– 284 –
aecoUated. l tlto’qht there “’18.a a suc«e•Uon ot penti•e.nen 1n tli. S.cr.­
ta.17• • aood when he told \le of ‘f1n10a • • aoa1M\lori. P•rbap• be wo\ll.4 1–..
llt.. to r•h.n to the Oov,, •• Ohlef JuUcse. Perbas,t he bopel lld.t •*h’
oorit? Uoup be ut.4 ao “” ,o that etfeol.

1•”• Wt.th 111 fu1l7 1Ja the t1 ha Uo.n U wa• — lhe qe1 of ,, o.bll4ftll r: · .
— l 414 aot f••l tllal I ahoul.4 reala a-,- loapr. •• the T•r -• -..,a .
aa •• .t O&Ul.t ••• bl’O\ICht the taatl7 lo tlena117. •• $eural Cl.a7 .. .. w.
ltut 1 Aid not thlu 11 vt•• lo 117 to u.i-27 oa \ll• 9′.uaUoa of ,i. oh114″1l
,hen, –,ar-4. wl th lbelr opportuat Ue• 111 lfaahl-,toa la ou ftu i,aneldal
1obo•l•. 1 lalew good. aea nre aY&ilable lo take oYH’.., part ot the vol’k la .
Goenl Ola7 withed M ‘6 •”17 &J2d I tel\ l&4 a’bo\lt leaT1ag. I ba4
ao(l11ncl a crat “””‘ for h1• penonallr, au. 1t he tboqhl I 001114 Wp
1 •• …i-..otanl lo 4o etlMH’Yl… leTenl. Malhe l>efoN ay 1ear •• -, ·
S..reta17 Jfn•• ••• ot a olear -‘11.7 ••’a••–• to .. oY•I’ \lie tel•tn•
ta »e,u.n<alkin& • ‘° Nftft •• 1,epl .U.’f’lter to U.. •-•• Dtp&na.t. Mr •
• .,th bad. gou 011 tlle Wo.rl4 Ocna.r\ eae aoath• “eefon. to make a leme
•’°’7’ lbort. I d.ec14ecl aot to OOM ‘betoN :tla1A1Jll 1M 7ear 1a O.nu,-.
tMl.ta.t. aaA: ‘° atn•l4 hll•Jlal. OlaT, vho •• ••JT o1 … to Se•”•”‘
.,.,.J? When u nell1el l wo1114 «• la a tw aoa,h• 1A ur ffat he 1&14
he ·vo.:14 ‘be Yi.Ula, for • to p to State aD4 uahtuwaat to u &UN ••
hpal’la-,it to hol4 the 9laoe opu. !be upahot va• ••• 1 left a lt \Ue b►
tore· \he 7ear wa• vp to ‘beoo•• Legal .W.T1aer of the State Depanant. 1

– 285 –
had ‘been in CIOIII\Ul1cat1oa v1 lh Acn•• abou\ 1 ,. She •• no\ •nxlou• tor ••
to take ?hl• a11lgueat1 at lba\ 1 a \he vq ll wrke4 out •
. ?•t•:·’1 IJ’m•• ··- •• ,o NOrpnl1e the lepl etaft u4 ….. Jli ••
coe4 teal of l.a\t.tude. OTer \be 7ear1 lalud.e of la,,,-.re ha4 cnwa 11p 1•
the l)epartaea.t aa 11, ntspondbil1Ue1 U4 •1•• espud.ei. ‘!he S..ntaq
viabe4 the la,qera gaerall,7 to be bJ’OUgh$ ‘GJld.er the Legal M.rlaer.
l reorcaa1se4 the •laff rather 0011prehent1Tely bu\ nol 0011ple\el7,
1••la« .,o .. area• for obaAI• O’fH’ a loager perlo4 of Uu. !he leenta17
aln peNllt\ecl •• lo 1.ieo\ a tall’ a’Gabei• of aev ••· The ol4 ,wt••
operi•.., u4 ooapet••• an4 I 4.o aot lat.a …,. l111pltoaHoa lo \he ……
tar,. 1 •• antetecl cnatl7 ia \he no?pmtatton lt,- Mr. JeJm Iowan..
who bat ‘been la ti. hpuflllent helplnc Mr. J.oheton on ,ou ep.olal wl’k.
Mr. h.enfo,-. t!wl Aasl1’8.at leon’8.17 10. obarge ot adalalatratloli. lnl4pt •
eto. • •• alto Yer,- helptul.
1. 1J11,u1 xtth ‘• hmoa tr,111
On• J)l’Oblea the leol’ela17 pl’Ollpll7 p”le .. va• ltatNa between lh• l)e. …
part:aeat la Vaablac\oa all4 Ir. Benard. Ian.oh la l’ew ton. wllo bat••••
aeleoud ‘• o4M”‘>J’ to •””” appftftl ‘7 t!Mt ‘Old ,.a ••10111 of lateraUoul
ooalrol of aleal• ••JG’• I W to .,.. fl’lll• a 111’1• u .. 1•1».c
‘baolt u4 forth between lev Tork a.114 Wa•hlnc\on. Mr. Janoh ba4 ht.• ova
orpalaa\ioa la ••w Torie. l11olu41nc Mr. leri1MA4 Jbentaa, &114 Ml”. Jobil
•nooct, olo•• a•Nolat••• a.D4 other peraouel be ••1eote4. !o help •• oa
the proJeo\ l ••oun4 the aaelt\&Aoe la lev York ot Mr. lea17 I. lacnball.
wbo .a been with •• at the l.alM>r Joan d4 •• lolloUor Geaenl. le la ezoepUonal.17
able, aad. we thea lh’iAC on Loq ltlaad and praoUolag la lev

