– 236 –
• 1n •? m!?n 17. Workiag that w.y, wUh the Seoretal’J’ of State a1 far •• I
ooul? ob••”•. ‘belac aa excelleat chalnaa, lhe 4•le&aUoa beoaae a tohH1 . .,.
CJ’O?,• . ‘ftMtn llNY la Sealer laadealterc•• al.ad. a1 the Ooat’eraoe pl’OCft.•ltKl•
la -, new. aon bopetaln•••• a n’b114lnc of llkepUciaa. le lleoaa• a.a a4-
•ocate .ot the United. l&Uo.11$. 1 d.o aol aeaa he upected 1, to aooo.111pll•h
MN than l\ -· capable ef &CC()l’llpli•hiac. ‘but that he \ook a realhtic

Tlev of •ha\ l\ could acoompliah and came to boll en 1n it, to ‘belie•v. t:bat
JolniDC alMl SllppOl’Un, i\ -· rlghl. !ld• V&I a tnuph ., eal7 ••• t …
11, tor npt naaoa, b-.1 alao tor ? \l’M41h ot the Sualor, u4 of lhe
Pnai4ent la tbe bn,a4 u.UoD&l. foud.a’1oA lie ca•• to the 4elepUoa whtoh
•• to budl• tu Aat•S.oa.n po■lUoa a, Su »nao1100. On41t l• AOt due
pruoipall.1 to Seu.tor Vanclea’bers, ‘but to tho•• vboH potl Uoa ha oaae to
a4op\ ae hit ova. It is a aiatalee, l \ld.ak, for hi•\ol’J’ to ciT• pr-4.oai.naAI
.Dll’IO!Oll OJ LJOAX. Dtns101 OY OKOVS .um LIGAL .urnm
l • .tppotawat a• Dil’eo?i- ot Leol Dtnstoa of
PJRUS DM LtCt.1 Mn•u: IA 111\ka: hnmr
A.■ the we-l’k lo whloh l vaa ueigul 4nv ,o u en4 at Saa huoiaeo 1
thov.gh\ I abould re”11-n to Yath1a,,aa. Mr. Johll J. Mo0lo7 bad. ‘beea lJl
\ouoh wt ,h Attone1 General Jid4le a’bo1lt allltlaa •• to co to Oel’IIIIJST •• hea4
of \he Leal l>in1toa of tu l1ai tecl Sbtea Offiae of Mill \al’J Oonn.aeat
a.ad aa Lecal .A4YS.aei- to ,he Hill ta17 OoTeraor. Mr. 11441• oollllmJicatecl
– 237 –
• th1• oTer the 1>hoae to me, tolloved. b1 more direct contaot between Mr.

Mc0101 and 197aelt.
lef’ore Pr•elct•t BooseTel”• d•th ln April, 1t eeemed ta, l woul4 be
offered appolntmu.t \o ‘b-he Oour, of .Appeal• in \be Dtdnot ot Ool’O.llbla ..
‘!’hi• poseibil1t7 •• 1Ull open, aacl there was also the quesllca whe\hel” l
oould or should reaain a.a Sol1cito7 Genere.l. 1 oame on \o Wash1ogto11 an4
talk-1 vi th Utorne1 General deatgnate !om Olartt, w!lo then was .not ao\uall7
tn oftloe, a• l naall lt, b’G\ had been no.S.mt.t•d. He 1nd1oate4 he \bought
I oould. l’emaia aa Sollcl\or Geunl lt l 4et1re4. I fel\, hovffe1″, \mt
the 1retd.dut pro’ba\lJ vnld with to -• a aw Soltot tol’ OeAeal, at be
ba4 a aew Attornef General. I•.,. eYU\, I thought that it I wn tonmairt.
in \he ao•eruen.t 1 •bould now either go to 0.l”ll&Q’ ol’ co oa ,he ooun,
1f the latter va• aUll a’fft.ilable. Chief Ju4r.e Gnn.el’ had. urged M to accept
appointment to the Court and l:la1’0ld M. Stephen.a had a.l.M noouraged. ae
to do IO ..
About a •• ‘b•tora I was to re\’IU’n J.pes oaae \o San J’ra.aat1eo. It
•• aa opperlul\7 tor her earoute also to N-Yillt Senta J’e. v!Mtr• ehe
tpent a week at \he lloae of Mr,. Uesasuler am •nJo:,ed Netag ap1a 11’1-4•
of our flrat arri.S. 7-.n. l.o• Alamo• •• \hea a 1171te17 to S.ata leaae.
It wa• \he scene of an uplosion vldle ah• ..,.. \hare. Mre. Al.uader cau
Oil to San ‘J’ranc1100 w1 th Jen••· to \he …. d.lq of her MD. Laqhlla. 1’lllla•
Be.rlte-r, her hut’b&nd. 4o.rinc ov.r yeara 1n Santa. J’e, and Ldcblln’ • father.
cue sepa.ra\917. ’11 ot U!I attem.414 ,u Yer., beauUN “44lag at the
Catholic Church •na:r of \he Sea,• Ju•’ ouhtde the Ott7. Acn•• an4 t W
pleaUAt •111 \1 vUh Will. too. ftiat w could. not all be toge\her at the
as.me Uae vas ead. !either Will nor llrl?h (Mre. Alaunder) nel” epoke to
me unk:1.Ddl7 of the other and I never knew just what the tl’Ouble w.•.
• AaA•• u4 l retuned together ,o Wa1h1D1Clon af’ter “‘I ow wn: ••

t1nt1W.. l vnl.4 ha•• UJce4 to 1ta7 to \be eA4, ‘b’I.I 11 w.e aot • .,._ ….
MA 1,t ….. i..,,.,. ta Yln ot \be obaaae la the WaOS.actoa soen.e to law
wba 117 o- 411.tle• were ooaalwl-1. If;, tlater laah ba4 coa• to Waebt.apoa
\o look after ,11. obl14na ad. U• bou• while Ape■ •• ••1’, a wq alollltag
for .ber \o do.
Hr. ClaJk told•• .be Jcaev of I.he ‘Pl•• whlch bacl •\ve4 ‘before Pl’e11-
dea\ Joo••ftl\1 • 4ealh tor a, appot.alaeat oa \he Qo11.rl of .Ap-peale. ‘fb.e ap•
potataeat W bMD helcl ap beoau• of uoenatat7 ta ,u Pnaltlat•• aia4
abo•t a n.oceHo1’ •• lolt.ot’«>r Oeanal, laolwllag lbe •••Hoa whether 1114«­
S.. Jo,euaa atcht ‘De 1P1KJlated.. Clas toll .. Jae telt ooJd’14ut that. t.f t
ctealNd Pnn4a., huea w0\114 car17 ••• the plaa of Pl’•a14alal loo1nelt.
Bcn,eYer, ,i:. •”•” ••••1″ r•ohN. a point of tla41ng out whe,her thi■ ••
d.ef1a1 ,.i,. tn.e ‘beoauae I 4eo14e4 ta U1′ •TeAI to 0011pl7 wt th the nq;ueet
Iha\ .. 1 eo \o GeraaD1′. the War llllpan..,, va• anx10111 that tu daft \e ol’­
,-1.a-4 •• Pl’OIIP’l7 … po11t.ble IO ,m., oh1.U.u■ wllo WN lo bea4 ,ap ,_
lepl. work ta feJ’IIIUlT eo1114 llt \hen •on.
I 1114 W ao lallatio• J algh’ ‘be a,act ‘9 .. to hftllUll’ u\11 aeu
\he ea4 of tlle Su. haaolno Ooatenaoe. So 1 ba4 ….. • ty,eolal ■ta.ti••
ot the p:roblea1 ud. ha4 •’ ,… lravn. la\o prepaatloa of &DJ’ et tbe batio
4oO’Uell\1 for ld.lilar.r &O’fffflNAt’• operaUon• ta hfllU1′. 1 NM•ber on•
Ca’ilJMJ\ •••Uac when \her• wa• a &••n.l 411n11Soa of vllat atpt \• ,..i:,
oalle4 a 11.aA tor GerMD.J, la•• horeta.17 llol’l••’him. parlloipat-., lnlt the
a11-.1toa w.■ too general \o ••• • aoh Jmovledc• of 4et&1le. After 1t
-· 4eo1u4 l 1bollld co l -· cha lhl plu for •”’47. u4 had. IOM 411-
ou11ion1 of 1 \ v1 \h Mr. Jto0lo7. One ot \he thlnca lb-. ‘MoOloy aa1d. •• tha,

– 239 –
,ia ,?•io AS.nett•••• hanh — l 4oa•, now lllat he••• ,m, eaot wo1Nl
— ‘b’lit tl!al lf l :read 11 O&l’ef\1117 l wul.4 ••• lbat ta oe:rtau. retpeotti
,-?•r •• 1’00■ fol’ tle:at\111 ‘7.
l •• allno,ei ‘6 tl• wlk. 1’ voulct. atton as oppor\ult1 to •DPI•
41r••ll7 la t).ae uauaal oocupa’1oa -probl••• follow.lac uoond1 ‘1oDal avremer
of Geraar. Mr. lCoOl.01 tboqht lbat it we 001114 nooeed. S.a Gerau,
la ov rela11on• wit? \he So•t•• w ‘lfOUl.4 nooeed gtael”8ll7.
l ltepa to •ea111, 1 a tw •n. et -, own eeleo’1oa ‘° 1,:zppl•••’ alll•
tar, pT•l’DMA• peraouel alnd.J’ ta Gena-,. •
.l\ a pe7aoul ooatenno• wt lb t he Pree14•t l pn lda ay nelpattoa
•• S.ltotlo1′ 9-eral 17al nge1tecl u., he 4o aot ao4ep, tt. ual••• i. fell
lt n.••••17• ua’11 I !114 baa la o.,., a ••Ill er 1ls •••• Be tia14 he
woul.4 follow -.s ova w1 •he• ia Iba.I recan. u4 hi 414 eo. la faot u vu
ace-s>t-4 b7 the appolataen\ of Mr. J. Bowal’d MaGralh, Clo•••r of lbo4e l•land.,
•• -, auooeasor, ta Sept•’ber or Octo’bei-. At -, Tial, vi th the Pre1t-
4eat he lll4loate4 be ba4 ottefl4 lbe Sollal tor Geaenl•hlp to .Tud.p lh•naa
MS.atu, a lol’Mr Be•-.nal oolleap.e •• oa \116 Qom of Appeal• tor \u
SeYutll Oil’Old. t, ia l&t.r r•n ‘9 )e appolate4 itr t!Ma hee14eal •o ?
8′:lpna. Oovt. 1, •• ttJ’Oa,17 IIUIONll aflesP l waa la o……, Uta\ ,.,.
offloe MA alu lteea \eA4eN4 to GoTerno’I’ Bl.la Amill ot Geor«ia, wbo ht.4
4eolt.aa 1,.
Whell I •v lh• Pret14u\ la 1″417 he ha4 betui ln off1ee abou\ \line
•a\ha. Abou\ a week laler, la 0.rMAJ, l wro•• thla accou., of t’be “1•1. t,
wbioh I ·’1d11Jr co111&la1 aol!d.q of a ooafldealtal uaaoters
0A \he ftmn&q lteton 4epartve. uw Pnllteat !.-…a u,4
hud.ed. bi.a S7 le\ter of Neipatlon. I 1&14 U111.I •• he mew l
•• l•Yll’lC ln \be oapaol\7 of S. G. (Sollot.\or Oea•ral) nt
thought a s. o. should be appointed reaeo.nablT eooa. le •1d he

– 240 –
voul.4 bolcl \be reeloaUon tm\ll l thou.ch• proper, ti., he
wi.W to handle the aa Uer •• l wale4. I 11&14 perhap• a
··– 01′ •1.z wee• -· -., tbouch,. le ta14 lbat -· all right,
· J•’ he •• leariac for t.i:u. ‘Ilg fhne• •••lD& (he 414 not to
plla.1• 1 t) wo1Sl.4 Mt lie baolt for ,1x ol’ leftll veek1 — vottl.4
aot amaouoe the r••lpation. uUl hl• ntln’L !he Preeld.an,
•• ••••• look«\ well aa4 apeke abeut the pro’bl• et Genaq
at •• lt».c\h. Be ••– ummll4 an4 colleoted, tpoke freel.7
u4 ti»,chttull7. U. aeattoned t!MI 1aea1 ot a v.. s. o f ?••
but added that oal7 Moe bad U been &UUll)te4. 1)7 Caeear uct
BeU7 IT – both of who■ .. , uaUllely 4ealh•, l1»111t1t GeraaD7
•• out •• a threat 1a &D7 nen.t for eo ,eara; I •• with hla
l•tw• ao aD.d. 25 alaul••• L.11 .., letter ot redpalton. and
uplalAed. -, po1l tlon repnUnc \he aee4 tol’ a S.llot \or General
Na•••bl.7 eaoa la JuU•• to the vol’k. • • • J rual’lct4 al>ov.,
t.ba •• vork ,i., I felt • -panlaala• ooapekllae for. Be u14
to pt \bat ••• o.f a, 111ac1. that he vovl.4 aot ban aaaA ae to
4o 11 lf he h!L4 aot lbitqht I ooul.4 4o it. I epob of -, feels.a,
aboul lhtt otft• ot tlellollol’ a…n.1. tu pnnlqe of N­
pre … uac the P•o»l• ‘iefon the Ooun. a. ao-eect. le.14 he bad.
-,okea to Jwlge Mlatoa re takl.a« the o fft09. ‘bu\ he 41.4 not wl eh
‘° do ao. le walad lo ibe Aoo:r w1 th • aa4 Yiehel •• well la
\he work. l vt.1he4 hla neq 1W:10e1e, ••nUoAiac particularly
\be COiiine aon.t•r•••• am said be •• 4otac a fl.n.e Job. to
vhleh bit nplled that he bad cood. adT11•r•, 41eola11llag peraoul
file allDOWlc … n\ ot .., aealpaent lo the fel”Jllla vortc wae M4• at ••
‘lhlte Jl,us• •• tbo11«h the eeleotloa had been by General IS.aeabove1•, who vaa
11111 \a.17 OoTenor, vhenae, a• a •He!” of tao,, t!le 1ele0Uon had. bMn
aal.e la lfaalAgtoa, t.boll&l’l perhap• lt ha.cl beea ol•H4 wllh Oen.•ral •••haver.
Geaenl Luolv.1 D. Olaf. Daput7 MilUa17 loTernor, I feel n.n ••
ooa•ul’.a.. l had not had U1′ per90Dal coataot vl\h Oeaeral •••&bower u4
saw Ma for \be ftr1t tt•• i n lul.7, S.n. h1• office la Jn.nktD.ri.
•• wen fortunate, lndeect, la ,ti.e aHoclate 41reaton — Ju.c• J.
Watte WA•, oa leaTe troa •- Oovt of Olaln, ud. Kr. •ran Phlqer of
San haaeiaoo. Jv.ctce Wclea, •• the•• n.o\e1 ••• alrea4y lmlcat-4, va•
cball’llllll of the latloul lra’bor lelatlon• Board vhea I •• lie general cousel.
I ba4 \u great••’ reap•ot tor hi• a’btll \7 u4 oharaoter, u4 ••
– 241 –
• tond. of bia pereonall7. :t tblllk Mr .. Phleger ha4 bean 1nt•re1ted t,7 Mr.

