1.ff1culty .made 1t seea Ylse to eu’baUtuta
an original aotlou in the $a.pr•• Oour,.

When l •• ln pr1Tate praoUoe ta 1948, aftel’ the Supr … Court ha4
-4• 1 \a ‘baaio 4ecta1on, \be Oout va• uder ‘1:• aeoetei \7 of am;>o1Di1Jt« a
l])ect-1 ••••1’ to draw the U.nea lletYMn State a.rad 1ed.eral own•r•h1p WMler
the prlnctplea la14 dow ia tbe deo1a1on. ‘l’b1■ voul4 1nvolve es\entiff
uerin&• 1n th$ field. Ohief J’u1ttee ftn.1oa aaked u pei-eonally if I w•re
afl.ila’ble. 1 .bad to ad.nae h1m of rq par\icipatlo.n. 1n the earl1 stage• ot
\he case a, a\oTe outlined… We agN94 that el.though l bad tak•n. ao posiUoa
on the aeri.\1 lt wa• lnadn.aable tor• \o aot •• epeotal aa.der. 1\ woul.4

– aQ9 –
‘?he ?reae Court baa teJected a later 9Ui t filed 1n \he effort to
over-tun leslalation enacted to overiu.na the batio Court deo1■lo.n. I tbl!Jk
the 9oU\ ha• -4e up l te Id.mt that Oonare••• ba:’1.11& control o-nr the pro- .
pert1 of ti.. Vnlied States ‘1D4er the Coa•U hUon, ha• nlifl7 cU.epoaed of
‘111•. Bo. 42 a:t the Oo\o1’er, 19.i. t en, in..-olYed the conatnusUaa am4
effeot. ot the eo-oalled. LitTiiartY note a:a.d. 1 ta aooeptanoe b7 the l’reaid.ent.
In ooJU:1.eoUoo. w:I. th our nGOIAi Uon of SoTiet Jlae•1a in 1933• \he Sonet
Oou11..- tor Joretca Attain, JfakiA t1 tTiaoT. in the note referred. to
agreed \ha\ the Soviet tJm.oa v,uld take .ao it-,pa 11’k enfol’Ca &111′ dectalon
of courlt or lm.Ua,e MJ1’ new litigation tor the••=’• admitW to be du
or that ,. ba folllld to be due t ‘• a1 a n.coeosoJ’ ot prior govenaenta of
Btlatia, fro.11 Araedoa.n naUonale. and wuld ao\ obJect to au.oh aaouah beiac
aHitPied, 8Zlid. 4.oea hereby rel••• and •••iP ouch aaoUD.h to \he Um ted.
‘•’••· • b. AckaowledeiDC the a.aeieaaent, the l1Naideat eaid tat he wa•
clad ,o ‘baTe theae ‘2.lldenaldnaa b7 I• lbtt1an conftlMD.t. aa4 -would. be
pleaead \o raoUfJ \bat go•enuuat in eaoh ca•• of aa7 a111>at real.1114 \7
the Un.itad Stia\ee fro• ,he rel••• ad. anl&DIHDI to lt of \he aaouat1 du•
the ,oTenaent of the SoTie’ Uaio11.
‘!he United Blatea later tiled IIUJ.t 1n the d19’rio\ oour\ ot few Torie
apia1\ 1er. Plu, \he Su:perla\tulfl•n’ of Innl’Bllce la lfew Torie, to reoo·ver
a•••tt 1a bl• hu41 ot oertaia lta.aaiaA 1aaUl”alloe CO.llpani•• ( vlUoh ha.d beea
doing ‘buein••• in. the State of Bev York) reaimag aft•r the ol.Aima of
domestic oredi\ora 1-4 beeu aa,t,tl-4. !be ultimate lstu, aa I analyze
– 210 ..
• 11b.e •••• which le pre\t7 OOJIPllcated, vae vbatbar 1 \ •• eontraJ:7 to our
l)Ol1q •• a D&UOA, a1Wld.q u .. , U J111ht be ooatrary \o the poU.q of the
Sate. of Bev ton, to reoo&ni•• Ul41 effect of Son•, oonfi■aaUon or e.1pl”Qpriatloa
or aHei1 ef the 1Dftftlloe Ool’Joratiou■ taaotar •• tho•• a•••l•
might ‘belong to ltu■aiaa na,1ona1,. !hi• in tun tnTol’Nd \he effeot of ,ae
escbaAC• betvn.a Lit’fi.uT and our Pretident. ooneid•ncl •• u execuilTe
agn•••• ud.er which th• Val.led Sta.tea acoepted the proceed, ot th•••
bold.inc• la Bev York to b• u•ecl »D tgto 110 aaliat)’ olaiaa of ••l’loaa

u. tlonal• acalA•, Ba.a.ta.