– 286 –
)fbe pre>J•o• ‘beoame lmovn at the !aruoh plaa for the QOJltrol ot atoa,1c
·?’>· … · . . . . .. ·. enefq?,, l\ •• nal.11 the Aaheson-L11ten1hal Plan with ,oae ao4J.ficatl1’1l•.•
tu ·:»iifttid. l’i\ioa• bact oreat-4 a ooalHion to ••• tn\ematto11al coa,nl
and _IJ:r. lai’Uh ba4 been teleetecl b;r \he Preddet to handle our pari1olp..,..
Uoa. !rhe· Uni tecl States haA aeau.med. leadenhip ln the ettor\.
fhe pl’Opoul. seemed pret\7 bopelele to me ‘1:1en, more eo than 1 \ a:pparentl7
aeemed. to Mr. llaruoh. !he key w.1 wheilher tM So•iete would l>•
¥1111111 to aooept intenaa’1onal tn1pe0Uon within SoYiet terrl to1″7. l teit
codld.ea\ \heJ’ were tbea a lone -, fro• a,l’ffln« \o \hia, and. that a CF•t:
deal IION waa being -4• 0\1.t of \he · effo ?, to obtain 1 \ than the ltkel1hoo4
of auoua• wan-u.ted. 1 do no\ mean ve ahould ao, have -.de \he effort; w
d.14 obtain the adherence of •■’ aation• of the worldi but l did. feel \bat
the ohancee of auooeH \hen ,,.re illplied.17 held out to ‘be g:reater than thq
were at that period ot h11to17. ltren\uall7 Mr. Baruch a,eppect aa1.4.e a:n4
the work “•• taken o••r by General Osbome, alao an excellent un. A gradual
4•-,ba•l• ?•*• more oonait’\et wUh the aohal eituaUon.
We helped Ir. Jan.oh •• w 00111.d. aJL4 to the e:neai he tealred in ,1ie
l>NP&n.Uoa and re’ri.ew of paper• the t1a1 tecl State• 1ntroduec1 lato ,u Ooa-
111 ••loa to a4YU.ce ou:r theori•• a.ad. to ••• 10•• agr …. nt. MT group al eo
d.raf.194 a eo&1prehea•l•• 1n,enatlonal ,r-.i,- tor ,he ootl.trol of atoaio
ea•s-a alone the line• ot the lanoh plan. fhi• 4att •• nenr aad.e pu’b-
110 .81\4 11 1eaevhere in \u eo•enmeat fll••· J thiu: U va• the 0Jll7
do?, of 1 \1 Jdad •’ffr d.nt,ec1. the hl’\\Oh Plu, or the AeheaoaL11leatlal
Plu.. was aot a pnpoeecl lNAlJ’ • lnit ‘• t\a\ement of a poliq
a.mi f)laa. ht lnanlwa, Boward. am I — pr1ao1paU1 tho•• ‘”° – aotual.17
drew a d•\ailtcl draft treaty to carr, out 1n.temat1ou.l control •

– 287 –
‘the l1aiton w1 th the Department in Washington •• not by any aeane
left lo • a’Urel7. Hr. Bal’D.Ob. vae 1n d1not contact with ,he Pre,tden.t
ucl the .S.ontaq, and he.cl the coaple,e aont14ence of both. Jut he and tltt
SeoJ’eta17 withed. someone troa ,he Departaeat like 111’telt to ‘be in. close
touch with the titution in lew Ton:.
An.other aUer the Seos-etaq pu\ 1•e41ate17 ta • hucl• •• the oo•pleUoa
of the necoUattoa• tor the hee.4.,aanen ageement lo co••m the
etatu.1 of ,he Ualh4 SaUon• in thi• ooutry. the General Aa … bl1 had
oN&ted an iaternaUonal gl’Oup to negotiate v1 th the Vntted State• ud 1
•• de1tcuted. b7 the S.Oreta.ry to lake charge of tbe necoUatlo..11• for t?
United. ·-····
!his pl’C>’Ve4 qUite a tao:. I had the able aHistanoe 1n the Department
of Mr. leaao I. R. Stokes, who had. l>een on the work before I became Legal
Ad.Titer, aad. ot Kr. Oarl Naroy, u.cl at ttaee ot otbe:re. frutre were •ZIT
•••Ung1 wUh th• tnterna\lonal croup ud vtth oUy aa4 •’late official• of
»ew Torie:. the l\epar’laeat of luaUc. •• travn. into oena1a pb&••• ot the
pro\le•, •• well a, the offlc• et the AUon:ut1’ General of the S”-t• of lew
l’on::. Parlloipatln.g aleo were repntentaUYet ot the Seoreta17 Geaen.l of
\he United llaUon•. ‘f)ari1cularl7 the .A. .. 1,tant Seoretar,- General. Dr. ban
Xemo, ln obarge ot legal affair•, aad Mr. Abe leller. 19neral couael for
\be S.onta:q Oeaeral.
!he 4,aft vhloh had been forala\ed ‘before 1 \oolr: charc• tor the Department
‘lrfent through l’eY1don but waa the bae1c docuaen.t. An 111,POrtant change
ha4 to do vi th 1eourit7 problem,. ‘t’he draft pro-vided for free aooe•• to