KaaloJ vllo khw hla well; b,al Kr. Plllep:r 414 not wl•h lo Co vithau, r,
p•rJOu.1 approftl after l •• 4eelpated to head. the an,vp. Ile … ea ‘°
Wathtactoa a.ad. we bad a Ylal ,. l urc..s. lda to co w1 th ••• n.o• oal,- oa tlMt
••S• et Ml’. MoOlo7’• reco•end.aUoa, whloh va• •er7 h11h, but on the baala
ot ., own. appraiul. ot ht• and the 00111Nt.nd&Uon.a alao ot lb>. Jacn• Me7el’,
of \he lla.ahla,toa l.t.al, alao • pereo.nal tr1&Dd of Mr. Phleger. He oal.1
naalMI 11&Ul J>eoea’b•r. Jla44•a Ntaiaed wo•evbat loncer thu I.
l wtll _, …… ,. all ,ia • .,oa ·- •ho Jolaed. ,_ ,utt, 1Aoludlnc
Mr .. Phil .. of .., own Sollol tor Oueral’ • ott’toe aad. …. fal. oi•r• fra
\he .,rlau\ ot lueuoe. J.ater on, lb-. Al:na J. lockWll, wt.th whoa l
ba4 b-.. aaeoata,et i:a. pTenaea\ writ 0TH’ a aualter of T•r•, Jolaed u1
am la\•r \eoue head of 11\e weal DlTiat.oa, •• alto M,r. Mad.tl•a 414 for a
vblle. lookwell’• faaU, Jo1aecl hta u4 he naabe4 ……. 1 7eare alto-
Va took off tn• \he Waahl. ..- oa Af.rpori l’fll.F 1a,11. Ch&rl•• oaae to
\.htt altpol’t •• npnaeatat1Te ot tbe tua11, lo 8″ •• eft. .&pee an4 J 4e­
ol4e4 t.bal was ,. b••’ -,. lbe aal l ])&rt.a at the hpan .. , of J11allu.
l bat a talk with Ohal-lH ….. , hit ·- tuta.n. He M14 ,_, he atlll ta-
, ….. ‘<t ‘It• a prl••’• whleh. Oo4 wllltnc, pleaee4 • TeJ’J’ n.eb.
We lu4e4 ln. levtou41.aa4. the AIOr••• Pari• ana flull7 •’ Strut:tu.r\.
la Ol’Ot1111& ,..o., ‘beJ’OM Part•. W onld … ma.eao• ot …. Aet\1″11.0Ud
4• to ’11e -.,. l>v.1 ao\ • gnat clnl that I ooul.4 pick out froa ,iu. air.
AIM1 ln \be ‘brief U• 1, took io lr&TH’ .. fru.oe 1′ •• lapot.t.ltle to apl)ftl••
the .t..ptftoau• ot all tad ba4 oo0’0.l’N4 ‘•” the la1\ tw 1ear1 •
– 242 –
• Ge11.eral ’14″Ward o. Jetta. the ibeatr• J’Udce ailTOoattt, met ue at the
Ya? Airport an4 took ut ‘° hla ae’8.bl1aluleal eu, eoM 111.1•• from·.?.
ot\y for our ftnt Dilh’ ta Gena:q. !be 4e1\ru’1oa al’O? haaldu.r•.••
••• U wae eta.nliJtC to ,..-. in the light ot our ovn N110tea••• tn•
nob a retul t of par’1cd.»aUoa in the war. A.a w •• out in.to the •••rr•
14• toward General »•t••• plaee of re1lctece the 4eetn.ot1on •• aot to
ob’riou. Man7 people wr• wond.ac in \he fleld•• moe\17 olcl mu aacl wmea.
Ou la,1udl7 ner eaw a 1’0UC … am the road.a were alaoet eaUNlJ fffe of
lel”llllD Yebioular tnffio. !he,e ven JIIU1′ ‘blo,-J.es.
‘ftse Oeaeral, alone wt ,a other Aaert.aaa ottlnr•• llTecl ia a re•14•Ual
•eoUon &’Ud.414 Md wunule4 ‘b7 llar’b••wlff. !he bo111e vat N.J’
pntutlou•, well ftu’A1■W. a.ad vell appo1aW.
!he ha4qWLrter• of ow work wae tbea a’bo,1′ \ea kila11eter1 otd troa
• 1ruJd’un1 at &Jch1t. IU.11′-t:, OoYeftllNll\• OMGtJ8 •• 11 •• oallecl (Otflae
ot \be Mill tart GoY•l’IIMAI, Val tecl State,) 1 bad \aka OT9:&” the l. G. larb•
‘b\\ildl.DC• tare. ‘-•• ven q,ute •••taaUal ud la pod aoa41Hoa, al,…
aot a• •:d•■l’N ud. aeAea •• lit. lnd.ltlap of tile ….. oe..-, la
JJ’Uld’tlri 1,1elf t vMob were \MA haenl aNAbDwr• 1 hNAQU.nen ••
Mlllta17 Go••nao• u4 haeral of \ha ooaapattoa •••••

•• nn Ii•• offlo•• la Blohst u4 vere woa blll•t• la a llou• .,.,.
114• ot Iowa, wltll a oar a, ov 4lapoeal. W.clea, Phlecer u4 1 11″4 toget.-
r. We an4 lbe other lav.,ar1 wbo ad. ooae with•• wen ,-ol’lce4 lato ,-.
exl1’1lll ailltaq pYenaeA\ ••\altlltblent u4 oaae ud.er \he 1111184.tah n.penlttoa
of Geural Olq. ltip’!J.17 Ml.ll tar, Go•tnol’, 41reot17 n-,oa1i”bl•
uAe.r General Ji aeabowr tor 11111 ta17 connaeat. hael’fll It 1•hcnr•• thea
•• JM171nc aor• a,tenttoa \o ,he pro’bl•• of t!Mt •IIIT•

– ?.43 –
Although-, oev fll’O,tp of laWJ•r• ba4 aot bN11 a part ot lllll\arJ’ «oT­
enuil•I ve were con.le.117 ve1ooae4 b7 the flae otftoer• who had •• late·
lh• &l’ltt. tna otnllaa l it• and. bad. w allltar, pTenua, tn.lnl!J&’ …..
,11e a.neNl Wtoker1haa pziolft,II.
fh. whole of OMOVS •• mk:111& 1 t • plaa• ,o ••• to Berlin a, \he coaolue101t.
ot the Potad.aa Coafereaoe, whioh w1 ,o actti’f&\e the tour-powr
goTeruent of O•l’IIUI’•
l>a.nnc the Pot …. 0.atenaee, Ju■Uoe Jaettaoa •• in Load.on a1 011.l”
pnaolpal ueoua,or of tu la.true., wbloll , …. bova •• tlwt Ohaner ot
the later:aaUonal “1111&17 tn’bual. I •hnl.4 •7 here that \be lecal wdt
of vhloh X •• 1a olarce 414 •• lD.Olud.e to •»T 4ecn• \he ‘h.Naberg !rial
1, .. 1r. though va 414 help ln ceUlnc the trial Wld.er wa, vlth Oeru.a oou•
el tor \he aoouaed. a.D4 t a a au\er of o\her reap••••• Mr .. J’uet.1M JaakMa
ba4 at.1 ova 1epan.t• ozpal1a’1oa. •• 1 go alone 1 “111 pro\a’blF ,otat oul
toaevba I Jacn, O\U’ work beoue nlale4 lo or ,..,oht4 hS.1. o.ir orcaat••loa
wa, HIJ>o••lble tor ,11. Val’• l•te• lepl. wrk of IIM oooupatl••• u4 ef
•• eoTerueal •t Gel’IIUJ. o\her ,. \he ?•rs ,rta11.
Jv.1,1oe Jaoteoa, t.n t.oDd.oa, , .. , won ,1aa, be wl•bel Genen.l Jet•• ua
.. lo .. ,, hl• la BerllA. le wl•hed \o take a4’t’Utage of the p•••••o•
tl:Mt1’e of ,h.tt 1retltent. the S.ereta17 et Stale ( Mr. Bnaea) • 11»4 Mr. MoOlor,
lo ltdng lhe• -a:p ta ct.at• 011 lhe •tata.1 of aeeottaUoae la J.on4oa, vun he
va1 ba’f’lllc Utflnlt7, pnao1,a11, ‘•••” of \u Ion•• potat ot new, \v.t
ao\ •aUnlT 4ue to the lonet •

– 244 –
.Geo.el’lll »etls &Dd. J fl•w t,o Bulla in Gea•Nl Betti’ plane, anl•lo,
1a tbe aft•noon. We wen clriTM ou, to \he Aael’loall ip&J’ter1 a, Pole4all ·
u4 . \MN ‘8t Ja1Uoe Jaokle11, who ba4 flowa on• fl’OII Loa4on. Tb&\ •ffllhl
,:•,i::;i .
n •., , vl\h the leonta17 of su.,e aD4 Mr. MoOl.07. A• l recall \he ••ttl’C
w.1 p•r’1o1pa,e4 in ),- Mr, J111Uoe J’aak■oa, the S.ore\u7 of State, lb. Mo-
01.oy, Mr. Jame, o. J)aJl of ihe Dapartaen\ of S\ate, Oenenl Beus, :perhap•
Mt•• Katherine 11 t•• an4 IIJ’telf.
Ju•tt• Jaokeon nplatae4 hit pn»’bl••• ‘1t.e J.oad.oo •ecot1aUoaa wen
‘8ld». loager , .. •• beal.,,, • wl•he4 to ooaalt ,u S…tar, &lto•t
Arawla, th• to an ua. 11 po1t11tle, ‘b7 ,aldllC a •”• “1.pro111 aUl twte.
Wht-1• lle ,… auto•• lllal lb.e 8o1″l•t• pantctpat• la Ille trial. tben •• a
….. ?10• MW tar the Ull1 ,_ •• ,.. tbnl.4 UV &o la •ffldnc …… -., u·
\be ..,.ouatt.on• ooaUrme4 to be protracted •
t don 1 1 rellellbel” \.bat he ladtoatad. \o • uq 411h.r’ballce o:a. b.11 pan
\bat t!M la.1eiu1 alcht ‘be •••tac eoae parUcnslar acneaent al 1o\ed.aa b7
……. \heir heel.I., Lollldoa. Be dltl aq the ·••1••· ,,.,.. reluohal ,.
)aye •• •• Au proo••• or pnollv• •• w• 4eat.n4, talclac tu Tl.,, ••• a
pell,Utal 4″11loa bM1 ha 11&4• lt7 l•lla that tbe1e aa weN pU ‘7 •
. Jao1£Ha •• ellOO\’I.NCel ‘1’ Seontar, l7nee to••• ht• l•■’ Jwlpeat,
wl th the fall IIIPfOI’\ of 1’41 goYel’UUt. ? ow pot1 ‘1oa. whioh I espre1ae4
•N hl.11′ to J’aoteoa pereoull7 tbaa 4urtnc the ooat•n••• va• tba \ he
1ho11.lc1 pn•• pntt7 lla.rd. tova1’4 a ooaolueloa, nea 1-f tt •ant a nb–Ual
,uea, of hattna \o oead.11.ot tu \rial wl lhaut tlle SoYlete •
.u o,ar uett.q wlt.b lda the leore’-.17 speb of the paenl alwa\loa.
1 no.’i-4 l,.a,hr 1». penonal aot•• tat he ea14t ••• will ••’ eaorittoe Olli’

– 245 –
priaolpl•• or ln.41 \ten,.• le •• coaaolou• ot •• futlun op1Alon ot the
wol’14 ri,-rU11& the poue, ot tu United. 8’61••·

! •• ?1′ b•tor•- OU … u., wed. ha4 l°MOhe4 ,., …. ,_, ,_ ?11
CO”Nl’U?I _}84 fall• IA the el•oilone. Nr. Ohvohlll hat left Po\14. \o
noe1Te the r•nl•• l11 1Dclan4 u4 vo’lll.4 no\ relum. Mr. All••• vho. W
b•ea wt Ill bl• a, Polad.M, NUiae4.
The nut d.a7, w •r• taken oa a tour of Berlin. The d.eatra.oUu ••
… .. … ?-1. !hen a4 ‘bea a temflo UDUI of ttghUM •. — ..
,,,. plao•• •• ••• to 8’.U•r’• Db&aoeller., u4 to lll• Mer’b7 u1-.l”OU4 _
C(ll&l”t•l”I whir• he pJO\abl-7 .,., h.l_• latt •-••• “• •• the •uh oa
vb14Ph he •• nps,oucl to 1-N tbot ldllHlt. >loelalata• wal”e aUU •?, _
lbe -plaee •• 1n 41aer4•r. that pan of Jerlt.a •• the patnllel, lt o•
ooul.4 oall 1\ lb.at, ‘b7 Sonat \roope, a few atbllr aoD4eeo:r1pt-looJdac
tol4l•n •IMAlnc al’O’IUl4. u, pq-1114 moh ••••ntlea ‘4, vho •• eolac la u4
out. fhe7 414 ao\ preeu.t a ••n a:pp•raaoe. Ia \he llla8’\tate ana were
one ·•r two el-4 a’ball4oat4 l»nt4ava lull•• wacou \bl.I had beaa 4rawa ol••
wp lo llU•r•• h.ea.44l’l’U’ten. la ooa11n.•• vlth ,ld.1 noaAeaori:p\ olla,.o,er
of …. lanlu a1117 puaoael ,i. rov.te• to Pot … Ina the •l••• wn
palftllacl b7 ••etu. aol41en vi th tpll’l, u4 d.leolpUae. the lone, MA
alao ‘bnqht le lei-U.a a oorp• of J’O’GJIC la.aatu. woau who dinoW trafflt
at kff’ latereeotteu. fb.97 wen ••r’17 ulfon.el aa4 41_4 u U11a1111l &D4
ul•• .to\ ot traftlo oeatnl. uaaTennc ••rtl7 vUh 11,,1. nae••
So• NWB• •• h4lJ ou\. of oid.••• In tbe oea\er of ,he 01\7 tu
o4•r• wen N4. fber• •• a ‘be,tuiDC of oleaal»c ,ap of tta.e rul>le. J&oat
of 1h11 workers wre . u4 old. -. We tbo’DCht we tnew w- lhl• •• tO.
The 70vag men were •Ull pJ’laonera of wr or dl•J’JNCl •D1′ foro••• ••
tbe7 were called.

• 246 –
Derlla •• a ffl7 upre1aing place. !lle d.ffatt&Uon. •• in atan coatai\
with n14enou et Ille alpt of •• Jf1 U•J’ reel••• aov 1a ftla■• !be
4••b!aa,toa ••• so extutl” on• oollld ao \ help voa4ellq wliJ” the Geaan1
1114 ut anemtere4 eal’ller. It nit ban ‘beea appanat to the m.11 t&r7
lona ltefore aotual •?rad•r that Ille -1 “1&’1oa va• bopel•••• ‘h7 ha4
‘been taJdq a tea-rtfto beatlnc. the situ.tloa al&ht J:iaye been. lllOS”e oltnou
to \he olT111an• than to•• alll\ar,, bu\ S.t 1• a 1t111r.ige coaeat oa the
vbDle Sltlel’ regtae tat la tae •• 81.\lel’ pen1,w hl• OOUl’lt17 lo \• •
•'”,,. • enea11•el7 w.b.ea lie au, !laft lalowa. ha•• \ho1’0-.b17 l>eatu.
ht lhea of oouee 1- 4t4a •• 11•• to •”• to verrr a)oat 11 ue111 hl• ,-oplei
.tae appann\17 4••’•714 hluelt. too.
· la .,. oplnloa ,m lana’berg \nal va, J11e’1ttllll. l 4o ao\ recall -,
if.1ou.1eic,11 aaong ov•el••• ot \naUnc tbe w.r ortaual• •• 1.-poleoa, fol’
…,1.. had. ‘been treatecl. 110r a117 dleouHioa to the etfeo\ tbe tnal• ven
iaetruau\a to Jv.1tlf7 polt.Ul1all1 vat bad ls••• aahieYe4 aUltaril7. !be
Gel’IIU 1N4er• had \ND \elcl ,,. wul.d. be irlel. la the 1Co1oev Deolaatl•••
•• ·tu17 a• 1941, \liq ven warn.a. ,,.,. w1114 ‘- Jle14 aeoou-.’bl• ••
vu fP’.’lalaal• ftr all’Oet.’1•• aa4 ” forth, lea1 ‘IJefoN hftlibel’C• lt l►
…… ftx91 pollo, et t>a. AU.lee, Nn&lal.7 of,_ lJat.W “•’··· ,., ,,
w.r onalaal• wul.A “• \rt.S u4 pul1bed al onat.N.11. then •• M
4ef11L1\ioa \hen ot the -prooeclure to be attop,ea, lnl\ ou ••’ r•-lJer ,.bd
tbe tld.age 4oae b7 Jfl \ler u4 hl• rectae nre orlm.Ml. lfe apply ,he wort
•orlllbal’ ,o an 1nd.1T1411111 vllo Tlolai•• the law ‘bF a’-1.lDC • loaf of
land ♦l’ a taall na of •aq; the tb1Jtc• \heee … wh &OO\l8114 ol hlq
were 01″1.IIUll.l. the faot \bat the7 aetll4 on a ••al ft aaal.e doea ao, Mb
th1 • l••• tne •

• 247 –
La,lnc aa14e tu qwtdioa vhetber a Juet1oe of ‘lhe Sa.pnae Oou,
•bov.;Ltl l’aTe 1’•.a ,e1 .. ,ec1 •• ou.r J)riaolpal pro .. OlltoJ’. the Prealclent la
••l•cstlac JaoklOa •el•••• aa 01d1tand.b.c au. a la,,,,r ot gnat oba!1’0Hll
u4 eapaot. ,,. 11a4el’ Id.a l.•r1htp our coYenau, wned. out ,he bt•naUoul
Cbarl•r wbioh ffell’1aall.T had ‘he adlwreaoe aol tl11pl7 of tu four
alpator:l•t ln LoD4on. but of eoae ,wea’7 od.4 u.Uon•. Under l t the1e ••
W1’1 lrtllCl vi ‘h fat I’ prooecla.re.
l\ 1• -14 the 00114.’leron ver• \lie trt.en, N ’11.at the \l’lbual w•
ao, tllpanlal. fben le … e,hl». lo tbl.1. II w1114. be ltettel’ lf I a• l
t.hlaJt ,he Sol7 rathel’ tla• polaled OIi.i aen r•oa’17 • ,here were a cou\ to
coa4uot. trial• of t!d.• o!lanohr. “‘ up la a4–o• u4 aot ooapoHl ot
npl’eHntatl••• of tbe ’11.olon. Allho’llah tht1 ontioia ot lvea’be:rs •• ••
1ub1\ua. 11 le aot ntflolenl to baYe w.rraalt4 olll•noa to \17 \h••• aea •
!be trtlnmal •• 411ortalaaUna; 1, •• aet a polttloal court. n r•ohe4
cllfferu.\ Juqa•I• oa the baei • of the 1’11.cl•o•• ftl8 CO’f’H’Uten.t of the
1Ja ltt4 •••••• vbioa pn1eoa.te1 a orlataal, l• the eaae eo•eftmnt tbat
appolat, the .,….. tld.• 1• ao• (Id.le a panllel a,uatlona but la ?’1••
‘1111 for tile ftrn H.11• la blat.17 auh • tl”lal eou ••• 1n’UA W to ••
,, …
·fhe araaaeat acala•’ bol41nc hM4• et ••’•• nepoa11bl• la.., ‘lin ••
aaawncl ,, pola,1ac 011, \bat \he u .. hall coae whea the la\enaHoul ooa-
111111 ‘1’ aho’Al.4 4eollha,e wba\ •• due •• aa 1a,ematlonal ort.ae.
We Ao DOt llw la a pel’feot vorl4, ht I l>:d.alt ,u hN••sa eaterpriae
•• eotm4 la l lcht of tbe pn’blea. flw n14ea .. •• oTerwhelatDC – I••
ao\ tpeald.AC DOW aa to •oh ln41Yl4ul. W• mat 411Ua,al•h \et..,. thu •

