– 2.J.7 –
• CoJll)eny rea4.U7 agreed., \eklng the potd tton 1 t d.id not Ylth to tey to hold
the la”1 to u acneraen, deeaecl wuaUafaotor7.

Then followed. a long negoUatton vhicb the Attorney Goenl placed in
..,. Cba.1’1• tor the Depanaent. t iaaidecl on Li\tell beln.g kep’ fully iMl•
vt•e4 and coatoplaled securing hie full a1aent to the tenat of a new acree­
aent. MJ’. ?•1th lane -pr1mar117 repneented the la.’97, capabl7 and paUentl7.
A •hod tors ot interim arrancement was prepared by •• and. agreed. to. In
tu end. a. full new agre•ct •• entered. into anct auba1Ued to the appl’.9-
priale louH Oc,ui ttee for ilepubllo knowledge and aoqo.ieaoeace l>etore the
.l:nouUTe bl’IJloh aooepled it. U •• a touch and te41o-a.e •••iguenl.
1our\eo 7•r• haft pa1aecl and l b&Te heard no crlU.ol• ot lh• outcome •
Aa a JOUC maa 1 bad been a dtm:,tee of Wlleon•• eftorh \o bring the
Uni Md Skte• to latenatlonal leadership. •• the Secon4 World Var :period
vas coming to u end. it vaa pod to tee the United State• aoTing etrongl7
ln the 41:reoU.oa et 1uch. lead.erehlp on a ‘b1-p4r\ian ‘baa1• ud.er Preeideat
Practicall7 all co-rernraent oasee rea.4:, for \he OU.1’reat ten of the h.preme
Oourt had been aublllitted. ‘fhue va• contiderable &4cl1Uonal paper
work but I felt freer than earlier in the term.
Soaewhat co1noidntal with the conclution ot the Daabanon Oak• Oonteren.ce,
ta which :t bad no part, and. a tev welt1 -precedtnc the Saa J’ranoitoo
Ooafer-ence, the State Depertment vaa conTel’linc an 1ntel’Dat1onal juri1ta’
• meeting in Wa1bington. llepr••entat1Tee oame fro11 many uUon•• 1nolu.cllng
– 218 –
• ‘ln,lucl, r,a1u,e, lelctu, Auetralta. Ohlna. South a.ad Oen,rel Aaericaa
ooutn.♦1, lneo•, Ute SoTlet Valoa., ?11C9alavla, Japt • Saudi Anbla, 1 … ,
ha?, 8″1• u4 PoluA. !he purpo•• •• to Nfl •• lhe tlatu\e et tu W.r14
CoqJ. -. that vbea tbe VAU.a laUoa• OoateNAOe ooanu4 thi• p”11-.r.,
vodt’ w”14 h&’t’e been 4oae. . au tut• ot the f1l-.re 1forl4 Court waa to
beoo• a pan ot the Ohal’MI’ of \he UAUed iiatlont. Mr. ? !I. Raokvorth,
thQ ..1 AAYi•er of the DepartJleat of S’6te, waa the Allert.oan ?epresea,a..:

H•• ,, tu InlenaUoral J’vl•••• Ooateruoe, ua …… ,,. obalJ!’IIU.
Baton the aN’1JIC9 ‘beau he aaked. •• to ‘be o .. of t!Mt ad•l••n lo ,.­
Aun.oaa NpteHAtat1Y•• HJo. llaakwonh .bad bal4 \he ott1oe of i…,.i Ai”tt••”
for aq ,,,, loapr I ‘bellne tball a,q other penoa. Be•• u a.\llori.ty
•• 1ate1’8a\lual lav, alllel’ of oae ot the beat lmow. won• 011 \be ftltJeet.
At l write theN note• (Aupat 19M) he 11 a um’ber of the World. Court 11• .
■elf… •• a ncoUa’cl’ h• •• alllple, clear e.114 1ma4oraecl ta aelhod. ot :pre­
••••s.oa. 4• ob&iraaa of the Coaterenoe he was retpttotec1 and aucc•eatul.,
bul AOt l l)d.Dk a, ••h becau•• of . epeotal aqo·UaUac capaoU7 •• \be
penuati•••••• of podUon• be ,ook.