… 288 –
tM bea4.-r,ert area b7 npreHata’1••• ot … ,,.,. ooutr1••• aotwt thetf.l.114 ….
tac :,O’ll• s..atcaUon lava. lo •etl’ff!11BC ot the r-i,reMa\aU••• ot othp · ‘,’i,,·-: .. . ..-.1.?,1: •• lo ‘be llacle l1 \Ila UllUel s-.tee. l lllnehi \hit pl’O’per• ·:il!a\
U’ t:b btiAt.,.,•r• were ln aou otMr couatq ve woul.4 u, be willl.QC \o.
1-•• \hat aatioa pall upoa w.be 1bov.ld. r-,Ntenl u. ht I 414 lhl* ta\
lf tu pl’t.’rilege ot •nt17 wa1 ab••ed. ‘b7 aot1oa outside the 1oope ot the
capaoft,: 1Uld•? which oae eatere4, ,hen ve should lte penall\-4 to t12.m the . ‘
ott .. er out ot the oou\17,. bi• onated. qlll te a to-Ao. 1 •• la•t•••••:·.
“QPO.a Ille pnao1;,l•• lnl.t aot -,.a 07 parttcnala:r MtW ot eatonbg 1,. paTlUA
ao11e r••aa\le ••W wd.4 ‘be agned.. . Af\•t- ooatlten.ltle 41 … •at.o•
,u priaol.ple •• aeNlecl tos ti., 1•• that lf ou vhe eue tn.l.7, ao.tw1-. …
•tuUnc tllat h• atcht ban, … esoluA.a. ude1″ …,. cu.•ral lavt, altue4
tlMt reaec.n for vhlch he u4 l>ee.n pe1111tte4 to coae, he could be depon.a •
ht the 4epezttatlon c&ul4 no\ eoea.r uttl tti.i-e had beea ooncltaUoa, lt
4ee1Nd, with the Secreta111 of Sta’•• au would u\ ‘be eaUrel7 ‘by •ean• of
the uu.1. .depor\a’1oa prooelvet.
4f:’-I” i.ac aad ooapltoa,e4 uc•’1atloa• -\be Ann …,. … n,, ooaW►
la& ooa,14-.lle 4e’-ilt Wt S.a a po■ltlea fH• • \e l’Ma•ea4 l\e .,nwl
‘b7 the -..nllu’J ot State. u4 for tit••• vllo i-epn••I• \be U.Uel ••t•••
\o rN0—4 lt• appro’flll ,, ,u leeN\&17 Geu-1.. the ••-.l’Al Ae-)lr
ha4 pn’ri.011111 autlxu1.■-4 1\ \o be tipect oa b•bl.lf ot the V.1\ecl •\le>M
\7 \he S.onta.17 General, n\JHI to final approftl. 117 the Oueral ••••lr’•
8bolll4 \he acneaa, ‘be atpeA ae aa uen.\ift ape … a, and p,,.\ la\o
efte.ci, ., the Pret14at, or abo1al.4 l\ l>e ooa.114ei-e4 at a ,,.at7 a».d. malt­
tec\ to the Suate for a\lfl•tlon, or sho1114 1, u eppJ>•m b7 ‘both ho•••
• of Oongreaat l reoo•udecl the laHer, and \h1• vaa tlle ooura• taku. l\
– 289 –
• a1&1:I vel.l be arp.ed the e.rrancueni, “” vU.bln Iba au tho rt \7 ot ,be
Pre•?,•’• •• an exen.tl•• aareeaen,. l:Rd that new wouJ.4 have ‘heea eu\Jec,t
\o ••• doubt. 1 414 aot •••lt 1el’1ou-11 ooatlur lhta allerMtln •. •.?•
••ri?u• probl•• l t •••M4 ‘6 • •• v1-‘1’unr \he a,re … nl •bo1lld b• ftb …
ldtte4 ,o the Sena\e aloae •• a t:reat7i or to ‘both holHe• for appro’t’&l b7 a
aaJ01’i\7 ot each. l reco•en.4114 \be latter ‘beoau•e ot \be relation9hlp .<>f
the Vnl\e4 S\a\e1 to tta. lJaUe4 latt.0111. I \bough\ bo\h l,ranohea of Ooa-
1n1• tbould parUelpate 1A telu.Uon of the head(l”l&rter• prc,bl•• vtth .tu1l
,.,. iU¥\ lmovle4a• of Ua. •••• ot \he •?a,. the llal ,.. ••to?,.?
it •• .? aooee&, •••• \he full nppor\ ot •• Ual te4 Ital••• aaa if l \
•• to baY• ‘•’ to the •••• po1eU1le th• &J’l’UI•••’• of \hit obarulel’
tho1lld ••• the &JJPl’O’l’Bl of ‘bola bou.••• of Ooacn••• e1peo1&1l7 \–••• .of ·