– 248 –
l’N.t tf ve an \o pu1ah people 1a ov olTili•t1011 thea ‘lhe•• aon”4 wen
ai-.. trlll>J•ot \o p,uu•hllea\ lf p11,1 of \be oba,s•• ap1a1t tbea.
LO.unl 01.q loete4 to•• ,o ake anaageaeal1 to• llut ooa’1J111&tt• •f
WI”·;?•• \rial• aft•• \he ooaolueloa of \Jae flnl \11 •una1teiw trial
… 1″-,Ju,1\loe Jaokaoa. ftae •1TU&-••• bad. to ‘be 1164• vell la a4’1U?• •t
\he ooaoluelon ot \be •ta \rial to ta\ wha•••I’ •• to be re11poa111:Jle
would ha•• an opporta1,1 lo llold on ‘° ••ber• of lta.d1ce J’a.okt10a’1 ••ti.
&eaeral Olq W ••• lo \he ooaolu■toa — wt.,11 vblah l va• 1• .,.,.. … ·
ua\ — tbat •fler- luaUoe Jaokaoa ouplele4 lhe ala In.al tM orp.1d •?
Uoa to CG toJWftl wl\h olb.er tnal■ 1JwQ14 k uah!’ ttJe IU.ll laq h••ner.
ralllttl’ tbu ooa’1au •• a npanle Ol’IM1•U•• epenUaa 11.114•• en••t.••
older ot tlle Pnal4nl.
l wn tecl Mr. Jruol• N. Shea to ‘– o••r ••r• luUo• laokeoa wow.4
lee.•• of’f bu, be retu-ua to •• 11alte4 Sta,•• ud. lla4e h1a1elf 1111aftllal,l•.
U thea aeeaecl for a while Iha\ Colonel Vllllu Donoftl1, who at oae time ••
pan of the lu.naerg gnvp, voul4 4o •• ‘”1\ 1a Use eml he •• uwtl.U.ac.
I lhea learaed. llal Coloael ‘feltord !Qlor, aleo part of \Jae 01’1,U11aUoa1
lllahl 1,e wllll?. l lallcel vt.,11 ld.a a ma’ber ot UaH u4 noo…a.4111 ld.a
fol’ a.ppoialant. l\ ..,.ntaatect tba, .u , ….. Ille ohlet pnaentoi- oa \ehalt
of \be Ua11e4 ••’•• n.btequat to \be ta,e,aaUoul. \l’lal. la all of
\ld.1 ,here were •n•ral lr.lp1 lo la.realtel’C, where 1 kep, la olo•• \ouh
wt Ut lua\toe Jaokua abou\ ta\ure pla••• !be •”•r ha4 to ‘be won:e4 oul
alN wl\h General ••”’• wbo ooaterncl vt,h hul’lll aeeuovel’. W• lat•r
took wp \he ttllal plan• vl lh hll•ral hl-11 1111 Ill, and he appH•-• Yathliacloa’
• approftl. lAOllUU.ag lat of the 1041• ••••• •• l J’Nall, vae also
• nec•••l’T ‘beoauee of the aalure of IM Jackeoa

– 249 –
· the qu1tlon hd ,o be u■wre4 whether the n.’b1equen.t tl’iale ehoul.4
be tit.tenaUoul e1′ toaal. v1,h the approftl ot lullo• Jaoktoa aa1.. aooor’:l1’&
‘.\o .,- ‘beat neol.1.oUoa, with bit ,. …….. u •• tt va• 4Hl4el
that ao fu\u:r tltal• oa u latenaUoul ‘-•l• vo’IIJ.4 lite held. While lu
‘blc lrlal •• ,o go fonard. wt\h the oooperaUoa of tu tov power• 1, va•
1lll1lbl7 11\l.Oh coop•rat1011 vovl4 oonUme … at la1t l \ •• nelt1. I u.Yl
•• General Ola., to the aaa• etf eot.
• J.aothel’ que■tloa · of ,elt.07 •• whether the f11.”1N trial• allolll.4 tao1114•
11411a1na11 ■t1 aa war mat.u.11. l tbcnacllt ••• ul••• ‘bJ acn•–• ..,,.
haao•, lacl•• ua 0UM1n1. •wn••• l t ft1’M4 ••’ ••? …. 1114••ll’laU•
t• wen \:ff.el \7 the Vat.’414 Stat•• b4-,ell4eat11 ot tile po111loa of
lraa .. u4 Jri u.la.
· I thoul4 aenUoa tbat Oolonel Ohlllrle1 1a1na:a, a 11.ghl baJUl ef leul’:61
Jett,, lbe theatre Jwl«• a4TOoate. worked olo1el7 wt.th •• ln aid.AC \he a.r­
nageaeaila for ,u futUN am. made a aod w.lu.ltle coatnbuUoa. Ou.em
Jett, llla1elf pert01111ll7 parUolpatecl, an4 Ooloael Cla•4• I. Mtoul•il wa•
al• ooanlted.. le•• th• ia Oba.JC• of U&e •n onllod.oz var 01’1.111ta.1Jl’O-­
•–•ioa1 -4•r the artlel•• ot var, apal’t tna the luab•rc Obal’tel’.
Coloul fa7ler tel, ttaa, lf u •• •• \eoo• ehl.t VDJ.W l\a\e■ ,.
crl••• Npt’eeen\atlN he al!ro\’114 b&Te ’11• n.u of a 1••:ral. I acl’MI allll
took \be aa\ter up with OeMral Ola.,. a. pnf•rNi t!lat 1 llllke the nooa..«
a\loa 4.1noi to the War Dapar\aenl, d.ue to penoaMl pro’bl … of ld.1
ova. l vroie 41reo’17 to Va4er Seont&J7 J>atlereoa u4 the pN•\1oa ••
llllcl• aftlla?le.
•• vere •’f’lq toftlllrd. 1• \he Legal J>lnotorata of the Ooati-ol Couoll
in BerliD wlih Lav lo. 10, a co111pl’ehenat·H lav dre.tte4 largel7 \7 Kr •

– 250 –
Ph1Qll” to OOTer the nl•• au. prooedv••• coaai•\entl7 ,,s.,h the lveaberc
O•?r• fol’ var onaea Ml wlthla ‘he A:rtlclee of Var. ‘!hi■ va1 to b• the
law itor oar Zell•• u4 we al10 n11&ht 1,e appl’OTlll for 8-l’IIUJ a■ a vbalit.
; •., , lt ?llbta..i the troelHOe -….r,hiy,1 i,ro’bl••• a.’b.-.t whloh l w Nftn.1
oonf•NDoea w1 th Justlee Jaakaoa a.ad other■ at. h1’81Rbea-g. ‘W• 1011Chl lat••
to aJlell4 :Law 10 lll thl• reapec\. Maber1hip ia tbe Baal Part7. or parl-
1laal OJ’PJ)1nUon•• wat d.lftenal troa 1n41Tld.ul cull’ b7′ aon.duct. l
voll14A’ \ vu, ‘° talk pntea\lo•ll7 about \bl• ta• noolleoUoa, bu\ the
Oha1’ffl’ .,..,. the oovl Ju1t41otloa k ttt\4 ol’IUlattna ort.ld.llal v:Ub •►
mac n1pout\iU.t7, •• •• llNnleh\, of ortld.aallt7 lllp1da4 to … ‘ben.
!hie •• a aerloua p1″0’1.•• fro• Ille 11udpotat et AMl’loan ae–,Hou ot
onlllnal reapoali’btllt7. What 1 would like to b7 •• thla U.11e wl.\llout
golaa ‘ba.ok fal’tber lato the record• 1• tbat l thlatc 1bit problea w, largel7
1 f AO t eall rely aol Yed, a• tar at we were ooaMrned, \7 the D.tnasitloa Uoa
Lav of Ma:roh !th, 1946. latel’ Nlerred \o aore tol.17. h1lt ta oo-.ouea
vllh -b•nhlp -· placid. ‘bJ \l’.la\ law OJl aa lml’rid:ul keil tor 4•o1•l••
,, the •1’1.ltunala Al up u4el’ ,bi, l>eas1floattoa le.v. Jleal’lnc• el’ trial•
oa ta. ..rlean •14• la lbl • oo•eoUoa WN hl’Sel.7 left to \be 4uulf1-
oattoJi proCJ’Ul, vlNn 1114h1.4’Ul l’Hponal\lll ‘7 vu ,. 1taat.o \e1\. I\
ooua ltaok to • aor• olear1, •• I \egla lo .Uc al>oul lt \llat 1 -‘• a
4et•N1aed effort lo gel the aeabenhlp pn’blea late the 4eaa.s1ftoat1oa
pro,n.a aa the ul.Uate aolw.tloa. !here lbe lllll1Y14-1 001114 ha•• aa 1a-
41T1cl’Ul beannc.
!be ooun• la wbloh Ille ao&al trial• wl’• ‘° kb ‘Place wen author-
1•• uall•r Coatnl Co’U011 Lav lo. 10, vbla •• put la ettec\ vbll• l ••
• ln G9:raaDT. !be 1ele•Uoa of tu Jude••• ho,,.,.•”• •• not uadertakea ‘baton
– 251 –
• l l•tt. la fact the lureaber, 11’1&1 1t••lf 414 aot eJld un.Ul after I left.
the·? Dln1ion ot M11Ua17 OoYel’llllet I think particrlpa\e4 ta lh• …,.
1u,soa of J\’Ldcaa, aatl the Was- l>apartaent la Wathllll’o• •• aoU•• la tie1p …
izac ‘o\ta.1.a Judges te Co OTel” &114 preaicl• ner lhe1e n’b1eq11c\ tl’lal.1. Mr.
Cbar).ea &,r.t7, wbo ba4 &14-4 Juatioe Jackeoa in peracuaa11l -.ttera, alto
1111tated JUl.1 \a.17 OoTel’U•nt 1a ••cu.ring Jude••• Be 0011.sul tad •• fro• ,1 ..
to tl• al’.14 1 gava ht• vhat help I could, ‘bu\ I dtd not bear aq ot t1-
‘Dftll1. &tier a:,- l’e\un. of 1.ieot1nc these 1au ….

ltt earl7 Ootol>er, 1941, l •• in tov.oh w1 th JueUa Jaokaoa a\out the·
opelac la Jerlin of \lle ••Nllberc• ,na1, aob.e4\lle4 for Ooto’ber 181h. It
ta ao\ v.ftal.17 naea1,eN4 \ilat the covt fll’■t ooDYeu4 in. Bet”l1n, •• in.
hrab•l”I• Jacteoa ud. o,hen ot bl• gn,;rp &l’rlft4 Oeteber 6th. Be aal
oui- 014 friend. huk: Shea e\qe4 vl\h ••· (A nu TO-« prl-.te followed
Jaokaoa around ae a lloqgu.rd. Be alao atqe4 in our hall•••) 1 m•t eq
the plu• tor the fts-at ueUac of ,he Oourt ven .,.’f’014abl7 oonfu.aed. a
lt1 ,. Oa.r ollfl IJ’Ollp la JeJ’l1a cll4 a ftne 3o1, ot pu’llt• thlac• toptbe:r
\.beff. .!he Oovt 1,1e1t ha4 no orcan.isailioa au we npplted. \hi1 laltlal.17•
an4 la pu\ tber•fhr.
n.a Jaoktoa arrl Yl4 Jae vea, t•e4ta\e17 lo •• •••Hae of tbt Oht:et
hoHcsu.tor1 \he la ••••ton al \he Allied. Ooatnl hlld.lng. Re lad beea
4.tqed. a 4a71 but a1 l noall lb-. St.4M7 Al4el’IIIIA, o•• of ht• prlaolpal
11nt … n\•• •• oa bani, •• well •• Mr. Sbea. !o coapllca\e ti. pl’O\lea,
•• tort Obs.et JueUoe of Jaclu4 ha4 oo• to hrlla an4 a eoclal &a’lutrlna
bl4 beea an-anpd. la hi• honor (vh.4tre l •• -, aev oppoal\e froa ‘• ‘Oalle4
ll».4o•• MJI’. Jfacaekle). ‘lbe Lord. Chief JuaUce,.. ,., .. ,, w leanie4, becauae
Jaekaon dld ao\ a:ppea:r at th• p.lberi.q, due to pn11Ure of otber

utter•. li•miAI ot the Ohlef’ Ju•Uoe•s UDJ’easona’bl• attUilde Jackeon
n.eTerli.l•aa went ou, ot hl• -,. to be oour,eeu• to 111a. Aft•r a 1.a,e
ai-.•r be weA\ o”le1 to a:, offloe and oalled the :Lott Obiet Juattoe. fte,­
waa •·ueal:tle phone la. ftl” bou••• !he•••• 4q be uv hta off a\ ti. .All’­
pon, Md all waa well I appose.
!here wa, \be bu1lu11 ot gettinc ‘\be lndtotaent prl11t?. u4 ti. dela,
la \.he Sonet traaelaUea, eto. In 11\e ■eu.u .. laokeoa vortr:ecl 1• a
•”’47 at ov boue. OA Ooto’ber 8th 114.dl• an4 famr. t• Aaerioaa 1114.c•
aa4 aJ.ltnale, anlft, vi \b Bowe. Weollaler a.all ¥dpt? la cord’•Nlloe• l>e­
tw.». Jack90a, abaal&dor KurpbJ’ Md. 1179elf, Jaclrwoa lll4tcatea ti. AMrloaa
Ju4ge oucht not to ‘be Pnll4at of ,he Couri beaaue of Jack1t0a’• owa ,,.. ..
d.omuat pan 1n ethtr aepeota of the •1• \11111.et’taklng. Ve ?• an4 l t
1a 4eo14ad. that I aa to •et Biddle tm4 Parker a.t the airport an4 41••••
tb1• v1 t.h tb•, whioh l 4o. 11dd1• tea41lt aoqv.1e•o••• On the 9th the
Cov.ri 001We1Mta in \be Allied Control hlldbg ader tbe Preaideaq of Sir
llolte.n L&VNnoe, ot JtDal,ud.. . 1ndiotM!lt ,,.. pre•en.114.
0v aad. tt&Utt lo the Oovt wae .,, elllll… We wre aaa4 \e •’b-taln
oo•ael tor the aooue4, vhf.oh ve 414, vl th ,-. to pq t:bea, ua ,a.aa­
pos-taUoa, •to •• – ooaaNl of the obolo. of lboH vbo withed. lo ollilo••·
Kr. Diouaa, Oolo.ael •A’L-4.oA &ad otbere 414 laftl11a’ble vol’lr 1a thl• ad
otiler re-,eoi, ln helpt.q tu Dour\ ••’ u4er -, at hnaberg, 1Dol’Gl11111
the -,pplnac of a olen: troa our 1tatt, Iha ooapet••’ Mr. vtllq, \be,ach
he•• not lhe penau».t Olen of the –•’b•l’C Oovt. Be later ‘becue
01•* of the Supnae Oov.rt of the 0.1,.i Ital••• At that tise be wa,
Depu.\7 Olen of \he lapr•• Oo’l.rl and aaae lo leJ’lia •• par\ of our C1’0\’IP,
on le&•••

– 263 …
One of the ftJ’I’ 1a,ereeUnc pertonall ‘1•• whoa I •v at ‘1••• ta h.nahq
•• fr. lilll1ul4 •• Wal.eh, s. J. • ot leo1’aetowa UatTenU7, wbo
llelpel lu•’1H laoJttoa la pnparlAC a pan ot ,i. •n et the p:roa..,tto••
•• .. , la th• tnad .,.i U4 he wae oaoe al o,ar bo111ebold ta hrllD. 1′ ..
•• alva.,e pl-.u.nt to ••• hla. the Gra.114 a,,e1 al hn•b•rc •• a taa1a.:
llo plaoe tha — pbJ’11eall7 4ellro7ed. in parl1 ln part rebl.b1lltate4• ad
a\ao1pheri.U7 well-ni&h l!Mleaoriltabl•• •• •• ae •oh ot tbe eul7 occmpaUoa.
Potl4aa ao,1uw tu .-ar1,arHM ce••nual of Gel’IIIIDI’. hue•,
althlrql:l aot a 11.pa,ol7 of tu Po,tc1u pretoool, •• glYe a soae oal”h4
out of ,he »nll•h u4 ANrleu sonea. 0.J”Jlllll7 •• thu tl’ri4el talo tou
••••• aacl. Berlin into to11.s- •••tore. fhere nre hov.ee4 ln. their eneral
•”‘°” ,OftJ’lllleAW bo41•• of the tour count1’1••· !be 014 oov.rihou.••
when lhe People’• On.n l:a4 llel.4 forth ua4•r lU.Uer va1 nhabUS.tah4 ••
the All.led. Ooalnl Aa’1aol’lt7 hll41ac. the ?llll&Uoa vat u–,ll1W.
pnarU.7 ‘b7 aeneu -1•••1″1na an4 elller ,….,.. the tJa1 tel ”•’••
ao’f’e4 late lerllll ul .,, lld.11&• pb.,daal.17 la Oftel’ 90 ,_, tbe Al.lte4
Ooatrol n\borl’7 aoul.4 operate pJ’OlM!rlJ’. .11 \he Ooa,rel Author1’J h.U4-
tnc lbe npre•entaUT•• of the tnii &’Oftl’llllellta •’ to 4eol4e apoa the lav1,
or41Jlaaoe• and. 41NO\l’fte for Ge111&»1′ aa • whole to lte aante4 oat la ••
un.• ‘bJ \he npn1eataUTH Iller• ot the soul •ttoa.
On our aide wa• ,11e MUS. ta17 OoTenaer • Geaenl 1:1 •.:hover •, tl “‘•
vttb Geunl. Olq D.pu.’7 IIU1′-17 GoftntlU’ au. la llllle4late 4q to 4aJ’
oharge. 11•a.howr r….S.ucl t.11 Jl’&Dkta.r,. Ola,- va• 1n ll•1″11n. ltHDhower