A ra\1-r leqth:, opinion •• W1’i Uea • Mr. lueUo• l>ouglaa, whiah
went into \be q,uta\ion of nect1.tlTe agnemente And \1-tr relatlo11 \o tbe
powr er ?- heeiclaht to oon4uo\ ov fonlp affair,. !be Oo’U.rl hel4 \bat
the right \o the funde or propertJ la queatioa beoaa• Teated ia the So’riet
eo•ermaftl),.\ a• ncce■llOl’ lo \he 11un1ranoe ooapaai••• Uat •thte right 11
pa■aed ‘° ‘h• United State• UDde:r \he L1hiAOT &Hlp.11.at, a.lMl that \hf»
Uzu.ted. Stat•• 11 ctitled to th• r>npen,-. a• aptnal tu oorporaUon uA
tor-•J.&a or-41 ton.”
I\ ba• noen\17 b•a arca.e4 in aupport of the 11’lonr A•mlae.\ tba\
,he f1a oa•• lllua\n.\ae the 4aa&•• of exeoutl•• acn•ea•• l!lblob. 4o ml
ha•• tile ooanrreao• ot •Uher the Sua’\e, aa a tnat1, or of tb8 two bov.•••
ot Concnaa. the tb& e&H \lt)held the power of ihe Pre•1deat alone, in ,be
oond:o,o\ of fore11a affair•• to alee •• a,r .. aen\ wh1oh oYeJTOtle \he polloJ’
of a a\ate. Tlut a.aawer to \h• Bri«er aaeitd.aat proponnlt was oontalnecl lA
a 1.,,.,. \o ,_ lex Xom fl.•• f:ro• … Plu: hl••elf • alt!loqb he W
opposed. \:be GoTH’IUIU\ in the l1Up’1on. !he whole aatter ha4 ‘beea laid


– 211 –
be-to,r” Co.ogresa. and Oongreas bad paaaed lec1alat1on wbicll cave apJ>t’Oftl to
the .?:rra»eeaen\ the Preeiden\ had atered lnio, so \bat la eubetaao• wi.t ,,·,. – ‘
Seaa”-tl’-.lr1oke.r vaa arcuua 11′.lould. be done ‘bJ ….. ., ‘8 …. CoaaUtu.\l9a
ha.a ta te.o, b•en done in the ao-oalled Pink apl ao4e vi tllo11.t a OOIH\Uu\toliill
a••nd:illeut. l tbink l have ta1rl7 atated tshe 1>odtioa MJo. P1\t tookJ I Jmov
1 \ 1• ibe potd tloa Mr. JusUct Bob•rt.1 \ook 1n oppoalq the JriGkel’:”taead••
t aft.,r his retirement. al.i.bolllh a, an ac\1Ye JusUoe of th• hpJ>••
Ooutt he •d Joined 1n Ohief .Jualiee Stone’s 41•••’ la Zi&,
• • • • • • •
‘Th• oa••• 110uatecl 1A awaber at ti.. 1••• pa11.a. A llal of •••• l
pr• .. n1ed oral.1¥, 1a. vhol• or ta pan. for the Uaittli •••••• la appede4.
!hel’• vere two others after 1 ra,v..nie4 to 1>J’1Ta\e pl’UUo• ta 1947. fbe
Court ot Ch!,ef Justice Hughe• va, \hen no longer. U ha4 ‘beu ,uooeed.a l,7
\ba.\ of Old.ef Justice ”°ne aA4 aUll later b7 t.he Court of Ohlef Juuae
Vinaoa. In 1937 when the liabor Joard case• were pre .. ated. the Court. ia
a.dd1 Hon to Ohief Juatia• Jllghes. ooaaleted of J’u111.oee Tan Deft.Aler. ••
J,qaold.11 IND4e1t, Sutberlam,. hUer, s,one, ioberh e.Dd 0.rtoso. Al the
· • ot rq appet!U’&ncee tro• 1931 ‘• 1948 AOne of 111iffe l•ll•• r-.ta.a..