the opporhaltlet for anae of the priYilece of entq 111\0 \be trait.a State,
oa the put ot ufrtendl7 penon•.
the a,l”MMal was r? for 11&.natue b7 the hecuti•• bruoh of the
CO’Y4l..t oil Jue Nill, 1947. Ge».enl Manball, vho vat authoi-het to.
•lea oa beb&lt of Ill. Pnuteat, we.a •uc la hi• plaae to ••• To• tor ‘•
•ltd8′ oeftllO.,- aa4 aake4 •• to Co •luc wllh lwl, wh1Gh t cll4. J, •• -,
w44iaa aul•eru.,r u4 Aca•• •• coiac to \e la Jew Yolk too. lt •• alN
tu w441n,c anal’f’eraq of ov pl’laelpal a-apl’etatatiTe to tbe Val\14.,..
Uo••• hba1udor War:rea as\la, who va• gs. nae a noept ion, tor Ou. ,ect.
laUou. person.el pl’laotpall7, and we had pl….. lo co. Geaenl. lani.11
•• a lU\le put out vl\111 .. vh• be .. ,.., at \lie NHJ)Uoa afteJ’ \he
1lcalaa eeruo111. -,i.M 1 tbould ••• let Ma taov •ll• •• ooalnt 11p •• !ae
volll.4 …. van\ecl Ul’ to OOM alone lll the J)lU• too. l tboN\1Chl7 •nJ07M
tu Y11U “1th h1• on \be plaae ,rtp ,ap. Onl7 \u two ot u1 and the •mall

– 290 –
ONW were 1n the plttne. l had. been re\icen\ to nggeat that he laYUa
••• ‘but . later \boqhl l lboUl.d. haT• 1., hia know.
‘.· … aO”eeaent •• aov •ed7 to be •uat.t,ell to Ooqn•• and the Pf♦•-? ‘;t’r-;. • • • • ” •· •
4nt> ..a\ u don w1 th a •••eaae. It •• lakea 11p first h. the Jom,a a…..
laU.on• Cowa1ttee ot the s.aa,e, oTer vhlch Senator Taa4enberg •• th•
1n·••14izag. Bather uten.elYe hearinp were htid., 14-tb Mr. s,okes, Mr. lla:rq
and Jlftelf civiag the uetlell uplanationa. or defense it one can call 1′
\bit,. Mr. Lodge, vho is JIOW ( Septemler 1914) OUJ’ pl”111.otpal npnaeo•tln :
a\ l1- Vt:d.ted lfatlou. waa then a aeaber of tu OOllllittee aDd \o, a cod.-,
4-1 of tatin•e•t la \b.e llnriBC•• aa did le•tol’ Tan4e.nbeq, Senator a.?
Ml.17, rq old tdo4 of Jew Mexicto Senator B&toh. aa4 ,he cout u .. pr,1.•rall7.
the trou.’ble•o•• cpee’1on wa• wbe\ber we wen al’ring \oo aoh tNllllo•
of t11’1’1• lt wa a aeri.ou pro\le.11 an4 I tol4 the oomittee fran1cl7 I
thought \here wollld be an inoreaae 1n 1aterul r1••• ‘but that we woul.4
ha.Ye to \1..■tt our 1aceau1,1 lo oope with u. I dld not $h1Dk the a1,enaUT•
was to Ir, to pa.•• 11pen t!Mt pe•eo•• Yhoa otMI’ aaUoaa vlehed. lo eelMl, ,.,,
the n• 1no1Te4• tho1’ch pftunt, wa• OM 1thioh n bad. real.17 ••— vbla
tile- S.•t• \Ulalllaoul.J’ YOW to 11111.te tllia lmlte4 •uon• to ea\t.1’ltsh l\t
bea4?•s-• 1a Ute 1Jalle4 States. the Seaate 0.11111 Hee, I ‘beli••• wttllo11.t
aq 41ugreae\, reoo … D4-4 that the Senate appro•e the acre•e,, aftel’
a rather full ual71h of the vhole pnltlem in lta npcrt •
. !fl\e acreeaeat \ha caae b•tor• the !Jou• Coltllittee on JoreS.p Attairt,
whleh also took a er•’ latereat tn t.t u4 u.4 :ra,ur ute11,at•• u4 11′”17
41acu•lollw. ‘l’beN apla the priaoll’)&l probl• w.a lntemal •••l’lt7,
whloh ,rou.ble4 aeaber1 of the oomittee. QD.e1Uoa1 wre ratted.. laolud.tnc
the 1Uuat1on vh1oh would pnYa.11 ahoul.4 we be at war. !he Oolllllttee de•