– 254 –
oaae· ffe17 ••• .., for the ••ling of lhe four MlU. ’41!7 Go•en.on. ooaeu ..
tuilq ,a Ooktrol Oouo11, to ••’ oa •”•1’• vbloh had aleaNd. “P – \blta
thl’otaah the hpl.tl•• – •• Oool’d.laatlng Ooll1d ”•• — am tbe »lreotorat••·
W1 \h 0.aeral Ola,- va1 lo’bePt D. Mupl9′ a• Poll Uoal .U.Yleu u4 pl’laelp-1
Npl’ff•al&U• of \he Depa••–• of S\ate. !llel’• wn 4t.Ti1io•• of
Mill.ta.17 GoTeruu.t •- Iba Po11Ucal l>I.Tl1toa, J’tMD.oe Dl’Yition, PNCluotlon,
tnb•tl’T, l’allpowr. Leal and. ao forth. depart•••• rough17 ooapani”ble –
tho•• of our eo••rma•n.t. 111 th11 •••• the Leal DlYltlon •• the hpart- ·.
aea.\ ?f h.•H••• Oar legal arowp ao•e4 to lerUn ln part, l•dac 1a t:U
so•• 1he so•l ol’CU,1u’1oa.
!be Ooatnl Oo•otl ooa•l ••• onctul.17 ot Geaefal Dwight D. 11••howe:r,
Mar•hal Q.ncorl I. Zhllko•• 0.•ral Benard Moat.,•17 ua O•eral
J’o1e,a Ma:rle JlaD1 loeat.g, the tour llllUa17 lead.er• at tbe u4 ot the
tightlag. ‘fhe orpaiuUen \hea dropped to tbAt Deputy 11111 ta17 Go’t’ei’lior
leYel, 1•1’11114 the Ooord1na111ng Ooal tlM. lelov \ht• WN tbe qna4rlpart1
te Dlnotoratee, n.cb •• the Lepl. Dlreolorate.
!he Coatnl Couoll .. , oalJ’ ffU7 , .. 4&71. !he Ooor4laatlnc Collldtt”
.. , ..,. • .,,,. two 011 tbH 4AF•• tt.. l>lreotoa,et .. , .,. ofhaer •• a
nle. Propotal.1 tor ,ti. &0••?••• of hl’IIU1′ ol’41ar11J’ wol’U4 11P lhnuch
a Dlrectoate te tha 0oord.1natlng Oolllllt.,ee aa4 11 tbln appl’0″4 wnt OD
u» agenla of the Ooall’Ol Oouao1l.
fbere weJ’e 1peolal proble• ta eaoh HA• vhiolt. alght of oour•• aenr
1’eaoh the Contnl Oouaoll l•••l.
fhe ltasio polloy clociment of the tfnlte4 Stat••• la a441Uoa to ,he
three-power fotactaa Prolocol, w.• kllewa •• Jolal Chief l\&ft l>lreeUTtt 1097
• (JOS 109’7.) !ht• •• lhe to-call.a Morcutbau PlAn, la.ota• •• U1′ partl•

– 255 –
oui.r to-aa..ua, oould. be sa14 to be. Certain o,her clocuunit• v•re 1apo,….,.\1
ooh at \he 4NlaraUoa of lu.e e,h ael’llld.nc control of all l•niaq.
·oa, l.ecal Dirtsioa •• •’W.lY14e4 lato 1eottoae; ll&•N nr• a Lecal
Mn-. or opialon eeottoa, a1’alla\le for optaion• ‘° all ot Vat tell $1al•• ·
allt \ar, co••na• t • a Juclioial S.cUoa w1 th prim&r7 reepoael ltili \7 tor ev
p•rU.clpaUoa 1n th• Nconetihlion of the Genan Ju41c1al •711••• a Pri90A
SeoUoa. rHpoaal’ble tor \he ada1alalmtloA of Genan prit0a• ( I •• fortua.ie
to ha•• lb•. Jaaee l. Jeanett, tblm »lreoto• of the fe4eral pri. …
ln tlle Ualtel stat••• lo bead up tbl• seotlon lalUaU7) aa4 a War Orl••
S.ot1u.. ‘ftle latter va• …. ,,bat of a llltDOMr. 1′ ha4 to u vlth Mll1-
ta17 Qoyenaeat • • napoaal’blli ,,. la ooueoUoa vi th val’ orl•• ou’914e U•
hrelibeq orouusaUon \U:14er JuUoe l&Ok,on. ltt talk• ven ooaelden.bl•
bu., 414 not 1Jlolwl• trtalt; Uae ••oUOA 414, hoveyer. help hnmbe11 1• a
nwib.. of WT••
!he proTlaloa• ot tbe Po\e4u Piotocol and of JCS 1097 were 4lnde4
uona ,. l>l’ri•ioll• of Mllliar., Oot’HUeat ‘° a4atal••··· Lepl I>in•loa
waa al•• ,e-,oallbll1 t1 for oena1a pro•l•lon,. a1 wll •• ‘beiq oouhl
a• tJ wen fol’ the other l>1Ylatoa1 an4 for the 8oftl’II01′ aa4 lleput1 Go••rnor.
Jud.p Ma44m veat aMe.4 \o Bei-lta ae the 1pee.rbea4 of the Legal J>tT1-
1ioa. le oall.-1 •• fro• lerlln in earlJ 4ucn•t. (It we a cleeperate lla.•i••
H -..tt.a•• to ge\ • call thra,agh.) Ge:ael’lll Clq, 1n. Jerlln, ha4 pn-
1eat.ecl toa• cp1eetion• oa wh1oh 11 vaa thought J eboul.4 paH. General. Jehol•’
plaa•• ‘bricht, new aa4 4elue, •• ••’ tor••• Altlaovch l bad beea oa•
to Jerlla to ••• Juatioe laok90a at Potadaa, 1bit •• ..,. f iitt\ tl•• at \be
UD.ittd State, oft1oet of ORGUI, ta tba old Gena.a Air 111A11tr, vh1oh a
• IIVU’JI of vol”ll:aen were reba”bilttaUna for u•. ‘!be pl’Obl … eon.cemed. the

.• .
– 358 –
? propel’Q’ NaOftl ••’•”• Wien, Wsoa an4 .l put the paper• la ·
Iba ‘f(>a of a l.av vi th a OOffl’iDC lltllO for ha•nl Clq ln. t lu tor ·tha .· .
… ,uc ot the Oeon1na,t.nc Coal””·
l naa1ne4 la .Je.1’1111. “• ttrd a\a,-.4 al \he o…-..• Inn uUl a•
ho••• v• ebo1e for ou qa,ari•r• va• babltable •
.l n tom• ao\ea -.4• aloq a’bcn,t 1h11 tl•• 1 tlnd lhe tollovt.1111
·’-· book ot ftl’ prop•al• to’f a. O. ( Con.,rol Couotl) aoUea l•
about lla1au4 la 11• tlret fora, tlae ••lUuoh\ propert;r lav 11
-.1•?•• i.,,.■hla ‘-•• tu lallAM e1late pn\1•, llaM••
Di..•• al. 4o a coo4 Jo’b ta \be 41noUoa of 1ele0Uoa of
hnu IO’f•naeatal oftlolal• (latte• Mt.at.■117 aJl4 lwllet.al) I••
eoael4era,s.oa, aa4 after ov di1A1111••• Phl … r aad m. … 4ntl
a 14eoaJ1ell•’1oa• ••••••• 1 \•11 .. • la .,1,. of all tbe
bucUoap• lhl• week ware ‘beli,md.ac \o ,et Aow. ‘° d.olng Olll’
pal’t alone ,1ae llu• ot -, a\alt talk tbe 1••• lah.1’4.q at … ,.
Nore td.H of Me4 of aoooapli•bllenl ha• lteen. oreatect. Ma44ea
an4 Phleger ••• raov \a.tea ml4 of apeoltlo U4ac•. 1Ul4 W4•
thl1 weir: ba• been eepeo1a11,- 1-lpfal. •••I ha• •••a -.oh
110n et Jerl1aa lnlt the 4eep hpNalloa ot a bacllJ’ beatea plaoe
peralata. I t•r fo7 Iba winier. n would be a ai•lak:a to le\
tu people ftlfer too •oh lt we cu Mlp 11. Jlealth coa4lH.o.n•
vt11 ‘be MA eacNCh w1 lhout Mln:h1. tloa an4 oold. Wl th the alo■-
lAC of the,,… .. war pel’.bapa we e&a 4o •” t.baa ….. to
ban ‘beea plaJmecl.
a. ha1&UeU1a Imam
Pan ot the 4eullftoaUon. polt.07 l• ••• forih la ,bl,.,.. ……… ,
u4 pan la oar owa lout Chlet■ of Slaff 4il’eo\1••• In c•••nl all••be.ra
of ‘• lasl parl7 were to b e bpl ou\ of Genan llf• lA d7 pedUo.a
of NlpOatlbt.11 \7. fhl• •• a -.. \llllllerteldnc. ‘Ibo•• oo•ere4 v.re biokea
d.owa lnto oateceri••·
. !.be Pottd.a .&cneaet 1 taelf pro’l’14•• tbats
••• ol’Ulnal• aa4 \boM wha ha•• pal’Uct.patl4 ta plaanlag or
aan,lac 011\. •11 eatel’pri••• iaftlYiac or nnlU.nc la atnotUea
or war on.a•• 1bal.l ‘k arret\ed a.net ‘bn.upt to Jwl..-?.
Wad led.ere, latl•••ISal 1&91 npporier,, u4 h1Ch otnolala

– 257 –
ot ••1 oraanisatlo•• aad laat11u\1ona and all other peraona
. -…rou to \he oceapaUoa or lie o’bJeotlTe1 1hall be arre••
. tft &il4 1:aluaed..
-paAUr t•to•lbp•hn\ to fia t heltt J aaalot lhnrtl\Jet w •boball ha ·r’be eb •l”flll0• •Te4″ t ro\haaa p aoultlatinalo
· u4 1Nd.-pu’bllo otfte•• a4 tram pos1Uon• of n1po1111b11U1 ta
lllporian\ priftle uclerieklllc•• lllch penoae ehall ‘be nplao.4
‘b1 per,oaa who, b7 their polUlcel ?nd moral qaalt\1••• an
4eeud oapable of •••1•t1n.c 1n d.n-1.oplag geaulA• 1’elloon.Uo
1:o.tlUu.Uons 1a Germany.
Dil’90’1T•• W lHten p:rffiouel7 pnpare&, alto, “1ta apeoifS.cattoo ot
ca,..-n•• lo ‘be an••’• aac1 1atemec1.
·’ftM •arre1t” oa.lecoriee pna•ated. a eeriou s,n’bl•. A \r–4.eu
aa\e:r of anedt wen-,.. ‘bat IIO dJepotlittou ef ,., oaua •• 111.4.hate&.
ezoept aa 1io var cl”lalAfll•• IA whiob. eTct \lw orialnal• progma appltecl.
!hen •• DD 1,-st• tor rn1ev, 4t.epo91Uon, or ooneaUon of erl”Or. .W
• taai.11•• wua ao\ eren nqure4 \o be not1f1e4 of anetta.

I look the matter up vi th 0-.eml Olar an4 euc.geeted tba1’ renew
‘board• be “‘ up \o re’riev •••• oa an 1n41Ti4\Ull. bait•. October 4th 3-enl
Olar C&T• u lhe 10 a-4 1lpal. We ••• to wrk lo bl’f.DC ,11t. I probltia
bto leli•a- poaUloa. laolwUrc aottoe to f•S.11•• vi.a ane•t• ven ….
rm1loa of ar:reat ••eaort.•• la llchl ot eecrapaUoa uperteace, •• rntew
‘6arcl• to oonatdel” lacllnt•l … , … ,. an••••
1′ •• dlff’icalt \o ,., the HY1ew boal’t 1191• la operaUoa, b••””
of poor co■-aioaitou u4 tna8J)ort.Uoa aad aleo ••oaa•• of oollf\laloa ia
1m •?•s.ac 110M\htac aew S.n a •••ral.11 4elaplda’84 &e••rnaalal •1 ,-.uoa.
loa1’161 Wft 11’&4uall7 •• , \tp aa4 , … to NltaN … vho abould no loJ’IC•I’
be u,t la cu.1toq – 014 people, aldr:: people. an4 , … in no ••n•• 1atl.-
ea\1al or dancerou.a. !hue ve pl’OCftHed ltqona the rlctd.U7 or 1ll00ap1fl.e­
n••• of \he original 4lreo,t••••

– 259 –
!be whole queeUon of clenadficatlon. w..1 extremely troubleeo••• A.f’ta,
I hatl been 1.n 0el’lla87 lffttn.l •ath• 1 aoaolu4ed. ‘h• deaausif!caUQa pl”OCJ’U
ue44Nl J’fl’latoa, con.al14&’1on. all!! ooorcU•Uon S.a a ‘bade lav UA4er oea,
ra1 npen191o•• latt-4 of belnc oam-4 nt tmouch •anell” •••’1••
or \7 pa.rticular 41noUYet or la1t1 1111184 fro• Uu to Uae. 1 tmggitl\e4
\o General Ola.,, vi \h the eupport of Jtob0rt Bovie, wUh 1ithoa I had, ditco.111ecl
th• aatte,- (he was one ot General 0la7• • e.11i1taate, a laqer but not a pan
ot the x..cal l>1Tl aioa – he vas vha, ve Jlight call a aeuer of ‘• pal•o•
pam. an. exoelleat MIi ‘ldlo •• I write 11 \Jae head. of \he Plaulac .­
Polt:07 Joa:rf of the :Depa,…., of Staie) \Jlat. a croup ot •• ‘be a11tmdse4
‘° •”247 the vbole qo.eetton of 4.eaaslfloatioa &Jl4 1l8lte reco•–‘1••••
General 01.q appotnlecl ae oha.lram of the De11ar,;1f1cattoa Po1107 Bou4
oreate4 tor \hle pv.rpoae. Its ether 11elibe1’a were Bober\ Mo.rpbJ’. the PolUioal
Ad.Tieer, General lfilllu B. Draper, Jr.,. the J:oo:ooaic Jd.Yiul’, Jo•eph
•• Doqe, the 11nanc1al J4Tiaer, e.nd WUaon, head of hblio Safely Dtrlllon..
wUh epecial reapoae1bll1l7 ln seouritp m\ter,.. We eeleote4 an ueaa.UN
oolllllttee u4er loben ••Ill• lo do tu pri.llolp-1. atatf work. Pld.1 ‘llaaa ot
IJ7 atatf, u4 •’here, laol114lng 1n,1 Oppuhel•r• worked oloael,- vtt? ‘1a.
!lie ‘P•hot of 1 t va■ t.bat ve reoo…..-4 & bade lav vh.lch iaol.11111.el ln •••
lnetnaent th• whole UDatlfioaHon prog,na ara4 a\torl>ed el’ ••Uttell all
•arnat• cate,orie1 and. other cU.rftc’1•••• PrlarllT U vat 4ealgne4 to 1et
up p:roced.un• tor tatl’f14-1 hearl.q1 on tu baeil of 1rhich ‘e\,aealttcatlon.a
woal.4 be •4• of 1a4t:rl4ul. oa••• aooord1DC to 4ecre• ot ga.11 t, w1 th peaalUet
lmpote4 aooord.lngl7. fhere v-14 be aa ellm.n.a.Uoa ef tho•• who 414
not tall vUbla aa7 of Iba often••• tet1ne4. Oer•n 1a,,nuaental1’1•• of
• CoY•:rnraen• ln our sone had. been created, an4 our proposals were taken up
– 259 –
• vi UL \hem, beoauee tt -., General 0’181” s e\rong opinion the progJ’&Jl •houl.4
‘be &cba1n1•tered b7 \he Genana. We ba4 conteren.oea a\ StuUcart vtth repr•••\’.
a.UY&• of \he app1’0Te4 O.ran ecenolet. .la a ooa1equace a law•• a?