MJ lat\ arpaeat fJh tbe pY811l11Ht was bet ore Ohlef Jutloe Stoa• u4
JuaUcee lober••• Black, Beelt fraaldurhr. J’Joucla•• lla.rpl9’, Jaakaoa U4
lh’1e41•• M¥ la1\ argwaeht ot all, 1a 1948. •• before Oblet J11at1M TI.a.a
u4 t.he oae Juats.o•• laat aboYe tlllllecl except JiHUo• Bv.rtoa ha.4 Jolbd \ha
Cour, QA4 .Chief Ju.aUce Stone ha4 died. Al \he Uae of U1.e la ••• la
1924. wbea I •• f1rat on a brief 1A the Oourt, \he oovtl’Of>a .. la \hil
Capt tol. Wlll1a11 Bow.rd. Tat\ •• Ohlef J’u•Uca, with .A.eac>olate J’uaUce,
KaXenne., llolmea. Tan DeYU.ter, .Mcle7Dolcl1. Bran4•1•, Su,herlam. Ju\191• &IUl
– 212 –
• S.afol’t. Mr. larlu ‘I’. Stone vaa A.ttora•1 General. ‘1’be tnten•niM 7.u•
wer• •- th• aoat taportaat la \be Coun•• hl•to17. :Daril3C tm •rlle•
,.? ., , •• ,erio4, vi ,n ••n»c ,1 … ,., ,_ Oov.n ooaf1aed. telenl …….
…, tla\e power lo •rnwi- ooapa•• Iha.a 1..S,tla”1l’et tel, the Coia,,1111• ?? -?
. lloa recpln4; for eD111ple, ti,. oa••• 1n.,.1nng the naalaUon of wont.a&
ooQ41’1oa•. la tu thinte• the ettori• ot Co.no-•• and. the 3:nouU•• to
blHA•a \he eoope of aatlonal eooaoalc at nolal at.4 to \he people, d:a.nnc
tlMt Cl”•’ …. r••• .. oa, Ural ••• alao wilh Ja,41o1al nba.ff • with …. of th•
a”1••’ -l>•r• of \he Oovt, a\ it.au tnolll41a« OJd•f 111.ttoe lqb.ee, agata
41.t … UIIC lB ••ttell ••–• ‘IMa …. • •but&• 1n •oaati laltoal latel’fn­
••t.••• • r•ta.n •• 11 ntae4 lo •• to lbe approaoh of a IIV4h -.rl1••
perioA. the Qout 1aecu to el••• ,11ie w l4 where ael Iller ••••• •• f e4el’al
aoUoa tor \he ooaoa pocl lla4 bee pend. 1’94. We an 1Ull tn lhl• pel’lo4.
• Dulac the whole era, boweYel’, vhll• I.he Oovl ,art.el 1a 11• IIPl)naoh to
v11a, I \era r•elllal toolal aacl eoonoato leeitlattoa, 1, rna1ae4 ooads’•’
la l \a defn•• ot tlle i-ighlt &mt’AIM4 b7 the ltll of lb.pl•, aA4 eeu..a
to aanu pove7 a4er the 4-a.• prooe” olauea. fher• ha•• lt•• ….
llaottaa,loa, boveNr, la oonetniac relief.OU fl’N4oa a4e1′ the ftn\ …….

–?. fJMa latt tapo..-…, uo1tloa la ‘he ID Ilia ltJMII UM •-• Ma
IK) ;;/
v. •• aoa, nlteno,, a ..”‘j.,. ….. to ae1 to a,.,. .. posltloa. tlopecl
to? la rq oonlrtb\\lton lo •i..v u4 eo.,apon.17 Pftlltl … , • VtaleJ’ 141Uea
ot 19491 »-• 11a.1Yer111, lol:lool of Lav.
ftle Colli’\ dunDg ,hi .. 7•1’1 malnWaeA the lllch cpal.1 ,,. of u. voi-k.