– 291 –
oicletl to a:ppJ”O•e tlut &CJ’••–• wl\hout •DJ’ obu«• la ih texi but lo aooo..,..
pan.i. &pproftl b7 a re1ol11t1oa to tu effeot \ltat uUd.nc 1n the acre-ad\
-· ·tel be oona,n.ec1 to , •• ••7 tu ncht ot ,_ tJai tel1 s.,.. to pn>t•ot
U1 1eOIU”1,7. ‘1b11 J’e10l11Ue.a •• \.b.enat\eJ’ appnTe4 ‘b7 the lua\e aa4
\be lot••• \boueb. lhe S.u.\e had origiAally a44ed u ooapan’b}.e ca••’•
1 414 not ad.YOoah \ht• proTtalon. l npporte4 the agreM6at •• we
ha4 wl’lce4 t, 011\ an4 •• lt ha4 lteen elpad b7 the heov.U••• ht 1 at\
eq that la the pa•NC• of ,1 .. t•■ gla4 the lout• 114484 this proTt.91.-. .· l
thlak l \ •1-w• \he vllcloa ef \be ft.\llieaioa of \he •Uer to \be tw houe•
of OoMN••• ‘1111 ca” ri•• to a ooatribuUoa vhleh otherwl•• Jll&bt ael
.. .,. ….. ,.,-.
(1 u.A•••tud \ha.I later on prolal .. 1 414 arlee in tu State ».tu••••.
•”boul au.\hori■lAC •1•• for a fev per••• who olalaed. the rlgh\ •• •’•
tinder the acr•–•• ut la ooueottoa. wtu, tn. Oeeral ••••17• \he S.O’t:J.ri …
\7 Couoll, or the ‘fn.llNe.blp Co\\D.011, lntt la oonuoUon vi th one of U.
tpeo1?1•ed acenol••• !be Vlli\ed. Stat.• .-?led. ••• or two ot I.ho•• per­
••• -.”•• of tatonallu. n«ardlq thel:r po1tl\le nlwerdTe 1aol.S.U.\toa,
ol’ potuiial1Uea. ftla o..-,et a prolal• vl\h •• effioe ot ,ia. ‘””‘-17
o..i .., •• local atatt ot ,11e Vm.tel Wa\lou. I ,h1a the •”””•
•• ··– -· Tal14. Bellu.oe -· plue4 “J>Oll the ·••uU1 pro’f’ldoa la
the riaol11\toa, rather Ibo eatirely upoa \be \erraa ot the a,neaea\ lt•lt.
l 11114d•ian4 tae aaHer vu ••tiled 1&H1taotonl7 ,o \he S.ONtar, Geae.i
11.114 ‘° O\U’ OVA eo••na••· l ptheN4 fro• ,_ prM• \bat ,_ ……….
General•• oft1 .. ba4 •• qae•Uoa a’bo1lt Ulla pl’OTla1on betna a nnnaUoa
to th.a acr•••’• bu.\ •• leoreu.17 Geaenl \ho11Ch,t operation• \UMleJt t,t ••
• olaS.ae4 b;r the Un1\e4 State• ‘llere not lncoaeteteat wUh the agn••nt tt•

– 892 –
..11 – Hat aa,on• enteriac ••t 4o so 1A pod tai th tor purpo••• lll>•••fte4
1A th♦ acr•–‘· Oar ,OTenNat and ,ti. S.oretar, Gea•l’al ,,,. toawla\
cllt?♦’tftt ro11.te1 aniTe4, •• l uad•r•tuct tu ••••r, at about the ua• ooaolu1.
!he Oenef&l. ••••blT alao vat J’equlnd to appro•• the agreeaent. Co.a•
greal1onal approftl oaae at alaotl the l.&at ai11.1tte ot the ••••ion preoeU.q
\he General Aatabl7 aeeUnc la tta. tall ot 1947. I went to tu G•ual
A1 .. l>l1 •• the alten.atlT• NP••••ta\lve of the Ualte4 Stat••• oae of the
•••• aA4 ta\ for \M Valtecl Slatee ln the It.db Oout.t\ee. !m …,…,
… ‘before Ilda O.lllliUM aa4 •• ntel’t”ecl \o a ftb-ooHltt••· !be poalUoa
ot the t1altt4 Sta••• ,… aoaewhat l’Mlt w were a aul>er of tu Vm.t.t
laUoa• llAd. at tu …. Uae tu olher- pa.rt, to the acre••nt. !he au.1’­
coat u.. tlnal.17 &ppJ’OTe4 • \ban t.be tall oo•l ….. then \he pleaa17 ··••-
1011 of the Geaenl ••••\17. And ln Au oouree the acre••’ oaae 1ato efteo\.
It w.• a ,us:, lmalaeat, tboup., ln the 111\-eoud. ttee of the Suth
Oout;H••t beOAte then a&aln queetloa• •••• about tnitdo• of uoe••·
•• .-uon• 4ealre4 to -1.lainate all np•m •loa. PuUOlll•?. ul. ratbtr
,,., • .i,. I tbo111ht1 \bl• •• the potiUo». ot \he JnUth re,n,a’atln.
!be So•1•t wen ralJutl’ «(llle■OH.t aat aoa-ooatronnlal about \he wMl• ., …
,…. vatohin, 1, ‘but wt Vi u Hl• aoU Te parUalpatt.-. ftMt •?u1 ,11 1-1
npretentaUTe •• relwnaa, to aoCMcle to arq npemslon vbalffeJ” u4 .wa•
qui \e clldvbel about the laplioat1on1 of the reMlutton 1)7 vhloh Concn••
ha4 ct••n it• appn1’&1.
ta the •• I a111p1J’ M4 \o take \be pod \loll \bat the Ua1 ted. Stat••
ooulh •, do u,thlnc exoept •• Ooacn•• hacl nthorl ••• and then 1′ ••·
• :Su\ 1\ w.a a TH7 \roubletoae, aaa I ihoqht a rather uueoe1aai-1l7 4lagree-
293 –
• abl• ‘ma.tter, e1peo1all7 at the United 8\a\et oa the whole va• \ei.Dc -rer,
aaerou• 1a 1 ts hoapl \all t7 and a, tUwle Iowan the headquar,en la t•t•
oouat17 QA\ -.4 ,. pnt’1’ te.r, noll tai-tbitr tua it at.ght 4o totq lJ the