JIJ’. PM.lip c. , .. .., •• \he o\!Mtr ach1,,•1′ to Ml’., Haokwonh. le alto
•• aa auUaen ‘7 •• 1atenatlonal law, w1 th a h)>llla\loa \J:lat vov.14 atuall.7
leaA ,is. s.,. hpana•• ,. look ln. h1t 4lNOUoa to,r ·••l•tuo• oa
fh• tact tbat Mr. laclrwnh was chainan oNate4 a IIIIIU.1 J)ro’blea a• to
l:low we a• hi■ adTlaen d0″14 moUon. lt vol’h4 nl pnt,,- well; all ef
•• ooa..it.et oa poinl• aa to wld.oh \be UnUe4 hale• •• 1’eq’GiN4 to take a
poallloa. Jlal post Uoaa of laport.anN would alto l»• ol•Nd. with 0U1er• .
of Ille »ep•••••’• and we ba4 \he help of a ttatt. la the ud. final 4eot-
319 –
• ston:rwre ,he reapont1’btltty ot the S.oretaq of State, ‘bllt a\tert vete
aot t?n up v1\h bla pertt0ull7. 1 kaev Ml”. Ball pleaeanU7 ht W •”
‘beeA clo•• kl w… •• had Mr. llackwol’\h, ta whoa 1 ‘Uderstud he plaoe4 j
cna1 deal ot ooAIU•••

· · )>for perbap• ‘”° week• la late Ma:roh an4 ea1’11 .April, 1945, ,hta ooate.–.
oe of npreaeata\1••• of eoae thin7-o44 t1atte4 la.’10111 •’ at \he
hp&l’?U.l kad.1 torlu oa Ooaeti tuUon ATeaue. 1’• proceed.lag• ven ooa-
4ue?M DR.ally I.a lhree 1a.., •• , au 10119?1-• la tlft. We NTiMt ,_
1talul• of \he Ooun. A npon wa• aa4e ‘° tu Su haaoteoo Ooateieu.
reoo….,111& acloptloa of ,i. nee••’- re’fi.alo••• nt on a tn •”'” tile
Coatenace ••1tte4 alteJ’Dlll1Te MluUoaa. 1 bttlieYe \hie waa Iba ftra\
lar&• ga\herlq of NpJ”eNDtaU ….. of \he t71d ‘-‘ la\10111.
We COAt14en4 the 1\ab.te ot the 014 Oov,, qa.1 te a luc\h7 4ooueat,
pa…,,h b7 paagrapll, &AA vo!ktMl \opt.her oa 11-ae ngge1tloa1 &n4. IIC>lifloa\
1011• the United Stat•• u4 other nation• cletirecl to a4ftlloe. !hen
were qa.e,ttoae abo11t a uUea aooediac to Ja.rieclioUo.n. ln a 11111. ,e1 -….r,
or vttnou, llld.\aUoa, bov co=,n•• ao, -“” of ,he United. •uoa•
alch’ u·renhel••• laYe aooeH to ,u Oo•’• liow MB7 Jwlc•• ••n dlu14 ·
‘b•, lwtv ,..,- 1houl4 ‘be 1.ieo,et, the prcibl• of 4oae,uc 1n nlaHoa lo ,a..:.
•••Hoa.al ••lttou, the 00,11penta’1011 u.4 \emre ctf ,11e .t,:a4.ge1, vhet)&e.r ·
tu Oou\ aboul.d ha.Te contlJmi ,,. vi th ,he old Oo11n or tbo1114 ‘be ooatt4ere4
an. Jlfhe\her th naae abnl.4 ruala the aaae. ‘ftwre wr• alto question• M
\o rt!fNHataUoa throv,h oovl •••rahlp of the aneral legal q8’•• •t’
,_ W.1’14.
Pnf•••lonal lleil la a ooatenace of \h11 tla4, to a 4.ecn• r••••
f? po11 Ucal coua14eratlon• – although of OOUl’N aot eaUrel7 ‘beoauee

.. 220 ..
tbl’?J”e•u.ta\iYe• are 1ntlueace4 ‘b,r the political o11aa,e and pol1o1e1 of
\belJ’ o•• cout17 — r•ch a b:road area of acneaen\ 1a wol”ldng on an. ln•.tn•••
O’i thi• nature. fh. re,reaeataU••• vorited. well toiether oa the wbol•.