ftiov.gh lt• coapollUoa ohange4, aacl •••• ….., a1>o’Cll the Ooar,. lb.ere ti
•• – \he tbla ‘”9,1 baaoh, tbe arbiter of the Coaett.h.’1on. U4 “°
– 213 –
• 4V1D& tbe p•rlod.1 of 1 ,, tatemal tenllon l, •• ooaeU tu.tad of ua v:t:ti,
?? faTOrabl1 ta a\all1t7 with l\a … berahlp al OI’ U.•e tn RI’

— pn,R,a\loa of •••• for the Um.tel ••••• •• a rewal’4tac •z­
»•rt:.-… % lo” eoa• •••• l ehould baYe voa but lhe cteoleion1 were IU!der-
1…..,’ble, and there were able 4111enh •• a ‘et, ot ooneolaU.on ..
? S.aportan:I •••• t a1tigae4 to other,, \o hanol• M. Shea, -, good
flt-4 o’t’el’ the ;r-.r1, th•a AHt■taa, Altorae7 tlael’lll la cha.re• of tlMt
OlalP Dlnlloa, or !huau· Ano141 1Jol4la« a like peet.Uoa in Aatt,l’lltl,
or W..«ell ••re•• Ol’ialaal DlTleton. or to Saa Ola.rt, 1’ax Dtnatoa, or lo
… 1.e:r• of .., own ,tatt OI’ to the ,Wt• ot otheT cleparueatt or aceao1 …
l ooatln-4 lhe praoUa. ot atatgalq Labor Joa.rd ••” ‘° the loartl * •
hllenl Oou ..l , or lo 001u111llal1ea with hla ,o a …b er of bl• daft. Oae
• .. •• a1stp.ed \o !oa o. Olan:, I belt.eft hl• nr.t lac,re11e Oou:rt. arp.,.
Joi eaa7 7eare were IO pa•• before he •• 011 the Cera.rt tt,elt.
S1aea an4 I w1114 ot,en fonca•ker• atler • ..,….,, to \!’J’ to 11s• up
u,,. dhalloa ud to 41ena• the W¥ thlnc• ha4 eon.•. le•• aa etoelleal
a4TO•••• •• wen all et•••• ff.a• p11’blto ael”ftUII•• -..h of who• plqel •
lllp01’1aal ,arl lll the 4e’t’elop■-, of tile lav of Iba period.
Al.fl.II Bookwell aa« Im••’ fro•• were alto aanpe4 \helr ttret •—-
.. ,. 4vi.aa tb.11 p.rtoa. Anol4 ka boN a bu.YT ‘hzd•, azul Jokrt L. hen
•• atel’lac ,zpoa hi• 4h’1acat•he4 C&l”eel’ 1a tbe otf’la. an4 la S.,na•
Co•ri aAwoao7. Pal Jtne4 toat on a n•b•r of i11fporlaat and 41tttftlt
•••• IUl4 alw.7a …. u arcueat ot at.,,tanloa. ..,,.. wen •’111 othtn,
ao• uv not eo 10uc •• ti.a, w!lo bepn to pn••’ •••• to the final ·hi•

– 214 –
1 aocatn4 a «rea, reapeet for \he ••non \be Govt. at l ha4 ,al,,.
bad ?o• \be Oou.n •• aa la1tttut1oa.. !be aore l wtk.14 on ••••• argu.14
,… u4 ……. p•nolllll.17 t••··- la the rtgbt• allilt Yl’OAP of 4llt•na•
po•t’.jlo••• ‘• CJ’•’•” cue a Nal.l■atloa ,., U1e Oo’IU’t wae a laan btttw.Uo•
like 10 aq o\hert, b7 DO ••n• lafalll’ble ffell oa tho .. qu1Uop
peftllai-l.7 v1Qia 1,, own ep•e1al twa.oUoa. ht \be Coun l1 aD4 ha• ‘bee•
a aa,-reloua exemplar of the gaiu• et our ln•tl fll’1o••·
Ape• ai. d laTad.a’bl.J’ •• •• bear ‘Ill’ ••••• She •• a ceo« aact
belpt.:l ol’itlo, •• well •• a flu 0011puloa w.l lll vboa to talk •••r tile •J’Cll.,.,
before an4 af’4tr. ,-.. llt.”llal &a4 othel” Cov.n •tt1c1a11, •• wtll a•
U.•• …. ,., ot the Goan wbo taew her, al•J’I ,….a glad to , .. i.i- …. ·
wen oo.,…u• all4 tbaqh•N. So•’1•• oM of the ah114ha –.. nt
the7 ven ••117 ta tobool. W• hlked oTer HM of the •••• at bo•• a\
the dialne l’OO• table et t.1•••• I ,..ber .,. ••l’l»rite, at hl.1 yov.q ap,
vhea ,Obarl•• lhoved a cl.Kr graap ot the probl• 111 l\!11c:td •• ’11’ua.,.