‘ pr•••• oll•’• ha4 ut9’e4 then.
We wz-. –.”bl• for ••• Uae to :r.ch a 10111.Uoa •• to how ,i. agru?
aeat tho\lld \e ‘bro\lCht lato effect. nna11, thi• toNlila wa• adopte41 \be
General “-••blT would appl’O’fe and autlxu1.se \be S.0Nta17 Gneral to aip .·
wet- \he atb#JSlt7 of lb ow l’Melutioa; the Valte4 ftat•• v01ll4 pu\ th-‘
•P•••a’ into etfee\ uclei- the autbort,1′ 1aalti ‘b7 \lie 1’Jaltei ha.I•••
‘!here voul.4 \e aa ••hue• ot motet lt•”‘-• tu Uat\ecl laUou, aotlnc
thrOugh the leereta17 hural, u4 the UaUe4 S?t••• Aa’baala4or .la.1th.
•• ntlaor1te4 to eip t» aote oa ltebalf of the Vat te4 Mat••• fhtt aote ·
•••- upl1o1U7 t:ba\ the acn … at waa being 1>laoed la etfeot ‘b7 the
t1Dlte4 St.ate, •nltJeot• to the pronaioa, of the reaolu\ioa of Coa«n•••
fh. ».,artaent bed d•• .. the choice of uelag a Mte ao vol”4e4. oi- ou
wor484 t.bat lt •• lpanu.aat • to ,he r••ol11.tloa. l pntette4 •mJeo,• aDCl
Ibis w.e the wl’A uecl.
a. 111u,,1oa ot Ii• !men Pt,trtat
Nl• I•• la ’11• hpanaea, tu fnun Dootrlu •• latUate4. the
.,……,, reoel “4 •• \Jaat lqlaact wa• ‘UAer tu neoeaal \7 of wl thlnvl8C
:I.,. ””P• ad nppan I.a tneoe. tbia p••• a Hl’lo111 thnal to the l.nl►
pn4•oe of Gneoe. Val••• the ‘Onlte4 “-‘•• wa• la a potdtioa to Nplaoe
the JriUell a, \lle7 UM 011t, then la ao 4.11e1ttoa ta -, ala4 Ooamllld.•t
1n.t1v..an• wotid ba'” takea o-rer in Gneoe •
– 294 –
• ·The mat,,r oa• \o »7 aU•n.Uoa :rtr•t at a atatt aeeUng pn11cle4 o••r

b7 Vmer S•ore\a17 Aoheaoa. ‘l’u preHataUoa wa, u.4• -prlnotpall7 ‘IJy >t?.
J,o7 S.ader.«Uk, who we.a nepouil,l• tor the parttaalal” 1cletk• 1A Ille Jepe.r\…
, oo•erla, \he proll•. then waea• I noh loae of ti•• or ctoult aJout
vbt.t ebt,uld ‘be do••• e1peeiall7 when one oo».114.er, the aap1 to.d• of the
pro’blem. It ,….a. olear to the .Depanaent that elaoe tor ecoDOllie reaeoa,
– priaaril7, l 1uppo1e •• ,u ir1Uah were 4ete1’111ne4 ‘° vitbdraw, the
U’a1te4 Sta\ee alt.ov.14 fill ‘he ftft’UIJ l \hin1r \here was no 4111eat. ?ft
aece•eart.11 •• 41■ftltloa of uaaa aa4 •11’o4,. It •• 4eo14ed lo reooa- ·
MM \o I.he 7nt14•d \bat lbe aa\ter be pro111ptt7 n.l>lllt\ect to OollP••• la
a •••–,•• aaA Ooacn11t.0Ml approftl o1’1alae4. tht•• 10 fa’I ae I aow.
•• >the orlct• of tt. hue l’Jootrine. J\ •• a ol’1Ueal an4 lJo14 4eo1atoa,
vonl’}7 of our poaiUon. aa4. re1ouro••• a uftllite ataad to end the 0o1111Wl1wt
&th’anc•• ia k-rope.
1..o1′ Headeraoa loo.Jc a lot of abu•• la ••• reapeoh 1n othr •tt•r•t
the Jew• 1n JaleeUae, fo7 UA11ple, ••-ch• be vat aot .,,.,,athett.o ‘° tile
pu\1Uoa i,lu • lo a•••’-‘• fo• tlle lwe. ht oh thle Cbeelt 1ttaUo
?, vbateftr ou Idell’ -z abou, •u o,i.,. – u4 1 .,-eell •• la.,. …
tbl- with tlut uv date – he 41d. u ••’•b.Jl41nc Jo’b for the fl”M woP14, ••
414 \)le ».p&rtaent, \h J>naltleat, aacl t)» ao.,.,. .. , la OODNUoa vltb the
fn.llan llootliu. tollow-4 lJ7 the gnat Muuall Plu talUate4 alto whtl• t
W&I ill the ».p&rtaeat.
tu -iuaUoa of ad.MNUe b7 the UD.l ter1 ltate1 to the AeY lforl4 C.un
vaa \rough\ before the OoacreH while I •• LecaJ. M.Tleer. trm•r S.ore’8.17

– 295 –
Aobt-?• em 1 app•Nd lu,tore \he lontca lelaUoas 0oaa1,tee ot ,-. Saa\•
la 1,VfPor\ of \ht :S.10l,,toa lookllll toward au.oh a4:ti.reAoe. Thi•· va• la
Jlllt 194&• vhe. ti» Oollllltle♦ •• J)l’ee14.. o••r bf leDator Ya,Dllm•rt• wt-\h .