So• … pre••’ bad area\ pn1Uce la lepl o1Nlet ot \be taternattoaal
oo.llda1 t7? So• .bad ‘b .. a … ber1 of the Ooun or clo•• to 1 t ln aoae ca­
paci\7. !bel”e was aleo 1111ah nev blood in •? picture as a ren.l\ ot \he
•cop• of the Second WoJ>ld. Wal’. d4 the 1a’ternatloul ao•eaent• couac out
ot 1l. •• vere all f1>18141 •••• ‘before the l>eclutnc ot the 0014 …. ltl-
4M411 1\ w• before the ueoJUlUtonal avrend.e:r ta Gena»7 a.I.Ill \he 4•1•\
of lapu. there waa a p•t –•UN ot aecord. ea\ a lack of ooa\n-,ertl’al
eplrl\. !here wen latellectual 41.ffereno•• oa 4e-.ll• to be •speoh4 ta
U7 .croup of 1er:leu.1 MD 4ea.lin, Yi th nob a pro bl• but there •• aot a
ooatroTereial ataoapbere •
The oonterenoe uftAl.17 •t il1 whilt atght ‘be cal.led a ooal\tee of \he
whole. !here were n.boo1111UteH on 4ratUnc ot parUC’Ola1’ 1n•on81on• ac1’Mfl
oa 1A pn.nelple. u4 otber oo•l U•••• 1m, pnnoipall7 the work •• ta the
oont•r•o• a• a whole.
Tou alk vb.ether la tene of won., ‘beta« bperteot tool• to OOAftT uaatnc•
w• raa tAto ceutn.otloaa aad ooacept• vhioh W. a apeo1flo IIMDlnc to
an AtJClo•Aaerioaa oouoa lav a,atea but ,rblch 41d not ftad an appltoal>l•
word. 1a the 001ittaental law q9tea. T••• l tb1D1t ‘°• but 1 don’t ltaov that
it wa, par’1oularl7 •• ,o dltterent .,,,,…. !her• vere ao•• 41fte?c••
to vtd.ah v• ••ll1 , …. ••••toaecl. for aupl•• u ANnoaa, .-ictac
ta t♦ne ot the “” of •••• • Oovt -,. -43•1•1•, oldlurtlF e,Mk• l•
t••• •? Jar1141olloa. Otblr •Uoaa are lln17 to apNIE of tile OGIIJ>••••
of the Oo\lr\. A cli ttereaoe at.cht an•• betvee a l&WJ”er aoC”Uto■ed to· ·
• ep•k ln teat ot 1nternat1oul law •• to the tacffrt esM11tlal to a .,._
U•??l.• contro••r•J, la oo■,panaoa vlth o,r coa,U..,Uoaal law. here
ver• ·? 41fteruoe •••r ,? problu of a4’ri.Nl7 oplalon•, but aot gill••
•••Oh•• there ttO’lll4 haft ‘been b•tore ve beOUKt acoueto-4 la ov eoutl”J’
\o 4eolarator,- Judpeah.

:I 4o ao, thiu the relaU••lT Jllaor role of the ooaU11eatal law;,er 111.
oourt follow• tale a oovt of thi• kind. Moat of Ua• contlneatal laque
wer♦. “4Akla, la tent ot the oli PerMAeat Court of laternaUo-1 J.-u …
vhloh -· .. , • hi.al on.fl ill ,u uwal …… fbe C&HS or41D&l’ilt cue
,., …. the aou, Oil ,., ….. aot OD ·••U•a, , .. 1A ….. ,. ?–
Oil IM lav•I’• M4e ,o lhe Goa.rt a■ ta aa appellate 00111’1. I 4o aot 1′ … a­
‘ber :aov AlffeNnoea cl11.e to the 41.ffereat tuaoUoea ot a juge ln eoattmW
l\u’op. an.4 in the Va1te4 l\at•••
There •• a feel.lag tUIOJlC eou in f&TOl” of the old coun, and there
waa a hop• altOJlC otl»r• of •• that in U1e future the Court vould be •re
lllJ)Ol”tut. I thneht thit old 0011.rt W fallell to plq \he role bope4 tor
1,. l •• not na to •t• nr••l••• too 1’lc141J’ \o vu., had cou lttiton
•?r l..,..ue 1 t )a4 ai,u 1-efon. I •• hopef,al t.be dearth of 1.lpOrlaal
pJtOl>l•• beton the old. 0.-Z.t w,1114 ua.. am then would. ‘be a ,nvt!l la the
ta\e–.ueu.l ooaamd ,, et a nle of lav whloh vo1&14 aake the On.rt a aiaA1f108Jl\
111a\ruent&U t7 tor ,he setU•ent ot eoatroYen7 ,,. peac•N
· aeaae. for till• reaeoa 1 4U. not waa\ •• Oo,al’\ to ‘be l4en’1f1e4 loo
ol.otel.1′ ln people’• alDl• vi. th the 014 •••• vbloh alcht 4etraot fNII 1 ••
al>lllt7 lo oo• 01&1 of the ,at\ lato a lateer aaoat ot .,lcial &0’1’t’l’1’.