•• eoa\tmae4. to u… la tile uall bat plea1U, !lo• e.t 3’100 l’or•buptoa
a, …. ,. !he •r ••••a.at we 414 11,ue otttolal •tuwatnc. ·n.
—••et Nlllllu4. pl•–· OM for,. obt.141’tHlt ,,,. •• ,. •• ,, .. ta
1cbool. ‘-7 crew lllppU, u4 ua1,w,. a4er \be ol••• Arrollo• arMl aan
of 11o,11er. Oar faalU••• tu O’louell•• ltue■ u4 fabJ’a, ooau-…. to •••
oa• … ,hel’ la ‘ftU”JiAC tean••• u4, a• before, tbere wen oooa1t0Ml Tta11•
, • .,eoa.
I atlttacttMl Oa’btae, Metlact la Ille altnaoe of the Attona:, –.ra1 aDtl
……. ,.. a pan of ,_ PNe14••·· offlelal tull7 , .. I ha4 beea. t
NMll’ber wl.lh ud.n••• tbe laat Oa’btaet Mtt’1q ‘before Ille P?edclenl let\

– 215 –
tor Wan Spnnc• .lleYer to n”hl”n aU,Te. !he Preeldeal ha4 not arppeanl well
tor IO .. tt.me. I bad ao,1oe4 • n.tla.er 4eo14e4 ollanl• afl•r h11 r••• ho1I
febetu. · h.t be bad. ooatla.c to b•r ht• he&V 1Mml••• aa4 W ,u.,1eote4
b!Jl••lt to tw 1tl’&1ne u4. etto••• ot \lie 19« oeapalp. fl’Mt· latl 0..1u,
aettlnc w.1 ratbei- qtll•t• •• if then w.a an uaupneeect fe,llag .the PN■1-
4eat w.1 Mi •• vel.1 aa 11.wal. In d.d.1,1011 to the ph7•1cal atralae :t:Mt bl4.
en.Aared. and \he t raen4out l>urd.ena of the attic• of ihoe• 11•••• -perllap•
be haA· bee= ‘lo feel in a _,. the ehlll of \.be Golt! • r to oe•, *oh he
ha4 dl’OT♦ ao ftllaall.7 ,o pNYea,. a. had -4• a gnat \14 te,.- peaoe t.a
Ju\lce vl th tae •n••• flleuch h11 elfal’I• … ..,, •ocec-1 •• hie t»p.a,
u4 tboqn la Mtl’Ospeot …. 4eolno••• nea alltur7 oua, HN to?
beea awl••• l ea.uot ,. olhen vol:114 !aTe , … more mooe11:t.1. .. ‘-”
llaAe wn a4e la ,u belief lh•J’ were vl1e. Iba p:ro\ldt wen el!OJ’llll)’V.lw
? toluUo•• tor the lat•naHoal 4t.1tonu.oe1 ad 41tloeaUoa• d.u to
the ,J”aedoue 11.phea’Yal1 and ,he great torae• Ml tn aoUoa. were no\ ole&J’­
oul, aa4 -wen 1erto••l7 001111pl1oa,.a ‘b7 \be taot ‘1•’ •••1• •• ov powertDl
al17 la•• 4•t•• ot the ale.
I uall •• la tlleN aote1 a,,-,, , ova “‘117’ ■tah4 -,paltal o?
tbe P7eeta.-.,. ‘bat tie ,. aov that la .,. ova oplaloa he •• oae et ftl’ Tel7
area•••’ Jn•Ueat1, 11m>.nally “11 e(llllppe4 tor bi• “9t1poa1iltlllH••• Iba\
he ‘”” wt.th tbaa, •• u l:aeplrt.1’1 1ea4er of a Cl’Nt cout17 ta ,..,
H••• •• •• well a voDlleml pertonall \7, ad \bat he eaU, ••• Ill’ on p•!’­
tollal nepeo, am a … uoa.