. . •1■-1, larg•l1 oa tbe bade of our reJ>o:rl, vhlob. hat reoe1•e4 the paenl . .
approY&l of Oeneral Cla,J, u.d eubaittecl b7 th• Genran authol’i\ies aa a
Oe;ru.u law to be pu, 1n\o etfeot with \he appro•l of Mill ta17 GoYeruen\.
It became kAow •• \he L&w of Msrch 5th, 1946. !her-eatter 1\ reatae4, at
tal’ il.t I kaov, \be bae1e claa11f1oatloa proc,aa 1A our aone. It wa1 b7 ao
aeaa• -. p•l’f eo\ lav, aa4 •• \ ille ‘tfelll oa U lac1 1’1 1uppor,e1″1 aa4 i ••
oruto1. Some 1&14 U •• loo • \era u4 \rit4 \o oo’f’e:t \oo aoh ooqj.
SoH aid u va• aot 1\en euu,h. SoM ..1 4 it weul.4 .ba•• ‘beea b•tt.l’ ‘•
h&T• litJd. hd 1 t ,o \hoe •n Hrlou, caHt u.d. ao, olu.Uer the aula19’ra\lff
prooeclur•• vl th lm.n4r-4t ot tbousanda of cau1 vhlcb included ca\ecorl•• of
,aoatul :la.dt.
:But \he pro.pa vaat forward. I oanaot iqaelf Judge it. 1t •• ouried
out prucipallJ aller I l•ft. l d.o think that a• ot ,he u .. 1\ ••
appl’O”f’•d it vat abo11.I •• po4 an approaoa •• oo\114 haTe ‘beea u4eriakell,
aA4 aoh better \bu ooailJmlD& wa4er t? qetea U av:penetd.. Geana1
Olq ‘bH&»e con’riaced., duriac the pel’lo4 of 11• open.Uon, \hat oe.-t.a
11J1Ae1tle• ahould be gru\ed, l’elimAC ..,- ot further prooee.tmc Wider the
law. ‘!’here were ••Teral aueaties. I bell•••• wbloh !Mtlped to aolog \ha
a4a1ni•t111.U -re prooecluna.
1 ahould u:, 1n. falne•s \bat baton thia ooaprebe.D.ai’f’• lav -.. eaao\el
u4 put 1a etfeo,, whloh I had a. gna\ deal to do ,rUh, Lsv lo. 8 w• aleo
put lnto etfeot and l .. , ‘bear ao•• blue for U. I\ wa• dra1Uo, an4 one
of tbe aegaenta of denalitloa.Uon ‘Which e11pbaehed •J feslln, we should

– 260 –
atop pl”OIRllpt1ng eeparate law• and p laoe la etteot a compJ’ehens1Te oae, ae
we 41&. Lt.v •o. 8 follo wed clo telJ’ upon the 1me and c-q n.t■e4 at home a.•
a J’enl.t of I.he i-eaaa ot Iha great 101.cU.er, Genen.l Patloa, tn4loat.1nc he
would u•• la11• beoauee ot their effiolea•, tt he nee4ecl Iha \o get tbinge
a.one, and ea,tac he csouian•t ••• mob. clltferen.oe ‘bet ween a Had and o ther•
he de1oribecl. Soae au.ch r.,rk va• p1oted up and ueed b7 1ntluenttal ele-
11et1h ot public opinion to la41ca.te Mlli \a.17 GoTenwent •• aoft on. the
‘lati,. w.w •o. e veat to the o \hel’ eztn11e and. required the n11DY&l tna
poal Uou of u,oae who bad ‘bea. a ••’Iler of lhe pany or att1liata4 or­
caat •Uon,a. “7 aelt-01″1ttc1 .. 1• that vhea Geaeral Olq aue4 for •oh a
law I ■beul4 baT• aft14e4 the poor 4nttuaaehip. la alttptton l add t.hat
I ezpeote4 t o be able \o ba•e an.other abotl at the 4raft I f in\ au’baitt-4.
8.114 to be aore •tun in thinld,nc about it. :But General Clq left for
Jraakturt and l)Ut the law 1A efteot before 1 aaw b1a apla. 1 a1M>ul4 h&Y•
proteo\ed hl• fro• what I think •• & nd.alake, although Gearal Clq l beUeTe
alvq• \hoqb’ h e va, right a’bou, l t. l lllel:lt1on tbl• •• uother reaaoa
t wa• \roublecl about the clena11f1caUoa prograa. Lav Bo. a beoaae
pret ,,. noh abtorbe4 1a tbe baalo Naroh 5th. law; u.d befoJ’• Ual Oolollel
J.aJd.•• 8111 th. at 1nuf\lrt with Gceral AAoooJc, all4 Colonel 0ppU.Miaer,
iid a coo4 Job ln reaeQln.a eo•• ot ,ne 4eteote ot Lav Bo. 8 by replatioat
f’raaed for l \a o-peraUon ln ou.r sane.
1’he 4-.aif ioaUon. law o f Maroh 6th, 1946, •• t1ret put lato •ffeot
a, an Aaert.caa sonal pregl’Ul, vl th ,he hope that 1 t otml.4 be applled. \o
GermaD7 a, a whole throu«}l the Oon\rol Ooacll. A 811111.ar plaa •• n\llitted
to the Control Oouoll ‘bu.\ vat u, adopted. !here had “oeea •• demulfioaUon
lav• ena.oted. on a four power batia, that 11, thro’Ulth the Control

– 261 –
CouaoJ.l. ..a oae of \he problea• 1no1cleAt to our Narob 5th law va• ‘° .btep
u -.a,t.’at•I v1 th law• vld.oh ba4 , … ad.opted. ‘1’ the Ooalrol 0o•o11 for
a11 ·•t lttl’lllllQ’. fun••• .. nalat7 Uaa•• law wn canted. nt ut-­
tonilt \hDQCh a4op\e4 ea autton laai,. We lacl la\l•llo••• for …,1.?
tbat, tu la••la.ne, l.bau,h ‘b1Uerl7 apt.net lhe lad•• 414 aol heettate to
••• l:Ja1t1 tu .Aaerlou• voulcl M\ •••• lf tor eoae p,tl’J)o••• ot thetr ow
tl:ael’ f•tu:14 \h• u•flll• the AMrl…,. were ••• •laoeN about the 4e-.1:lfl;?
cattoa p:rocna \baa the •••tu.a, tlloup vhen tb•F “eal.11· w.att4 lo. c•• rill.
of ……. tlle San••• wn •n clas’1o. Oar ova •ffo••• la tru,.Jtta..,
\loa u4 o\lMII’ eooaeat.o u•• “” –,eN4 ‘bt our i-etual, beeau•• et ov
Aaastfi•Uon 41reot1••• to ••• -p-,le 1a ,..,,s.oa, •t J’ffpeal1bUlt7 v,­
ao 4″,bt vaa:14 baTe l•• ••h aon d’f1c1ea,, la toae ,., at lea••• Iha&
, … ••lla’ble w!M> oo”14 »••• th• 4eaaatt1oatlen te1h.. I don.•t Wak
lbl• •• tne of the Softele.
It s., pntt1 hard to •1 altout llM rreaoh. l Juat u not qaallttel to
co….,, ·.,.1’7 lal•llleeatlr abo•\ hov ‘lMJ’ aoftall,J oarrlel n\ \be pngaa.
?- ·lllcl,leh appnaolw4 ,” uarl7 OU’ staa4a1’lt lnll 1 llellne \hq ••n
•• •• ••not t.• a4hel’t.aa to ,. UnollT•• •• • “”• fbeJ wr• •n
l..S.•\ la •ala« p«,ple t.t tlutJ’ IMqht \hq ue4ecl \Wr help to •• \l:l.laila
ta eoo& 1’1WiiDC orier la th4tll’ aoae. t’hq wit• alo’Wff •• lapo•• \ba pa.al•
tt•• ot 4•••1t1oa\lea.
W.U. I.bl• aoapru.uiTe law of? oaae alone la NaJ”oh, 19″6, l
onl4a” ..,. \here•••• pr•••r• 1,7 otbtr COT•ma••• for \he … aon
ot \bta,. .., ,_, polal lhe Val\el ••, •• -· ftlnw Mftllae4 b. ,• .i. ,-..
11- ue4 ot a bet\eP .,..,-. !Jae o’h•i- csou,rl•• WN vtllln, aon or l•••
\o nck al.011& uder the ol4er d.lnoU••• an4 ua4er \heir owa polio,- of •-

– 262 –
foroeaent or 1101 • withoul f••1′,n, lhe aece••1’7 w 414 of a aore ord.•1’1.r’
1711..-. · If ve hac1 a law or 41.-eoll•• ve ,oqnt ,o oarr, it out and if we
. ‘then are 41tfereu•• et op1Dio.n. •• to ,he etteot of the 4–.alftoa-…
Hon p.rogl”Ba on. the etftoleaq of Genaa b.4:11•t17. l •• no, 1n a potltlo••
•• w•n thee• dea.U.q ••• 41neU7 vllh eoould.o probl•• — tna.aport,
lM\1.8117, farsiDC, eto. — to Jad.&ea lnll I Ud,alt it qo.Ue llkel.7 the 4ena1lt1.11oa
progna ,eaa.. to retard etlletenq la hl’illaa U.te ta ,i. lnult,•••
u4 1d:o.atrlal ana•• 11 •• • clellbente ohoto• oa \he pan of lbt VaU.S
Ital••• &UICl I 414 DGI la ,. 1u1e cpaal’Ml ‘4th it, p,o’ri4e4 tbe pn»ll’all
-· a41d.nl •’·”‘ well u4 oa aD lradl “1.4-.1. ‘ia•l•, •• ve ftnall1 — S. t
out. l\ wa1 .,..11&17 troa ov •–pot.al, I lllolfCh,, ‘° 4aadt,,. 01\e -,
qu1’1oa the exlent to whlell ve watt lnll 1, •• iaooaddeat ‘4th I.be l)l’O•
per Auriou. appl’MO!l to -,.n1, \ho•• who haA \roqh, a’bout all ,hl1 a\\ffer …
tna la t.be WOl”l4 to nnu pod lion.• ot 1ipU’lca11oe in either the a.,…
lda•ll’lal •• polS.llul Ute. the naltaat lo•• ot etneteaq •• ao’llllll
ta relation to ,u ..,……u, pol.to,.
, the ……… , ldpt lt• appU.a t• W. ••vi• too. tun adpt ‘b•
altl• .j-..1’1a’8 la a ■-ae1 vllo vere u, pent.,w to lae Ju,l’t.•••..,. loqel’.
‘-•• eeleole4 111.cht ao, ‘be •• eoo4 1..-1 •et.la••• 01> •• ..naNI
.,… •• , bu, ,n1e ren:u •• aa taen table ooa••tuenoe of all that 1a4 oo-
… \o ovael’■blp of J>l”IPH”T 1A l’elaUoll •• 4eaaslf1oattoa, lhllN …
ao ooafieoattoa ot pro,••’7 of• penoa ,..,.slfiet aeept •• “4’11n4 lt7 a
paYtlnlaf’ lav. •• a J)eaaltT or fodettue. ‘-” ••• bovfftlr. tllil 4e­
a\no’1oa by lav ot ovaenhtp of eq111paeat ot ,u pan.-■111 la,:r Bad oJ’IUl•

– 263 –
zattona. A• to cleaar,.i1r.at1on of lndu1h7 \hare •• a d.1ffennt problu.
but l a• aot apsakinc ot tbat. vhioh op•n.ted. under tlU’tereat lav• froa
thoae co-rembac 4eaas1t1oalloa.
_ I ha•e omitted to 1181\Uon \he phyeloal dettrw,Uon of certain war
plu·h. uted dtl”eo\l.7 in \he var efton. and there was alao a dlaantliag
and tnuiefer to lu.1ela \Ulde:r the repa:rationa program of certain 1nd,u.ttrlal
plantll. The Al.lies did. not compensate the ownen: the o?ut was to ‘be a’beot’bed
bJ’ ?he Geran ‘People a, a ooet of the •u•. I oan• t …,. a\ the nroment
Ju•t bov it ‘IOJ’k:ecl out bllt \be compenaation to the owMN vaa to be out of
tun.de in the \ff&tJu.17 of Gerlll!Uq’, lf at all. a• a part ot the conaequ.emoet
of tb4J war, am no\ pe14 ‘bJ’ the oonp,S.nc power, to the owner•. It the 1ad1T1dual
reoo,:aped hl• lo•• he 414 •o fro• the Genaa• peopl•, ao\ fro• the
Allie111 •
eeoo.nd-band, af\er he.Tin« been vot”ked out ta the Dlr-otorat•• barlng to do
w1 th Gemaa l.ad:11-11·h7. Sa.oh o-tluar Dlreo\on••• rete.rred to 11.1 for appro,al
or oo–• •• of \he lava e-r ol’d1nan.oee vlthla thdr •n talle41ate i-eepoa•
1bill’71 lnolw11ng \ho N 4eal.1Dc vl th tau:Uoa.
b. •tsu:dee,aaJ. rn1sai»i11 at lws s1,1 lttoa•
‘lhe fe\U’ -power L-cal l>lreotora,e ttrd •t ai \he illte4 Control 4u ..
tbor1t7 3uild1DC 1n JeTl1n A.up.a\ 18, 1946. One of the f1r9′ i11airuaen’8
approYecl, pu’bll•hed 1n the f1ra\ etiltloa of the Off1o1al clasette of the
Control Oovaoil for Ge?. vas Prool&ailon Bo. • ••U1ag for\h 11Jundamental
Pnnciplee of Judicial letora, • a eort of Jill of lll&h’9 tor tm.
German people. lt pl”OYlde• that all p•r•ona are equal before the law.
No persoll, no •\\er ,tba\enr h11 race, naUonaltt7 or Nl1a1on,
aball be d.eprtnd of hie legal rights. Jo person shall be de•

– 264 –
prl.Ye4 ot life, libertt or pl’Opert7 wt.thou\ due p1’0cea1 ot lav.
Orba1nal ft8pOA81b1l1tJ- •ball be ctet•l’ldned. on.17 tor off••···
pro’9’14e4 b7 lav. Detentaa.Uon b7 MT court ot ·an.,- oriae b1′
analoc, or l>7 eo-oalled Nuad popular lnetinot• (one of the on-
. terla. ued 117 the lade) 11 proh1b1\e4. ln U1′ orlataal pro .. –
ou,loa \he aaou.,ed •bl.ll b&Ye ,he rich’• ncopisecl bT de110cnUe
Ia.vi •el.7, \ha rlch\ lo a epeed.7 u4 pulio trl.al u4 t o b e
1nloru4 o t the naw.re aucl oauae ot the accueation, ,!Mt right to
be coatron,e4 v1 th vttnHH11 ag&illll bl■ aJld. to baT• \htt proo••·
ot ob\alnlng w1 tneHee 1n hi• faYOr. and the right to h&Te ,u
aellatance ot com,.ael for hla deten••• hceHi…-e and labum.n
pUDiahaent, or arq, not prorld.ed b7 law, will not be tnfU.ated.
S.nte11ce1 ot person• ooavicted uniter lb Rl tler Ngiae oa poli ‘1-
cal, raolal 11.nd relictoua cnnm4• mutt be quaahed.
!.b.e •• pnoluatton aleo elimlnat”- the extraord.1nat, ll tler ooul’tt,
the People•• lou:rte, cour\1 of the IS’DAP • all4 Speolal oevt•. ‘-7 wen
tonallF abolleae4 and. their rNetablitUent i,rohibl ,ec1.. ‘1’h. oonol:a.41111
parag.nph relate• to the Judlclar,:
J’Gdce• “Ul b• 1n4epen4eat ot n:ecuttve control vt.n e2:enitlng
their tu.cUon• and. obed1eat 01117 to the lav. Acee•• to Judicial
tuotion• ldll be op.a ,o all wbo aooept d.aooraUo prlaclplea
wUbout account ot raoe1 taoolal oripn, or nlipoa.. The
pro.motion of Jude•• will be ba1ed Hlely on .merit, aad legal
quli flcatioae.
I\ will be ••• that the l&Dgu.ge 1.n eoae re91Pec,• parall-1• oloael.7
oar 1111 of Bl&ht•• but ,here are to• •naH.on• h J.ucu.ac• a.4op\e4 ta
aooollllOd&tio». to obaWnc uu.ni1101H appnTal. •• •• n(41N4.
‘1111 pl’Ooluation wen, ho• our Directorate ‘6 the OoorcUuUn« Coltal
the, where 1 t was approftd, aAd tb.a to the Control On:au,tl, vhere U
•• alao approTed. At a-pproxiu.\eq the eaae Uae there vent \hi-eugh the
Lecal I>lreotorate, Ooold.laatinc Oolllllt'”• eJld. the Ooatrol Oouo11, Lav :lo.
l repealing a lone list of lasl lave. t’bia •• aocollp8Jded. i.,, Piocl.aaaUoa
No. a, putUDC into atfeot requir•••• 1mpo•ed oa Geraa-,. the7 were
quite leactlll’ aA4 had ‘been fonmlated. soaa \S,119 la &Aft.aoe. ?he, were not
the product ot th• Legal Direc\ora.le.