•’ . . · ” ; :
S..\er Oeuall.J’ naklar lllaortt1 … ,,.,.. S..tor tho•• of Vlah •• cbiali–
•• ot \l\e Su.llooaUt••• fM Oo•ttt• faftra,11 N90r,e4 \M ifl10l1aUo•,
Bo. l.98, followed ‘b7 a nther tull e.n4 iateretUAC 4e)ate on the noor of
the s.aa,e. S••• &altl Mia. \lie OonpeHlonal lecord ot AlJcu’ a. 1946,
pp. 10.928 et ••t•, “ftMCI 10,842, 10.a .. -‘I. 10,llk>. ‘th• ».eolv.Uoa 4?
tt.a-4 tu nltJ••• •”•• of \he Jv.netioUoa to-• out.a \7 tu ttm.t.. ·
&tat••• t. •.,…s.a la f••” fer & p•rio4 of tln 1..n aa4 t1-N&tt.r u\11
tu apt.ratio• of al.a •••hi atte1> •Uoe ,. •• cl•• ‘° tel’llhat• Ill•
AeolanUon• Utltl’ ,an. a of Arllole 315 of •? ••••• ot tu Ceut. !be
-.9Clutlon v1 Umel4 Jv,nl4leUoa onr 141spu.te• vUh npri to aat,en
vbtch are •HeaUall.J vttbin tu d.o••Uo ,Ultd.l•Hoa of the Uaitecl he.t••• •
\o vbloh, on \be WUattoa of Seatol” Ooana11y “” adcltd th• vo1’111, 11a1
••••llllaeA by the V..U.., •••••· ” After csoatttera’ble 4el>aw aaotlwr a…a.,,
olden,- apoaaon& oa tke n.oor ,,. luatol” llllHJd.a, w• l•t•W.
a..tol” Mor•• took a 1184 la appoaltt.oa to tld.e …., .. 11,, oilier• laol’l:IU4
leQ&tol’ fho••• ? ……. ,would.••• lbl\e4 ov 1m• ot Jvl.Uo\m
\7 exolucliac 14hpa.te• when \be law MMIIAl’J to• teoleloa t• not foul la.
meting \naUe1 aDll ooaYaUon• to wdoll the Val \e4 Stal•• 1• a pan1 …,.
when the.-e •• ao\ beea pl’lor •er-•’ ltJ the tJat. ,ea Stat•• •• lo ti. ap­
pltoal,le pnaolpl•• et b\enatlonal law.• !ht.a pnpoul orlglaate& \hl’ouch
a –nn4• vhloll lb. loba Joaler Dallea W tual1W. Senator fMAeal>♦q
1a Coallll\ee •. the Soator Md cl•ea •• a.a oportm1S.t7 to ex,r••• ., n••
abo11\ 1\, whlcb l bad do•• la. a ra\:Ur •horl b11t dro»cl.7 vordecl oppedn,
– 296 –
• aPO.aaa. On ,ti.e floor Senator Juuleal>erg eald, ••• 1llf.l, pp. 10,846,
,.,:watl• lb-. »aJ.l•• •• ••17 •n••’ aboa\ ,he ncce•Uoa• he ba4 ••• 1-
414 ;,., , ,apon later 1aqw.iJ’f, ooael4eP U ll!portat to pt \baa I.a ta t•?•

;;>·:_·. _ .. . ·,
of ii uc411eat, u4 ,-., b1 • taien,, •• la llaYla, the nao1•’1oa a4opl’4
•-•MD.UallJ la 1t1 erlgiu.l ton. la th• NOON itself• .ilJ4, PP• 10,848•7•
Seu.tor Morse ••’ torlb ln large par\ -., auver to Mr. l)ul.le•’ n«c••ttoa.
Seonta17 B7n.es a-e■tp.ecl rather •44-17 la Mrly 1947 and •• ••….,.
\7 O..eral. llar•mll. 1 ,..aeNlll rq nsipatioa to haenl. •r•Wl .·
•• •1.Uoate4 a vt.ll1DCM” to,..,. a vat.le 1oacer. l al• ea14 I wi•hN
aow to look fol’W.14 to l•”f’lac .. ,..,…., 1emoe. ,.,.,, a'”‘1.t Jue. a.
,,,. …… to •1&7 …. l r..t.ne4 ulll agut, ••rouchlT n.1•7111C the Wl’k
‘IUl4•• bl-. M., ell ft.re, Worl4 War .leeooiate, lobert 4. Lo••”• …. ia ••
‘OM.er Seonla17 whea Mr • .loheeoa lefl. Ir. Loni\ aeked u \o n-.t• ••
Oo• .. 1101″. Ba4 1 lmowa • wa, to oo• QC\ to w.a, • k take oa ,he 0..sellon
?p l •lcht ••• natae4; ‘bul vhea th••• pn-,eo,, b•oa• know to
• a, plaa• lo lean ba4 • •ta.reel \bat ll ••eaetl ao, faal’ble \o 41.••rt
tho. lt wa1 a pl•aue, howYeJ’, lo wol’lc vf. th liowtt qata, af-• ti.e
7N” ahc• 1918 at \’9 air ,..uu. at a,. laclwen, fraaoe. lh9′ llM W
aew ooe•• hen,..,..-, for •• ,o 01:1aactt oTer •• pl’f.ft,e llte. ‘ftd.1 •• …aeA
fna a faall7 ……. ,., ooapand llOW w1 ‘1a futMF P1l’bl1o ••nlM, •Cft\M
•• l •• to l•Y• ‘be 1a,ter.
4 re•tev ot \he propeM nw Def••• l>epas-••’ •ta’-‘•• whioh iael\14-1
\he laUoul .a.aovM S.CJUl’lt7 Jea14., •• aa4• 4unag thla perio4 •
. lae old.An• \rial of .-ta,t.,hop hepiAao •• -•IWT• I nuet\.t to
Ac\lllC Sec1nla17 Aot..1oa ta\ be p\lbllol.J’ prol••’ \lie \rial, whtn h• 414
la a ••77 eoo4 au.\eaenl. !be qu.e1Uoa ot aoaUatzac Mr. MJ-na fqlo1′ ••