Ac•• an4 t ..,.., ,. ,_ tenloet •oh Ma1’0h 41h Yi th the Pnelhat,
tlr1\ al hi• oJ:111.Nh aon11 fro• tu W)t.l.te llo111e, later la the ••’ loo• of
the nil• Btu• 1,,e1t, 4e•1n« thell ot at lea1t a ■eai-offlolal oharaoleJ’ •
– 216 –
· A• ,he var 4rew tow.rd• U1 •Ill •o 414 -., won •• So11o1tor General.
. .
The tu.tun tumed aow iovari the 1ntenattonal. MT nsipatlon a, Sol1oi tor
General. l\o’Wfl’•r.vaa not o:l’f1atall7 aocepte4 uUl :lep\ember 2?, 1945. vhen.
1 vat in Geru..D7. See 326 U. s. p. iv. President !rwu.n had. reaembered.
A ·re17 tl71ng ,pecial aaslgmaent from the Attomq Geaeral oo•s to
mind, tn-.ol’rimc the laval 011 leaene• ta Oaltfornla. Pel’bap• I 1bo\ll.d a44
a f•w word• about tt. U 1• pn’bable that lt 194 a whll• laier to the rellOftl
b7 the Preatdeat of Mr. lor.an L1tt•ll a1 Aadetu\ 4tton.e7 General
in. aha.re• of the l.a.adt l)hialoa, due to h11 4lft1aul’1ea with Attorn.ev
General Biddle.
The. kTJ had eatered lAto an agreement v1 th Standard 011 ot C&litorrda
• for what alght be called a Joint operation of the 1’aftl •••n• am properUes
of ihe 0oap4lQ’ 1n the sau “f’icini’7. A dndnace problem vaa 1nY01Te4
that 1ac11oaled •• deaira’bill,1 of uail operation ot •o•• Jd.nd. 1’ha parUoular
QD1 t acneaen\ bad ben approTe4 b7 la.Y1 and wa• •eat to \he Wh1 ••
Bo11•• tor Pntld&Ual approftl. 1fhe PJ’eeidut ft.ba1tte4 the •Her to \he
A,tome7 Genenal who quite properl7 Mat it to Liliell. Rte Dlntion 184•
aa ela.bonte a1N.d7, followed b7 a “leak• to the pul,11o beto:re ‘1-le rell’Olt ot
the itu.d7 •• taad• lmow to the Attorney Oeruaml or that Pl-•a14•at, to th•
effect that ,ne acreement wa1 moat cl1aadvantapou1 to the Uaited. Sta••••
etc. 1 wa celled \o a Wh.tte Bou•• ooafereace to 411C”O.te the matter “1th

Mr. JJ’n••• Mr,. Joneaul and, lt llellOl’J’ ••n••• with Mr. SU1u1oa presaat.
‘.Pure va• no ncc•stlon of aay corJUpUoa. ‘but l tbo,:acht ,u s«N•aent ••
not a good. one tor \he United. State, and reooaendtd 1\a oanoellat1011.. ‘Pbe
– 217 –
• Co-.,an,r re&lll7 agreed, laking the poa1 tloA it did not vi.th to \17 to bold
the la”IJ’ to ,m, acneaent d.eeilled. \Ullla.Uafaotor7.

‘l’bea followed a lone negoUatio.n vh1oh. U1e At\orne7 General placed la
q otaqe for ‘h• J)epar\aen\. I lnaisled oa i.1,,e11 bet.a.g kap• fully •need.
acd oontnplated. tacu:11.n.« hie Ml aaeent to the ten, ot a new agreement.
Mr. lei th lane -pri•ril7 repNHn\ed the la.’97, capabl7 a.ad -pa’1antl7.
A •horl ton of interim arrangement vaa prepared b7 •• and. agreed. to. In
Uw end a tall new acr•••t va• entered lato aa4 aubalUed to the app?priate
Bou•• Ooaalttee for U1 pu’bllo knovll4&• and aoqaie•ouce ‘before the
JnouU•• lH”&aoh aooeptecl l ,. U •• a touch and te41ou• •••tcuent.
1ourleea year, haft pa••• ant 1 ba·re beard no cri Uei u of the 011\00•••