I Wlltecl to keep tile leuft \■ of the old bat no\ 14&\lficaUon wt. th tu
tall-o.i-•• that tollove4 the JS.rat World. War •

– 222 –
!he wriUnc of the r-,ort was b7 a oo•Utee. ftd.e repoJ”t ooata1ne4
? ,teooaem.aUoa• \o \!M, OoAterence a\ Saa 1:raaohoo. Soae 1’flPN•••••
t1 ., 1114 l>•en a1etpei tna the Waahlagtoa ellbaaai••· l>itfenat , …… .-.1
vowll’Npteaen\ ,oM of \he ooutriee at So fn.aot.100, ‘b\lt a ,,,, ..-,
weal oa to the OoJ>.f •r•aoe ther..
S.Tenl 41ff1o11l, pro’bl.,.. were lef\ uaanawered b7 the report. I MaUoa
111:rff. One •• whelhff the Cout vae to ‘»• a con\lau.Uon ot t1-
••?a, Qoun of h.tena.\ioul Ju1Uoe or •• \o ‘b• a n.w Oo,i.t, a• l fa•,
Tcu•e&. S.oontl1, wlae\ller tlle atata,e tho1ll4 ooawa pro•l•loa for tollpQl-‘
IOl7′ o.1′ op\1ona1 .1U’i.U.ot1oa, •• bac1 beea wlke4 out bring the Uf• of \Ile
oltl. Covt. fht.1’417, \be MJIUP of aeleott.ag Jll4cea •• whether °’7 ,IM trat,el
laUo•• oa Nabatloa ot eo•el’Dllu,, or. •• la the oaee o.f the ol4 Oou,,
on nolllu.\1011 of natloaal cnup• lll4epend.eli\ ot &O””•nm•t•. Ot ooune tlMt
• vbol• eta.tu.ta wa• lei’ opea la a •••••• lecauae \a oomtttee•• ws vaa
onlr Feooaendato17.

l WDk oa reneou.oa Iba\ pi-obal>lr ‘1le npon •• ao, prepan4 ltJ a
OOM1 ,, .. but 1»7 tu npperiftl” of the Ooaterenoe n.\Jeo, to the approftl
la 4eY-1opla« tile ANl’ieaa pol1Uoa on the .. 1eot1oa ot .,,., Mi-.
lettl1J) aa4 1 OODeulle4 O!alet l’t.1’1oe l\oae ul l’et1N4 Cblet h•tloe lac•••
the 1a,ter of vbo• bad ‘b•ea a ••’b•r of \be old O.rt. Jach •• .. ..,ha,
nticu\ 1n g1rtac 4eflalt• adnee lro.t 1 thaqhl ntfiotat17 la41oa\e4 a
‘ri.w faTOrable lo aoa-pellUoal noaiu.tton•, la alcl of the 1D.4epea4.eat –
1a,enaUonal – •••’•” of the Court.
the ..-1•1’ with Oblef lutUoe liache• •• polcnut. W aewe 1114..,
oaM while we vere vl lb hia at hi• realden.ce. We had about coaolud.e4 ou
– 823 –
• 4hotiaa1on when a umber of the ate.ff of ht, bouaeholtl, a oolor4t4 ….. came
to •? door of the 1t”‘7 •4 •14 that Mi-. weaaaaa. Marahal of the lapl’III•
Co?,’.,.. called. lo a4’f1•• the Chief Juttlo• Iha\ Pre114ea, Boo•ffel\, Mt
41e4-•.’ · 1 need. not IA7 how 4Hp11 …aAene4 I ••· Obtef JuUee lqhet ,.;
Yiti’W.1′ af:teoted and 1eeaed reluctant to ‘believe \he ••••ge. He aeke4
the\ hla 1.areta.17 OI’ law clerlt, I am not n.N whloh1 be oalled vi \h a nev
to obecldDC on the r9J>Ort. Wblle thil vaa bein« clone a call oau to ..
tn? llle Depaittaat, req11••”-S1C that I retu.n aa qatckl7 a• poael?l•. 1
‘-ok ‘hla tnilNotl, to,. TerifloaUoa ,., ‘h• Pre114ea\ -· 49114 •.• 1’.