– 297 –
perso,:,.al l’fJI)l’eaentati-ve of the President &t the Va.ti.can alto aJ’oae. ‘l’l,• Ad.m1a1t1trati-
0A wa9 aoTin.g to briag tht• •’c aa end on legal crouaA,. 1.’he
a&lter MIMI to u. 1 was WU1llle to ct ft approTal under the ttatv.t•• to u
indeti.n.1 te con Una.Hon of the erlt\lng al tu.Uon. ‘bu, ttNn&l-T vged. the
legality am dea1Ml)111ty of mrdntaiAi.ag the repnaentaHoJl tor \h? Ume
be.1nc, -pointing out 1nStr aJ.\a \hat wt.\bdrawal at that ttme ‘°uld d,v,, enooum.gesaent
‘° the Oorillll\Ul!sts in the oloee baloce of power then preftlllq:
t:n ltal.7. !he wt th4rawal •1- d.ela78Cl. So111e work wa.lil altto don• 4urb.« tnla
period. on Uie German. Japuewe and Pbilipplne prollleu b1tt t ehall not. p!’Olong
the notes b7 seAttng out thet. r details. ·?:ratel7 tnatecl e.N \be
ee••lon• of the hn•ral AHeabl7 ot the Val ted. Battoaa.
Oenenu Mar11ball am. Mr. LoTe” Md• a tin. team. the reeval alter
so man, years ot a peraonal aesoo1atlon w1 th LOff\t1 8lld the 1n1tt.aU011 of
one td th Genaral Marshall, led to Nl UMerttandi.nc of \he l”Maon• tor the
outstanding reputations thete men he,d acquired in th• .. moe ot the nstlon
and ot \he ti0J’ld.. 1 va• ‘IOl’J’7 to leaw.
Wh•• l entered. the Dopanaeat 1a Jue 194&, Alger Ile• •• 11111 \ber•.
My recolleoUon 1 • that he redgaed. tlw followiag laau17 19•7. l hllld. kaowa.
hlm pleaea.At11 for so11e 7M1’8 ltut bad aot ‘befol”e bee la the Mae clepartaaent
of goYermnot with hta. At San. J’rancisco ? bad been l•cN\a17-Geneal
of the Conf’•r .. noe itself, and. WA9 aot a participut ln lM work ot the
Alle1’ioe.n delegation, A.t the ette•1oa of the General ••••’ol7 ln Bew Torie in
the tall ot 19-4& ha 11as not a meml,er of the delegation bu\ -, 1’ecolleoUoa
1• that he parlictpated 1n the pre1MLnUona for and la the con.duo\ of the
work ot the 4elegation. Aleo 4u.e to hb posi tlon 1a the Depaniaeat I tffl
• sure he MU to •o•e degree e. part1c1pan\ 1n the -pla.mdn« et the Sen Jtranait•
• 898 –
• co J’urlth• aeetlng 1n. WaebiA&ton. ln. non• of thi• 414 1 aotioe or do I
recall the alip.leet llld1oa’1on. ot p,o-Co..,.11-. I ha.cl n•Yer heard 01″
1uepeo,.i Ual he •• or ba4 been. a •••r of the part7. !ha •ub•eqo.ea,, •·
deTel.op•nt1 reordlDC WbiUater Obulter, caae •• a. 0011plet• Ripriee to ••

aa4 l upeo\ed. that he woul.4 be able to 41.irpn’ff ,he ••••Hon• acata,,
hla. 1 wa• aeked ‘b7 b11 bl”Olher huld to be a ohano\er wltae•• at the
flr•I trial, and 414 so. l ••• N1′ tba, tn• rq close tollowinc of the
tnal •• \be ted1mov 4nelopK l feel the Juq ba4 a4eqaate baei • tor lblt
ooao1u1on ulUMtel7 reached.. I •• aot nbpoeMed. to be & vun .. , at lhe
teoond. trial u4 4.td aot fffl that l allev.1.4 ID ul••• nbpoenae4, ai,-cb
I hll4 4oae to at lhe flnt trial. the oa•• 11 a 117ater, to ••• II,- Jwlc.,
1a \lat if Alger Jfl11 414 aot tell the tru.th about \be • Uer – if he
perJve4 b1aaelf – the tn.th peri’!apt 1• that he wa\ vroag la \he lliddle
of tlte teooad balf of tbe thir’l••• recntte4 11, 11′”4 11 4owa S.n hl• ovri
Ute, ud w.a later uwllUDC to taoe up to aoknowle4&aeat of the earliel’
ll11tak••• So tar •• l Jcaov, nolhinc 4ero&ato17 oaae out, eU,ber at tl»
trial• or otbenr1••• reprcltn, hl• ooaaol la the 7eara nb1e41’leat to 191?
or 1938, ‘llnch he reaa1ae4 la ti:.. co••naa•\ for to 7ear, \hereafter la
ooa\ao\ vi. th 1mraun.ble people. lt 11 prola.ble l.bat Ille a11tata1, atlRlll-
1.Dc thq oocm.rnl, w:re •14 o••• fl”OII whloh he ha4 taru4 •WT au. whlob bt
11’1.ecl to keep lruiecl 1n the paa\.