– 265 –
Law lo. 2 p,onded tor the tel’ldmtion and liquidation of liui orcaaize.lions.
ll1tlnc a nuabei- ot ,bu.
_ .. tl.\e:re .be4 lteen a Oo?••• c,ollapse of all a.,… la■t,….tal.111•• of
IOT•rnaa\. All eourts had cee.aed to functloa. Law ad ome:r vaa -.1a\
a1ae4 \7 the oc0t&p1inc autbod tie• ..
‘!’here wa.1 the neeeHl t1 of recoaaU “‘1Un, a Germen Judicial qetea. and
lhi& .’W&a one ot the pri.lle tu.ncM.on1 of the lepl 1:roupa. ‘l’he United Statn
1utrod..ll0el lllto the Lecal »lno,orate. and in ,he prooe•••• whlah foll?ecl
it v•• appnflll b7 the Oontrol Oouoll. a lav nooaaUtattnc a J\ldlaial
qatea for the Geran people as 41etbet troa 111ll\at7 OOUl’t■• It became
kaovn •• Law Bo. 4, a\itlel •t’he Beoip.aisat1ea ot the Gel”llaa lu4h4al. S.,.I••• 1
pu’blished. in Yol’WN Bo. 2, lowlllber oo. 194&, ediUon of \be 0ff1o1al Gazette
of ,11e Ooatrol Oouac1l for Oel’ll8Jl7. !he O.eeUe 1 helt had been,
throucb the Leal Directorate, Ooord1Dat1ng Oomd. ttee and Ooa.tl.’Cl Ooun.oil,
made the official. publicaUon tor the law of the Oon\rol Oouu11.
Lav Bo. 4 followed to a 4egne \he pattern ot $bl reca.lar Gel’lll!IA courl•
of tlut paat, •• 41at1not froa lhe 1peelal lasl oovt• vhtoll ba4 bffB
aboli.•W. h.t we 414 ao, tua nooaa,t tu.le e. 8′.lpl’elle 0.11.rl fol’ all ot
Oeriaa,. ftd.a ,tadioial lav onpuled. vi.th •• tUld. llad bee• the sv.bJeo, of
oanM ooaet.4en.Uon ln our sou, fo• 1enal operauu, where Oeloael
ftAl.,-, an able allita17 -••maenl laqer a\ huktur• vbea ve uri””4,
ha4 llorae t.he oblef burden of lte preparaUon.
‘fhe covt• reeaiabll.W were tllne in name: UIICCll14bM• lpp?d1nt1,
all4 obtt11J•dut•? the tlJ”et a oo’llri of 1n1Ual Jllrl.aclicUon in m1•r
ci.Sl ud. orbd.11&1 maHers, with aelle appeal to \he kaltr!olab· !he lalte:r
• ha4 oricinal J\lrltd1a\ion. a• well in mre impol’tu.t attera, vith appeal to

– 2&6 –
the QtdlllJUUQJut, with Jv1141o’1on OYer a •1am1. • ooapara’ble to a
1u.t♦. ta the Vathd St.a,•••• far a• ou ou llak:• a ooripariaoa. lo appeal
to a,-lil>ftJle Oou, for Gel’llalq’ •• a whole •• proYld.e4 la ihl• lav. !tie
fouitpo•I’• ver• aot reaq to• ,Id.,.
After ••tabll •blac tbi• •7•1•• ‘b7 lav &-ppU.oable to ti. 0.rMn people,
oaae the pn’blo ot re1’8.ft1nc \h• court• and aotul? lu1.Dcla, th• la.lo
opes,aUoa. !hi• to o vat a 1’etpoa11b111 t7 ot ou.r 1.a1 per•oanel. It va•
delec&t4!11l prtaolpall 7 lo ov lfCal •• 1.n the f1•14, aftlag uad.er the qer­
rilloa of \ba t1altecl Slat•• Dlnolor ef 11111ta17 co••—• 1JL the Laa4. l
atcht here aol• \bat teneral CJ.a, pv.\ Sato etfeol \eton 1 left 0.l’IIU1’ a
.,.,,. of aoatrol ‘bJ tbe lllncator of \he J.epl J>ln11oa et ONOUS. la Jte,.-lt.a,
ot all l•pl oftio•r• thrnchou.’ Mllltu, Go’ffruat ta o•r aoae or el,…, .
where •
!he dafflng of the JmUolal 9•’- ha4 the a11t.1taaoe of Pu\l1o s..tet7
and other perNanel ha:nna reepoalib1Ut7 uAer \ha 4e•llt1oa’1011 procra■
\o pJ’.,…., tu ••leotloa ot ■- vho 414 aot aeet the Ntl11ired 1ta.ll4ard1.
J’f.u)l7 aa lo the Jta41o1al qat• l m.p, 111■ up lt7 -,uc ve abel1abe4
w1a, •• W aa4 b..-a lo J”Matabliu. oa aatlaf’aolo17 llae1.
I Ao •• noall aov.., ao’1Te ,anlo lpaUoa b7 GeNU.1 la hrlia la
Ui.e tormla\loa of Ill• JmU.oial •r•••• l ha•• ov.tl1ae4. Ooloael lialer aDll
tho•• wol’klac vi tb hla at fraatturt Ul4 4url.nc tu •rlle1′ perio4 of ti.
•roh fol’W&l’d of 11111 lar., Gonnaeat ‘4th the anl••• W tuU1ar lse4 ,…
1alTe1 wt.th the olcl 171lea lll hrau,. !Mlr wea •• the fouda’1oa of
ova ta ll•rU.a. .And ov IOaal •fficen wen la ‘911.0h ‘Id ,h Gena.at la thlt
lecal, Ja41ot.a1 ana. Co’Nn■eD.tal tlel4, •• beoa• \ne alao to a den•
“1th ou Berlin ••ff •

– 267 –
·.fl:ae .eovh were 1at reeata.bll•hed. en.et11 a• the,- ad. extale4.. ‘lhlf•
ver4t;iOM Jul’ls4loUoul. -4lti•ttoae. the 1av •• no\ a code ot , ……. “‘.’
v.nf,11 •• a norpat.aUoa of the oovta. ».tall• ot -proccun —
Ollr -pod Uon w.• tbd the notora1 und.er the laa1to ,tat• -pa-per• au.
4oftllelltt NlaUac lo tmeondl ttozull mrrea4er. ha4 oont.rol oTer the CW,TUAlac
of hnan,. !bare •• Do 1-,al o’bllptlon oa 1′.belr par\ to oontom to ‘
ti. ·iawe ot tJeniu.,. –•tloa •• n.1•e4 •• to the 1ta’11.1 of the o.a…
Coueallon of 190? • to whl•:ta tl’ut Vai ,e4 Sta••• W a4un4. vbloh eeatab•
ral•• for u &1’117 ot oooapatloa la NlaUoa to tlMI taba)l\ult of a foNlp
ocraat17 la ‘1• ot var. 1Aa1114lnc. a• eo• oonl-.414, the pel’lod tollowlq
• ,11e encl of beatlll ‘1•••
fh• Wa:r D-,artua, aou«ht -, oplaioa ‘before l took oft tor hnlu7.
but I lboueht it ao\ ach1M’ble to lift u. oplaloa in the a1>1tl’&Ot at t!al
U••· It Nl opialoa b ….. 1Uh18■U17 l t abolll.4 be ,.. \he 0011.ln’I ot 10M
pa:r\lalar eppll•Uoa. ! 114 ooaclu4• – aa4 Ihle, …. the ‘bad• vhea
…. ,.17 ot -, owa ooatut •• k&al Dincsur .. MTlt•r – that \bl.If Ooa•••
tp 414 aot appt, te t!ae el tlla\t.oa la <ht,., atlel’ aoon41 tloaal IV•
:read.•r; ,., 1, wa• ia\en4ell to appl7 te an an, uhal.17 ftgh\lac ta a
fonlp OOUD.11’1′, ao\ \o .S.U.\&17 OOCL\p&lioa .,, … \be ftptln« ha4 oeate.4
u4 who \here ha4 bHa• •• la hl’IIBJq, Odl)lete crrende• of a clef•tel.
H.41117 to, u4 aanapltoa of n.tllo:rlt7 \7, \be .,.,.1’Daat of the oe-,pa,
ooul17 whioh ha4 4•t•le4 he.. l felt otum•• 14.th re1peot lo Ille
lc.-ra Co.nflAUoa oa l)rilOIUtn of war, a1,.. -.kine tbe peatUoa tt •• in
• etteot. Priaonera ot var were prieoaere ot wr vb.ether the ooutl’J’ ba4

– 268 –
uooD4Utonall7 •u.rreadel”e4 or not, ud. vhether or aot U.1e tlgh\1111 ha4
,1he 0.Aeft 0o …… 11oa of 1907 •• to 1te lookecl to •• a pi.de ‘••
not ‘.’blmtt.ac. Alt!Mtvch llt.U,tar, Oo•erueat la hnui’ a•aue4 ao•l•t• ntllodt7.
tlll• 414 not aeaa 1, would eni-csin 1, “bl’ putUac ou\ of crp•ratloa
law• aa.4 latU “1,101 of Geftl&ll,J’ which w•r• ao’O.IMl, •• 41 •UJ’1Cllillhed fro•
ll1t•• vhlch “·” a par, ot the lad MGh1Ae.
l aaa•t well…,,.,. \he .,..eat1011 vbetmr •• apeot-. the te …. Uo.,
w 1ali to u IA.oo,porahi lato a 1ate1′ tlenu ooa,u Ill.Hoa, ‘bu, I au -,
,., we ,,na1u1,- llopa t. \nnc Geraa thlllkla& town etwu 111••..U•• ••
we kaov \laea la the Vai\e4 ltatet.
!be u .. of wJdoh 1 wr1 \e va, •’ oa• for tbe latnd.uolloa lato the
Legal Dlnoton.’le of an eYer-e.11 plu tor 0.na.QJ”. ftad.1•• vel’• ‘belac •o
prin11lpell7 la the 01Yll Utah•• Dlnetoa, vh1eh eTnl11&1l1 bad pnnol,al
1’eap•at1b1ll17 for the dratU.ng of a coa1’1ftHoa, wi\h the •••htazui• of
,u .tcal, PoliUoal u.4 other D1.’f’11loa1.
!be Um.tel Ital•• •• tlNn the fl••’ oltlllNUahl’P• whea \be OoatNl
Ooaoil uoblu17 •• •• la •Uoa ••l’tlJ afffl’ tu 00,aal1t1loa of tile Pot•laa
Ooafereu•. It Ila• fell to •• te pn•lt• onr the fta-at … uaa of
tu J.epl Dt.reotonte la hrll•• .kl&’ut 111 1HI. fbt obalnuehlp ,.., ..
l>7 \lM aon.th. J •’ tor ,he U’alttd Slat•• ct.ma, tbe ea1’lier HeUap AM
ao•U•• tur•fter1 n.t a• Uae wut lt7 1111.ce Md.clen. •al ••• ona lhaa
l •• lM … dO&a NpNIIOt&tl••• 1 aho,al.4 a44 ti., Wt w.e pt.1”11′ 4ae \o
hl• on WlUnal qultttoa\lou and a.ltlll ‘1•• alllll aot a111plJ to 1J7 altterpUoa
t.a otaer utter•. Be •• aa ueep’10Mll7 all• npnaeataU-re ot ,i:..

– 269 –
United. Statee. Mr. Pblec•r, of llk• oaliber, al•o eat au• or tvloe before he
N”1me4 •o ‘\he Val,_ .,., •• lll lleou’bel”, 1941.
4. A.111••–t oi itllDJ. M\iml11
la the •rl1•1′ ••tlnp of •• Lepl Dinoton.le the ln.U•h kaw aoouratel7
\he laplloation• ot the otnl 11’ben1•• papa• w taho4uoatl. I
Ud.nk tile lreaoh ’11DtieF1tood Aleo, although perha.p• not ao olearl1. fh• espreeaton
••• y,roc•••• 1• peou11 ar \o the ooaoa law. A• for the Sona\t .t
haTe a pa4 4•1 of quliltcattoa, a, 1 bad tho. lneofar ••th.a…,..,. ••
,,. \ook …. , oppoetttoa to \be kiatl of tbSac the Son•t• lmev 11tle1″ be.A
4ou ,he wof\’I.• were &ppi’OTe4. Je7c,a4 I.bat an4 ia the aohal a4ataS.a\raltoa
of the pl’lacdpl•• thea•el.,••• I aner f•lt th• 4.ocmaeat ■..at tu …. to
\hell •• to ••• I tld. feel, lxn,e••”• that thAl1 -,u14 ••n a cool 4Nl to
the ?nu people ia tlul ltadera Zoae •
?,.. wen ti••• when lt ee•e4 olwioua, ln the llchl of the .rlgicllt7
of the So’t’let poti Uoa, lbH•• •• aol a tree 1n,erplq of a le,r&l an roach
b•tween u. 1′ wa■ lilliled. \7 nperlor av.\berUr. f>i&lt •• aot apparent
ta &JQ’ihlJIC l ltaY• … uoned .. tar• -., l»•-• eo a• Uae weal oa. !he7
wn 1.Ul4el’ •” l’lef.4 N■\rietteat IJ:aa “• the11&h all of 11.1 wen ‘Ulll.•r \hi
pollole■ ,at oar own eo•el’lllNllt.
fu:, W a tnn1latloa tor due pne••• a.n4 •• aw vbat tt aeu, h
thfteel”•• but whe,her that •• Iba IUle •• U …… , to •• I lhlak 4oubtM.
. 0.l”all people vo1114 ••• a olMNl’ ooncepUon of lt, aJllll \h•••
law• aJll pMala■t.Uon• wn aot to aa.oh tor the la1atu1 •• for the people
of Geaaa,’.
be.-e ve:re Id.rm.we ot \he ••\lap but 4eta111 of 41••••1o».• were no\
oiJ’Olllated.. re.oh nailoa bad pre,en, 1’\• own 1ec.rretanat. !he eecretariat

– ?.?0 –
tor tbe fci>11r-pover g:roup ml&\41d. wUb the chairau11htp. ‘1’he eeot”etaris.t fov
,11. V.Ut4 Hat•• during Auga.8′ ao,.a for \he whole group• but Ua t 4l4 DOt
aean \h$ cnu, would haYe \he ao,e, ov uontart.st kepi tor our•el••••
The 1>•1>•r prepanti on tor our •••Hnp vaa full and oar•N. !he airmte ·
1booltt, 11 or record book1 1 pre:pa?ed. ‘by the statt tor the Ua1ted Sta’-• r.epre-­
••atatS:re 1n the :OS.ncton.te, grew ln mmben as the veeka anil months
paa1ed. ‘lheM contain a oonslden’ble wealth ot ■atel”ial. 11.Dlll enaotmenta
b7 the Ooa\:rol 0omt.o11 were J)U\liehed. in the Off1aial Oase\te, which we
orea’ted.. laoh lav or older va, ptlblltlhe4 ta Ud.e •••r ln Inglish. 1Nllch.
1n,,1u and. Gttniaa.
OU lecl-1.aUoa .ea not tor the Sorie\e es:oept 1n.41reotl7. fbey would.
ban to ade1Jt19’er it in lhelr aN&, ‘but it was p:ri11111″1l7 tor t he 0.l’IW.’l
people, who had a mob clearer coac.ptt.on of Western. tbeoriea and pl”inotpl••
than lhe &.,Tl•’•• except tor so.me 11oholal’l7 Son.et profeteora who bad
made tpeoial etwll•••
1n.noe cUcl. aot eifP). the Potad.u atreuent. Although •he bad. been
‘brou.&b\ la\o lhe qudrl1>arUte go•enaent ahe d14 not feel leplly ‘bound b7
u. lhe 414 aet aeoperate la one t11ponu, re9peo\, \he ••\Ung up ot oea•
tnl a4a1Billrat1•• acccle• for G•1″11Q11′ •• a vhol•. fbi• •• one of the
meu, proY14e4 1A \he Potsdam Protoool by vhloh we hie\ .bope4 to gala ur,.1 t7
in 0.J’ll&JQ’ tn oertain •••enlial aepeot• of Gel’lle.n life, aotwtthet&D.dlq the
<1’1&41’1parttte pYenaent. !he Jnnoh would. not pendt thia. !hat wee the
fir1t 1aponaat aoa-ooGperaU•e altU••• and lt dld act eo•• tro.11 the
SoYlet. !he prenat ( Septeaber, 1954) 1Uu.tion “1th reapeot to ‘IDO 1•
reld.al.aen.\ of lhe trench aUUulle in Oenarq ln 194&. ‘l’he JN11ah were reluctant
to take a07 etap within Ge? whioh ,ended \oY&rd the rehal>illta•

– 271 –
tio.l! of’ & stronc central goTel’Dl!ent. ‘fbe reaaon the7 an no” uwilllng to
join ta IDO 11 because of the •• gea.eral reluctance, 1n i:u••••t 4.&J tera1,
“Uh reapeot to a G.-aan anq. l•t U1e 14• of 1IOO ortclnatfMl wtlh th•
J’nnoh, and 1 ,!du 1 t ,oun.d. Vbll• 1 t would pin tor the f••’ ‘• a,nngth
of’ lfedern Ge1’1Wl7 1 t woul.cl aeeh tbat dren.gtb into a llrtl:ropean oooperath·•
(Paragraph IV of the tftlbdiTldon of the :Pottdam Pl’O\ocol enti Ued •
8’Pb.e Poll tloal and lconoaic Pr1no1ples to Govern th e ‘fNatiaent of GeN&JQ”
in the la111al Ooatrol Period,• reacl11
7or the ‘1me belnc, ao central Germaa co•el’IUllent aball be e1tabllahe4.
lotw1\h1t&M1DC 1h11, howTer, certain e11ential oeatral
0.nu a4111lliatra’1•• 4epartaenl1, heated bl’ ata,e tecretari•••
ahall \e ettabllah.a, pan1cular17 ln the flel.41 of
flmm.oe, traa.aport, OO.lllll\Ul1oattons, for&ip. trade and 1ndutl’1•
heh depar\men.b will ac\ o n the d1recUon of the Ooat1’01
Wi\h thl, e:xoeption, which I thought i?ortant, the earlier period of
,? ocoupation vi ,ne11td a eptri t of oooperaUon on the part of !llll in a
0011110n ta•lr. fb.ere va.s frlemliaeH on the part of So”f’le\ p•normel toward
Aaert.oan parao».nel. I 4o AOt seaa there we ,mfrienlliae•• oa. theh·
part tow&J’4 eltbtr the heah or the :Srlt1th. but 1 ‘lh1Dk the pod. will
which eziaW in general tova1’4 our ow people, a.• tar at v• ocml.4 Juace,
was quite md.ent in the aiUtu4e of the Son•\ repree•n•U••• tn :Bu•lta
to’N&:rd .Aaeriou reprHentati”fe1 \here. ‘Phia watt not confln«t to l?gal per­
tonnel. In tact• l euppo•• I. t •1gb.\ have ‘been mon 0″1.0111 ln otheJ’ area,.
But there \lat a tpirl t of cooperation, a triendlin•••• a COIIIIIOD. feeling ot
join\ noo••• 111 \he var, a.u4 o ae of hopetalne•• for th• futa.r•. I know
aow tbl• ga4uall7 4eteriora,e4, ‘bu, I er,eak of the e&J”lier pott-war period •
l felt at the time and ■Ull 4o th&t 1 t wa• unfol’tuu.te tM lrench
oppo•eil. the central ad.111nhtrat1ve agencies.. Some thoucht at the ti.me th&.t