– –

lean, U4 I lef\1 J N\’a.alq to the X>ei,al’t .. ,.
Chlet Ju1tlae Bae••• a4Tloe on \he flU•tU.oa. •• I ha.Te 114loate4,
1..,. to•rd. ,he aoa-pe11tloal aetho4 of aoalA&Uoa■• I u mt IO •rW•
1 t vat pNferable. i lbiak 1, atght wll ••• ‘been left \o the .,,. ……. , •
to AOJdm.te \boa• to )e ooaa14ered for eleoUoa b7 the United Battoaa to
tbe Oourt. I do aot oon1id.er euoh a aetho4 poll Uoal ia o taT141ou• sea••·
1 ba’te 111,,. lboqM u-., ,he Pnatdea\ wo11l4 probabl.7 ‘be ‘bet’-r qaltfte4
to .-l,eo, .Aael’:l.eaa, \laaa •• ethei- aeilu ta th• eoul17. h., al lu hluloS.aoo
\M 014 .,.., .. •• .0.re4 to aai ., ova 4outa noecl-4 ta tao• of
,.·,.uuoa takea ..,. P••n11et.
letor• \:be ta,enaUoaal lut.tt•• Oo•f•n••• uct.a., •• I baYe tatt.
Pns14•n’ looanell dted.. We a4Jouraecl the Ooafenno• thtt attenoo• \he
lN)q ol tha peal aaa pa1N4 4ova Con1tlh.Uoa AffllU afteJ’ reaold.a, •••
1agtoa fJO■ wan lprl.Dc•• •• vet nt to ate.at ta aoleu tnlnll• •• U•
nae An.peel calaeoa -· 4rava )7 I vl ,h the Mr\1117 NlllllD• ot a ••-‘ fn-4
to •• uwt. lo all ? peo.ple. !be la1Un.Uoa• ta the lalenatlonal •–lty
which he enTi… •• la1’\rwaent1 of peace la Ja•lloe were ‘betac foae4
– 224 –
• at h• naehei hi• •nal Ulll. ‘Phe T01ce ot coura.c• u4 of faltb. w ha4
heard 1A Saa\& ‘le o••r aacl. aboYe the eta\1o ta •• lpriag ot 1933 ••
att11e4, kt hi• leadeJ’•hip had. brough11 u lo a beUer lalld in \he ••••tJ.o
ol’ll•r• while ta the S.aterna.\1oDal colllRIBit7 he bad. tak•ll up where WllMA
left oft tho•• JU.DT 7ean a,:o. 11.e 1Ji1Uated. agat.a AMrtou lea4er•hip.
this liae ,oward a n.oee1•M. con.olueion •
. ·fbe Codereno• at Saa Jraaolaoo vbloh bad ‘b .. a 1a.-p1n4 prt-.rtl7 bt
Pn-14..,t looaeftlt va• later ••• -,. Pre,tcleat tnmu. °’11” report b.
J)&J’t of the aceaA• of Oollll1.1tlon IV of the Ooatensto•. ‘fe tbia Ooul1•i••
wen aaa1pe4 \he lcal p•ltl … wld.oh ooatnaW •• Ooater•••• •• well
•• ••• othera. W.. l \ …. a4Ti••r a\ ‘1le Jvt.1t11 … -un, I 4o •’ .n-
oall .\ba\ I knew I wollltl also ao to lhe •• haaotaoo On.fe:rea• •• aa actn••••
tboqh l ‘\lllu it llk-17 the latt•r 4.etlcnatlon oaae aoawbat ‘before
• the Wathbc\oa Oontennoe ..a.a. !he Attorne7 Gueral a, one pola\ ••
thluiag he aight go to Saa huoleoo. ht \he Pretl4eat tnwaecl oa … beJ1
ot \he Oa’biaet, o\hel’ thu the Seor••J’7 of S\ale. parUcipatiDC 11-en. · I
1JMl.1oated -, lalena, lo 11441•• and • tel4 • \bat it he tU4 ao\ • J
wo.U l>•. ualpalel. fna ,i. »•r••’·