– 2?Z –
1f •? l’rCH10h ha4 not obJeoled t21e So…S.eta voul.4 be.Te done so. ht the
,.. , ta ,1, •• the heaob. W• now ao1t lb• Soriet poltq •• t t d …1 -».« .
••·’••a4 to ulflaatloa ol Oeraan,. Ju.a, whea Iba\ polio,- aoll41ft.? t.•
a •• ,,10.0. 1». arq n•t, Manhal Stalin at Pot.. wltld.a \he receat. pa•\
– ?DC of lbose earl1•1″ J10ath1 … had a,rM4 to oentnl adm.ni•\raUT•.
aguo1••• 1 \hinJt lhere we.a a likelibood. the Sone, voulc1 not have ••toed
tllft•• acaolea lf the heaoh had goae alone at \hat U.11e. It in tao, \her·
al ••• “‘ \Ip •• oonhllplale4 lt wulcl ha”fe beea a toroe tn the cltnoUoll
of ?.1Ullttecl O.niaa,. fulr •’•••• waa a ta.oto• Yid.oil tema4 \ovart p•?
pelult.JiC ‘\htl 41?•loa.
11 at.pt ‘k \ha.t with all \Jae :prol>l … 011r ••.,. . …., W. v1’\ta fl’UG•
al ,., pene4, lbl• ou 00’1114 aol hi.Ye ‘betn pn••• toward a MN ta’f’or­
a’bl• 4ec1aloa. la\ 1 tel\ •• should ha.Ye done •n tha:A l vaa aon1e10111 of
\o penu.4• franoe to aooed• to Ude pol107 of the Potadaa Protocol and let
Uieae aa•ole• be ael np. A We1tern pOWI’ elmtald not ••• ‘b•o the on• to
ntuu. lt 1llould bl.<re be• left to the Wttau …. of ••• loYl•t if a11 all.
the 4eterton.tlea of Ille •l t•Uoa bet1r•• tiw. Son•• a.ad the V.•••n
alli•• •• retl•otetl •luwben •n fl’l&lokl7 \llaa la Berlla. hi e’f’itea•
of &t ‘•• ,o app•r ,aa,… 7or esaaple, n ven .,.,,. ooa1oteatloul7
•r17lnc 011, o•r obltpUoaa Wl4•f’ the Poteclaa Ao’•••• tor n,paaUona \o
b• 4.\1Yere4 1n ldncl to Jluaia., 41-.atling plu•• u4 eo torth, and rec\110-
lq the baa trial capaol ,7 ln eer-1.n respect, ln Ge.,…,.. ht at a .,.,\ala pola\ lt beoue ‘””” ol•r tii. Sonet va■ Mt nolprocaUac with
tuly 01111,aUoa,.
. Jkpfln.Uou oa’1lu4 ta Arlll)].e IV of the Pole4aa P1’0tocol &IIOIIC othff
thlac• pro’ficlecl ti3at:

– 273 –
I• ddU1oA to J’41.P&ra\t.Oll• lo be taken lt7 the ussa fro• U• ova
••a. of 000ttpaUon the VS81. abt.11 r•oe1n a4ditiou111’ f’l’OJI ihe
. •••••a lo••• ueng other tld.aga fltteea per oeat of no1l u•ltle
·,.i –,lete 1nd.uet1’1al. oapl tal eqai1>•ea\ ln lhe f1nl place
Jw• ti. aelalluqloal, olleld.-1 u4 •old.•• 111Ul11taot•ri.nc la,.
, Ji.11.1\l’les at 11 wuae•••la17 tor the Gel’Mll peaoe •ooao117, aacl
;? ‘be n••e4 troa tbe leatem Ion.ea of 0.l’lllaltl’ b. uoha.a&e
fol” aa •tulftlen\ Yalu• of foo4, coal, pola•h• atae, Umber.
olay pl’04uala, pelnleua pro41101t u4 other oo … 41 tie• at -,
be acned upon.
!M• -· DOI 117 Napon.db11Ur but a goocl aJq thine• WN tllaoa.11ed vld.ell
wen ao, wltbin ov own Lepl. DtT111on.. 1 pv.t ln • ..,. about what •• go-.
1111 on. Ve were 41•-.atltq la ,u •••t•m son••• ut.pplDC plut■ a,.,-,
u4 aot aetUn.g ta retua. fn• th• ••t•m ZU.e vJ!tat •• eoate.ll)lat.4 ‘bf
J>olNMI. X thou.pt thl• tbo”14 1lop. !he lheel’I of lhe l’ota4.aa eoollOll10
pn•l•lou -· ,_, Ge? 11l111n114 be treated. ……. NOllOldC utt. Vbal
•• &0i11C oa would. lead. 1o a oae•eicled trea\aeal ot 0.l’IIIUJ’ fro• u eooaom.a
• ataa4polat. 1 thou«ht w •bnl.4 ‘begla to al.ow 11p on 4o1nc wbat Potlldaa aa14

ve el:aoulcl 4o when u •• eoad.1’1ontl4 on ao•thlnc betac dou ‘br the Sonel•
whloh •• •• ‘belq 4on.e. ftae Sone\ -4• •o•• a,,..,,. lo eo11plJ’. •• 414
c•t IOM eoal, ‘but 1, wat aot nfflol•t ,o ‘baluo• what ve were eetMll-, ‘°
,-. tbt.t va• -, lhoqbt abo•t ll, bu’ I •••” la a pot1Uoa lo be a•
well latonti4 •• olhere. •• 414 bcla to NO¥ ,ap Oil l”IIP&l’a Uoa,. l 4o .. ,
aeu. lid.a ooftr1″e4 •• a real.I of -, wacce■tlon, ht 11.lltar, OoYeraaeat,
wt&ea 11 beoau eon.Ylaoe4 Potad&a •• aot lt•lne canted eu, b1 the Sonet,
•· hn1&aa Gt ht•• iu1
Oae et Uie \au• of the l,epl DlNO\on.le q1 rfftalon of a.rial• CJer-
-.n law• appl1oaltle lo lhe otnllu popula’1oa1 the :aamac• law■• for naa­
ple. u4 \be bere41taq fara law•. Ve lnlt1a\e4 quite a 0011pnbt».1lft

– 8?4 –
1 baT• alr•47 ae11.Uone4 a va:r on•• lav UDd.er whleh tbe pncraa of
lu lat,W Ma,et afl•a- hna’beJS w.1 to be oamefl -,a. !bi• •• oeut1-
…1 .
,ea,, ‘tfl’t)l •• ,a,ten ot ,11e •na••ra Ohan•• •• •• 1te llade appU.oaU• ·.’4t
h…,,- -• a law appro”NI )7 tlla eow.p,t.ac &1l1Jaoril1•• ati d.taUaot fro• all
tat♦•Uc:.-1 treat7. 11 ba4 ap•lal alplflouo• )fflllh ot 1,, clelall• · ·
vUh re-.,eot ,o \he puai•hment of •••r• of las1 orpn11&Uoae, lett IO■ewla\
aco••nd 111 lbe lilnllber, Obarter. ‘!’he OJ’&&lllsa’1011• \heaael••• weN
oo.,…- ‘bF \be Obatter. but ao, Ille cteta11• •• to the atatnal re1pOa11b11lt1
to ll• applied. to U…11’ …. .,,.
•• alN o\lalud. appl’01’&1 la ,_, Coatnl Oo’UOU of a laaalo •••–••
of prlulple• f er ,_ .. ,.. )ftlODI. ‘1d.. -· priaarllT ,_ work of O’tlJI
•va l)rleoa■ ilYllioa ,..s, 117. ldlMtlt.
then va■ tbe que1’1oa \oo of wha\ to 4ct wt th the Geno pa teat oftloe,
wbloh …… lhe reapoa1lblll t1 prl•:rtly of ov lepl people. \11,t •’ ea,1s-el7
!b.e l. CJ. J’ar’Dea 1ro1-ln …. ‘before our litipl. Dintioa and. Dlnotor-
a\e I•• a ‘baaio approaob fol’ all of lel’IIU’q’. !Id.■ .. ….., va■ apNd. &11
oftJ>.ClelllUJ’ u4 coul.4 •• 11• llult114 1t111plJ’ fNa a •ul atallApotat.
X 11114• a r .. 1 .. wbloh I al.gilt •aUon ••• lb a,.,.,. l 41111••”4• aJl4
,bell -.what rmae4, palt■bl4 ta the llllJ.le1 MY ln1tw t.n lo•eu••
1948. 1, 1, a eoaevba, *•’ohl’ O’lllll• ot \he lcal pnllNI of ,11. , ……
ooc,upaUoa. In the …. ed.lUoa 11 a tiae arUol• oa l.lae lepl ■lat•• of
ooapl• a……,- ‘1 Nu belaalela, a ••’•” of O\\I’ lepl ,wt la 1e…..
J 1 m ao, ta ape … a, vUh ne17tld.q he Ml4 \11.t ti lt a eobolarlJ’ ‘PtlP•»•
Yol… lU, l&1.t1J&r, 31, 1944, of \he Otfloial Gaaette of •h• Ooatnl
Couo1l cu.aerate■ ?t• a fw lblaca, ? of which pa••• throqb the

– 275 –
ltepl. llinaton\e ,.. 41e’baA4.lleal a,.ad diHol’llUon of lhe Oenu. anael ton•••
amt .;r.\aotpl•• •t the abhl•tnUon et Genaaa pnao••• wbioh t•n alr….,.
–•?».tMl. !be lattel” .. app:rOYe4 ‘b1 tbe J,ep1 Ds.reetora,e aid •• •?
:·,· ,
lt•r u. 1941 ,,. ,a. Ooat,ol Oouou. Law•• 10, tb •r cl’la•• lav ••
a4opte4 lb• 20th of l>•o•ll•I’ • 1941. tav lo. 11 •• a n,eal of oenal.n
p19T111on.1 et GerJDU. oriainal lav.
Han, of the earlier –•r•• ad.oph4 b7 tbe Ooalitol Oou.oll onctnat•
1• tbtt 1,-1, DJ.reo••••· One 4atecl Septealter n. 1941. epeotfte4 la
Oolt.tnl Couell •• •••hod. et 1 .. 1.1at1.1&c. a n.tta.i- l-,onut llou1eueptaa
law, wld.ell. IIOWftl’, 4U •• 4tna,i,- atteot tha 0.JWlll p•ple. Lav Jo. 12,
••–••–• \o th• laoou taz, oorpoaUoa -.. allll n••• proftl• .a
lad applloable la hnaaJ’, 414 aot origl%1&te lJ:l the l4cal l>lreo’6nte, aor
Lav lo. 14, an … …., ot motor Yebicl• tu la1r1. !bite oleaNII O’ll.1″ J>lreo’
4)ra \e at l 11.i.1…-e or1pnate4 ln the 11.aaaoe Dlreo’8rate. Law Jo. lt
of rebna17 1941 •• • ren aloa ot the CJenaa Marrlac• lan -.A. b,- \u
wpl. Dlnotoral•• an4 aleo Lav lo. 17, aa —-• of the tahert.-.ao• w.s
lan. .AU Ible •• oa a ..,npartl ‘• ••t•, ul4• Ina ov ova le,Jal
••Ill•-…. to our au..,. co•..,…..’• 1u11141-. • 111vltlc .,.1,.. ot ei,tat•••·
‘1ie epialoa• of tu Lepl llll’eotor, -..i.a. ta ou lepl e4no• N0\1oa,
b&Te •• pnunN Sa ld. … anph to111, 1tJ’ wl-• OOTel’hc oe1’Wa penoA••
witb la4la••• aa4 coa,u,u,e aa uunal \naoll of lecal lor•.
‘llae replaUoa of wol’lcl.811’Mlr1, of lana17, i.HI, vent thft1141h \lie
»lreotora•• \,i\ 414 u, on.glut• vlth 1t.a. la a al•ll•• •\-,017 vaa Lav
••• 18 ot Ma.:roh 1941, \he ho1l•I.IIC lav, liaw We. a, et Maron 30, 1941. •·
\1tle4 10.l”all li&’ior Oov••• • wblo.b. ol’lglaale4 la U.. llupov•r »l”1noa, ••
1 noall, w• al•nd. •mo111h ,i.. weal Dlnatorate. When I N7 eleare4

… ffl –
,-.?h. 1 c1o aot aean \bai the7 ven appiroTN la the .. to-r• la •hloll
\.her•– ‘6 ••• 8o•’1u1 they v•re, &1111. 1oaeUae1 the7 flN IIOAS.tl.S.
·ro,hen 1ao1w1:e1 Od.•• •· a ot .r… ,.,. ,. 1941. •o.ans•lt•••· ,,.?
An1. ani1· AlltlUl tloa1•1 Old.el’ lo. 31 d.aW .r … q 17 • 1941, •a.c1.,a$l0&
et the PttpulaUoa of Jmolo,a.’ble Ac•, leat•tratiell of tlle eaplo,..a u4 \tiel:r
Plac•ea\ la Work.• fuee la•t two are called. ol’d.era; •• are oalle4 41-
reoll••• aa4 ••• are eallect lave. !heh• 4•11paUoa 4e,•B4• 11poa whloh
•••.-,17 t.b7 t-11 lalo a1 epeolth4 1’7 •• eu.o .. a,. 1>HYloul7 aea\loucl?
tetta:1111 \lut Ooatnl Couoll 1 • ••W• of leatllattac.
I left hl’IIUF la \be llt441e of .,. 11411 vld,oll I belleft Ml..Uea
vt th tl:le em of Yo111M YlI of Ille Otflolal Oa1elte. !be •-84 law llaW.
1n VelUifl fll •• pa••• lbe 10th of lq. a tu oa tobaooo. •• of tbe
law• ln folue fll wre act.a upon l>7 \he wpl »treetora•• while l ••
9’111 1n Gena,q • aDl 1 tblnk aoae att.r I lei,.
General Ola7 ,., ••17 a,apalbetlo lo tb.e J..epl Dl•tlloa u4 ll11>ar\
la lbe ptctare •• a while. Al theup • at.ll ta17 au, lie ba4 ba4 upeneao•
in o-\her …,…, •f ,o••—••• Aal lie 4Hll’e4 to work lattt llllt?
•••naea, a ftl• ef law vi.ltd.a the…,,. of .tael’leu … • ..,.. !bl•
•”1-4• pe,…,ei tova. u4 M O’&I’ 1–114.S.N ‘baaoh w.• look .. k 4.11lt•
eztue1m7 tar halp. “\
I abov.14 1111:e lo .. uon 1ff•nl otblr 1, .. , la tbla nno17 N’f’iev
–, 7ear• aft.I’. Ou l• that 1, h … t.aonaslDC).7 appal’d.t th•n •• la…,.i
1t7 1a ti.. aclaiataln.\lo,i ot “1•’1•• tluoggh 11111,u, Oownuu.t .OO’U’••
vhloh .bad the re1poa1l’lrUl t7 of eatonlac the 11111 \ar, …. .,…., npt.a-
Uona -•• ti. Ger-.a people• — for —,1.. Tlolatloaa of •• Ooatrol.
• 0ouna1l an.A Zonal law 1>rohibi’1q the oarm-.c of ftrea,me. l’eal\lea tol’
– 277 •
•———–a1 .al ?a r- otf••••-• were v-l4el7 ff-rlu,.,- aa co•-• Oil ta 0111′ ow oouat17 lo a

ucn•. • •• .,. ., ••• DO to111iloa tor 1, &I ,.,. ht ve had. a fl’•· .lla.Jl4
,o a\,911pt a •l•Uoa la o.,….. •• onaW. • ‘board vhtoh oould J’ff$.,,
the ; … , la ,ne .ttol’, to o’bWn ualferllf. ‘7 ot 1u,e11a•• for like on..:.., .
. , . l wi Y•1’7 ,1.-..a. ., w wen el• lo 4o \hit. &ad 1 thtllk 1\ wolb4 … l’J’
well. lt •• J’D.•’ c•\ll»c u.nd•r w,q vbea l left. Dieu.Utfaotlon a’bo11t
tbe 4lnrgen.oe of eeateaolnc cue aot eo •ch aa I noall fn• the 0.l’MH
&I fl!oa OU OWll pel’ .. D■al.
la Ootoller i look 11p 14th ..,..,. JmpbJ the pU.ab.l of O.naa pl’lnun
of w.r, …. of vbo• w ha4 nl”‘DAJ4 OYft’ ,o J’raaoe ntbel’ tltaa ftDll
IIDJI•, a at9’ake l lld.ak )eoau• lhq ao loapl” ooaatl.hl«l a ‘8Nel &114
wre •’111114 to repalriattoa at t,F1eoae•• ot •r• -.,.. of tllea wen n-
lv’ul to Ger..,- f,oa IJ’a.llOe •• 11 tter oat••• Whlle appreolaHac fl’U.Oe • •
feel.lap allll 41ftioal.Ue1 \hen •• aa o’bltcaUoa oa 011.r par,. l alao aenUoned
1 t \o 0.Mral Jetlell fila1 tb la ll’Ukta.rt. Marpb,r aald M would. ua4
wox to S.ueta.17 lfnt•• 1 lmotr 11 , ….. a •twr ot 4eep eoa.oeza te the
1Mrela17 u4 I Mff • Ao.:b\ he 414 all he o.1114. l pr•••• \he ••tu
ap1A whd I , ….. , .. Jieaal MnHI’ of \he Jepar … ,. l W plaN4 l\
‘befor• haen1 01.a,r •• Ile wa• ntVIIS.a& tor , .. da,e ‘- lu Vall• Ha\”
ia late Oololter 1946. • tlloqht Jtnn.oe wo.i.4 ,uaoetol’lll lln-, lo· lb
o\ltpUo.a,. !be polat vaa th.a, aotvitlul\andlq iu last lnr11Wl\J’ the••
prl toner• of w.J’ wen 70’UC •• 4raflecl froa hl’ll&ll tu.111•• alllll aot fl,
•llJeot• of repl’laali \tie,- were 1 \l»IICht wlU4a the pl”o,eoUoa •f Ill•
1rleoner, of Var Ooana.Uoa ‘9 vbloll n ha4 a4Mn4.
hl4c• W4ea all4 l, at J’utlo• laolttoa•• laYUattoa. at,…., tu ope-
• lng at lureaberg, •Ya’b•r ao, 1948, follovlac ‘• •? of the ooar,

– 278 –
111 B•rlμa. ae alread.7 atn.\.1one4. fhen they ••”• tn the dock. 1, vat a
nam’.bl• aJt4 ual«lll,e htatorlcal 4nelopaent. ( J: Mt vt ,h ha&tor Pepper
of Jlonda• who wa• ,blnktng of the 4″1n.lllll’1″ of a uparate etaM• of
A boar4 ,tallar ‘io ov Deaadttcatlon. Polle, Board wa■ ae, 11p oa :a.au …
tuUoa e.nd lta vollt vaa well uaer “”‘7, 11.Dler lhe altl• staff clirHlloa ot
Maj’or l>onald lfoLMD., when I 4epar,ed. holleVaid ta Nay.
Ua 1-\e J…i.,, 1941, before I acrrect “pel’llllllenU1• to JerllA, Bowl•.
1ial•1. .,. •• lat Ila &14 l ••’ hllrntdl.T to n’l’iev ,be 1ta’811eal te lt• •••
\J Geaenl JluahoV81′ to the kl’lllla PIIIOPl•• pJ’Ollplad. ‘bJ Oeaeral ·•–1’7’ •
,J’Ott,.a •• , ….. ,. tMVgat ,o lie a \11 to• -,um.enc aal trs…ai,, •• ‘”
u… l aal’M4 GeaeNl lheuover lho’al.4 ••• a ,._,e•at, la new of
Gu•ral •• ,., .. 171 •• )
. ‘I’M. flra, elHUona among the hrmaa people ve1’e 1:tel.4 laetore I left.
Oaaeral 0181″ •• auioua io …. fol’W.rd. wt ,n 4eaoora.Uo prooe1•e• &14 to
plaae aore n-,ouiltl.11. ‘7 on the lel’ll&A p-,,le. In ‘••• ft rel eltM>Uo•••
la vhioh a hip penn.tac• et I.be•• ellp’ble ‘”‘•• lben. wen Uef(Ul.ltleaUo••
uur the te•nfta\lea ,…… Pollttoal pant.ea ltepa h
–1’1• ill \he uv Iii .tt.on. !be fll’II eleottoa• were •• a -..S.olpal leNl.
tollov-6 pncn1li’hl1117 ealar,..•t of l-1r 1oope. ‘l.’be Bntl1Jl t•llewi.
I’• »o\ 111.J’& t!Mti-e wre as, eleoUoat ta the he.uh soae \efol’e 1 left •
. Tb.en •• alto tu rN■k\ll•hll•• ot a GeJ.”llan pn••• lnll mid.er 111per­
Yt110.11 ..a· vttll • aeleottoa of 14.lton to aYOlcl lal1 lllf1UH4t alMl ,…,._
cu’• })0111\tll tlea. ‘I.hen •• thi• •oa latelf •nnee vi Ill eu ooao.ptloll
of a tn• pn••• \11.t I tbiak 11.chtl,- 10 al •• Ii•. Wlo alaUoa• al•o

reopened am \here •• a end.al n?lnh of nattoaal llfe t.a •rin• ,,.,..,

– .879 –
‘but -.er ••”7 clot• npemdoa at ttr■t. then were ara4ul relaaa:Uon••
•• •• Jmov aov, •• Vil , ….. •r• oonftdnt et 4nitlopaent• 8ll4 tllerefeff’
wUII.JII w· l•’ \hoae vbo were betac eleoted ‘bJ’ the Geno peopl• tat• n­
apol’i’ll\111 V
. I ••• au that la Jpl’il 1946 before 1 lef\ Jet”lla la 11aJ • t W a
Tiell to 1lo• wt.th Gaeral l>rapel’. Don JCcLeaa aDd aeaber• of Gaenl lbape,•
1 1taff, la the Geural 1
•· plue. lie bad aa awi1uo. vlth the lo1J’
Jathel-, a blcbllght ot s, lite•• e9el’leaoe1. I tbla he la ou of the
«r•’••’• lf aot \he CJ’•lewt, poaoMlltr of •A•m tlae1. 1′ •• a waa- ·
4ertal tnp. I ntVMfl a \1, earlier ‘•• ,11e Clueral • • pan,-. ••• ba4
lnat1t.i l p to Jo• befoN co■tnc uu. 1 wanle4 to •• .. ht 414 aot
knov how 1 t ao”11l co•• about uattl thl• tnp ca•• al.011& aal I kl.Ill of
bunted. a 1’14• •
• • • • • • •
I foud W1 tea u4 one-half aon\h1 la lllrope an al>N1″l11& b\lt 41fftnl
I ezperieao.. l vtah J ba4 ha4 lHltt•r qU.llti0&iloa1 tor t.be u4•?-
1ng. !he coD41Uoa• were 1aort4t’ble 111 …,. napee\1, aa4 at tlu1 l W
1u,1e te.Uac •f aeoo-.,11uao,. I 414 ao, ., .. the 1 • .,.. … u4 uc1 .. ,
feel olon lo the people, ezeepl a ,.,., fl’len41,- ••1alibor•, u4 10 oolllct ao,
,e11 •• .., wll ,iw •ff•ol of wltal w …… 4olna. I aa cla4 to ….. IOll•
throuch vi lh ,11e wont •• a pullo ••mo• hi 1 4o aol feel ••17 prom ot
the retul.te.
I 0111• lo appnolate lhe &J’ltl’ ,-rMDel la poel Ilona of reapoa•1bU1 ‘1’
ta lU.11\al”J” 8o”Nl’IIIMl1\t -4 a, ova Cl’O’IJp of law,ere wn uoelle\. faithful,
hard wtuldag aal oompe\eat. !be Jerlla aen on ,u vllol• 414 aa able
• Job under General Oley. wbo hla1elt 11 a reaarkabl.J’ able aaa. !here ve1’•

– 280 –
peat lan41oap,. upeotall:, at t1s-,,. the lwuulioap• wn UONIHM b7
41ft;l-1tl•• la -•n!•Uoa an4 \hn11JOl’-.Uoa.
I ,-, town the tollovlq •••• la s.,, … .,. 19’8i
lfhe volic of 11111 ta17 GoTtl’DUal l• la ,. wr• uuau …
faolo17. I ouaot •” lbal 1 \ ade4U&iel7 c••• aona, ,o tt•
people. •llber hen Ol’ ., •••• ” l• too &Oh la a ‘Tacnma’ -too
NIIO’fed fro• the ta,erpl.a.7 ot Jmowledc• and u4eratu41JJ& to
. vhioh ,,. ue aoou•to••• It •• thtl gioeat tanc•r too of lMtinc a
coTenuael b7 d.one, fne of ,he rettra.tata and ounng efteot1
of l…1l.atl•• and J)1lbl1o 4e\a’•• Good •• •tl’a&cl• to do vhal
11″4• ,o be 4ou, and. lo a.o lt right a, .,, ••• 11, lnlt ac,na_,
‘T tlat 11 aoat Auproua u4 W1aatiafaoto1″7. I voa4•r if
· we 00’1114 -••’ wp a 1egtsla’1•• IO’llllOll of 011.:r ova. 1
.le U• wa, oa ,i. 1t. tuttoa S.11proYe4. !he velk •• a wllol• oaae
elo1er \o ‘• people. al ,JM p-,le \hN’DCh eleotioaa u4 o •h•m.•• wn
11″• cr-ter re1poast\tllt7.
c.rmo, mul bee l>a4l7 b•len, an4 a :l’ov-r&atioJl co•el’Dlle nt ot oae
nation vaa a nr, noa-1d.Nl va:, \o aaooapllah our plll’J>o•••• \ut \he taot 1•
the 4•1erloratlon of lat•raoTernme atal relaUona ‘betwe en the Sona, ud outel’f’
H •• al.ewer ‘° au.lf••’ lt•e lf lure, where ’11• ooayao•• wen ao
olo•.•• . ti.a ••••14• of Ge…..,-. ‘1M,n wat a co.a,1… efton to coop•rat•
la »er1S.., altbo11t1h a, the …. tlae ti.re wn HftH a.trat•• aa1feau-.
t.bu.a41.• .iwwh•r•.. Orahall7 the•• aaatt•••• U’lf11HelY•• ln a • ….,., ‘°°•
an4 ,? qu41’1parU te •ttor, eftatully •• a\a.ad.oae4.
Geaeral Ola7. etaoe he left bl• reapou1blllt1•• a, M111tar., GoYenor,
-· ml’\•a a ‘book oalle4 hatun ta bau;r; c1Ttnc la …… ,.11 hl•
•’°17 of ‘Ihle earl7 period •• well •• af\er I bid goae.
the re1a\11Ua’1oa of lfe1ten GffllUl’ ln. Naea, 7ean briap to alatl
Pnalcl•I fruu’• reMl’k to•• t.bai Geraaq V011l.4 aot be a tbNa.t fo’I’ fifty
yeer•, •• I aa au.re ti.•• apealdnc priaarll:, et Ge:nu. YNkneH. ft&•

– 281 –
npt4 l’elMllt111ta’1oll h&I MR du 111 CD04 pan to the faal Iba\ Oeraeq baa
•••• , … et •• ftau.olal ••• of an aray, •Y7• al• fore. am otblr
•?••• heldo• tna •••• will 4’pen4 upoa the part •? plq• la
.,…. ·u4 •’•? lA\.,..Uo-.1 t•elopuata. tbla pan 1• aov awl•••••
, ••• -· .. Obu.eellol” ……… , DOOV&Cecl b.7 , .. •’-••-.an•hip la1Uatel
•• lucel.7 \7 foner Pnyt”””‘ •r So…., of ha:aoe. It 11 1n,erea’1ng that
vhll• 1a Ger….,. ta 1945-41 A4enaur •• ‘e • aa ‘GDJmowa nue.
Oil 1••la& JerU,ll • fw a44l ttoaal aotee ••• a44a4. 1. tlw>ul4 ■eattoa
‘fr. –? ot Pt u,,-1’111•. vllo ha4 l>e•11 the Calllollo .Anv- ellllplat• al
fl’llllktan M14 ,. … oa to le.it.a. le 414 a tla• wn, cat•Ur Hi
pne■tl7, 1Uller•tucU.aa. 6114 l’eao.blac oal ai,., to M1p ••• ao’llla. Iba
OatJaollo popula\ioa ….. lhe an,- per1oimel al ‘both plaoe• •• •••14el’al>le.
117 fir•• esperieao• wt \h ffeniac 11&11 •• la >erll.a. for an., u4 Nl11ta17
GoTenaaat p•r•ouel. SoaeU•• l wen, to the Ma•• tor the 0.l”lllllla la ihe
aelchboriloo4 when we Um. flle Catbollo Clmroh there ba4 ‘bee». ‘ba41J’
‘bealle4 or ,i..u-.. All 4euat.aauoa, wi-e ulac a•-• ball lbat ha4
•IOlif• ….. ht ,..,… 11.n fr. O.r.bal”llt, vJan I •• thnuca ,.
l•n• t-11,, llat .., …. ,1. ,. ?lll\ate a -11 Catull• olllp•l. …. ••
Jen. weat w.L ,i. u than for ha.ttotl.011. file houe n 11″4 la beuap4
to the Bern•.
l: ulped rr. aaaenan a “blt ta the aft’altCeaea,, to• tl\e noep\loa to
A 0.141Dal PNF••rltac, \he Jt.abop of Jnlla, oa hl• retua fro■ ••• wt.Ill
\he W &.,. lb-•• ..,,, tmoqlt. …… b. •••l•tu.oe 1 u4en\oo4, bit plten
, .. »luop lo …. , 1111′, OV ..,. people hol41aa -· fol’ ………. .
lb. M’uph7 aleo oan• lo•· 1tarlol’1 1 offlo• la•• kfon ov n,1,
• t.beN. 11… ll”llUlla MoGowa, ot \ba.\ office, a .-er of OUJ” fo’l’etca
– 282 –
• aento,, was uceed1n.gl7 genero,,.. of his t1•• a.ad oov.neq. le w.nt vllh ue
to tV a’IMlJ-.ce with Iha Hol,- 1a\her, and the aut 4a7 be am I Ntll’8t4 to
Iha ,-,1oaa foi- a …. 1e111U’el7 Ylal ,. ‘?he Bol7 ,.., ……… MOh ot OU
part,: …. I think t va• the oal7 Oalhollo — a ro1ar7, u4 one tor ,_ vlf•
of .. oh who w.a arntcl. Be O.ft •• another tor Obarle• when. la apeeklJIC of
., faudl7 l aaid u vat at aobool with the haeiloUne,. Mier I nt\11’1194
lo tM botel there w• 4el1vere4 lo •• fro• tbit Holy J’ather a 0011 … oa••UTI
bn••• plaqu with h1• lik•••••
,..,.. tapn•u4 •• a.-,17. It 1• of noh peal tiplftcuoe to •
prtaadlJ lteoau1e 11 1 • \lltt IN of Peter; ht w 1av toe \lle 111p1’eae1Ye •oia\
nlaa and. h1e\or1oal lnlU4lap ot \he pre….cnm.aua:a eraa. r “”14
U.a• k rehn to ••• IIOl’e tbaA to U7 plaa• a’bna4 I ••• •••». lteocaae
ot lta uitue aJUl l’eYeallng atcalflcaaoe to the Jlai th, aov, a.ncl •• lotq l1
• but aaother clq of so aoh of \he pae\.
When 1 lef\ JerUn. &lad to ‘be oomlnc home ‘• -, vlte u4 ohllbea bv.t
-44–4 \oo a\ \he d-,anve fro• fl’iead• and ••to•la’•• of .a 41tt10lllt
u4 ,..nal period.1 Geural 01.q •• vi.th S..eta17 Jpa” la J>ari• tor a
fn 4q,. !ht Seor•tal’I’ •• tben oa lhe hlua , … \Na\7 up\la’1oaa.
0-..-1 Ila, W ………… … tu Pre•t••· W. ……. … •• 1 l•rul
Ju,, lt•to?• l•n-. hrlta, t!le ? tor Jierlt. Ota. G … nl vlehetl to pta
t\ oa •• hluelf’,. so tht.1 •• 4ou •’ Paria, v1,11 the Seonta17 oaotoul.1
•”•acllDC. ltJ’ old friea4 Jell Cohea•• then tee. I •• 1″elum111 \o ‘beooae
heal Al:riffJ’ of tlMt S\au hpartaent. Jq •• Iba. Oouullor. lol
llaQ boun l&t•r lhe plaa• la4ed. 1D the raln a\ I.a Gaa1’41a Airport, ••
tbta oaa• t”9Ulloa vi IA taail7, oJd14na aJld Acnf,a. I vat .W ,, ‘°11.r et
chd7 -· Oflr, and to be ••••

– 283 –
Ma.Uea &lld. l had laob. vUh •u•Uoe Jac1t1on. at hnalte:rg a tew 48¥•
\eton I lat, 0..–q. ,,. ha4 &l)D.e low tor 11441•’ 1 b1nbd.a7 -•-nDC
laJ’ ]1:\ll. Chief Ju.1Uee ltoa• M4 41e4 aal .laolr10a •• \•iq 11en’1oat4 ••
hl• nooe•eor. 1 ntnt’IMl to ,bl, when we wr• pantac. • Mi4 he W
•en \he enn. burden• of ablal1tratiw reapon.alblllUee of the Old.at Jue­
ttoe ud that (1 do uot r8Mab-er bi• en.ot vor4•) he vould. •• 10oa r… 1 11
an. ,,.,ot.a\• Ju•Hoe. A l1tUe la\er, vhea th• ou,lnai-t\ ocft.l’red. I fell
l I •• not clue to dlaappolalaaa\ la ao, ‘b•lnc Dllle4 Old.et laetlce n., IC)
outn.c• that an,oae w-14 lblllk of reelptac tn■ \lMt Colt.rt w•• ta. …..
I 4o ao, aeaa to ncc••• ,., aqoae vevld ha•• tboqht ot 4ohc .. , w.,
lher• ve,e reporl• lo lllat etteo\.
1 am Hid.med ot \tu. lu• daJ’ (or wa, 1 t J’ul.F) la 1941 vtum laouoa ••
• 4t,orn.e1 Genenu at’fiae4 the ,tatt ce,theNd. locelhe1′ that the Pr••lteat va•
n.oalaa.U.DI Stoa• to nooee4 9oghe, a• Ohlef luettae aa4 J7me1 a.D4 bl .. elt
ae .&.tac,otate l11.aUoe1. laDl’ thoqbt at Uat Uae \bat laotsoa a1chl be
… 0:blet Jv.eUoe. Be ao 4ou\\ tuv of ta.Gh •ea’111d.t Ln tM llllpa:l’t .. ,.
la u, neat ha •a14 ha wute4 •• to kaov tat he- \llo,agld the Prest.au,••
rlpl 1a muatac S\ou.
!be 4Mlh of Chief Julloe S\oae ooOVNd. ¥Idle l vat dill la Qe,-•
h.l f1.Jlt011 •• not appohW uttl I hul retvae4 u4 •• ia State. hoM­
lal’J’ ?,ae, a4vi•e4 •• at a atatt ••tine that Tta••’• aau vat ‘Dela,••’
4ow. Uat d.q. !he Seoreluf W: let, ,u Octvt a taw 7eu1 \efoN at the
N(UII of Pr•lideat Boo …… 1, te help ln ,. W.I’ etterl &ad hal …. aebl•
work … prior to lteooa191 he1Ltu.t. tnaa • • fls-a, S.ore’8.17 of. ha•••
•• •r •• aow o••r• the “laJ.kaa• aad Ital.tu peaoe IN&Ue•, whlah W
• lake• a peat deal ef the Seoretaf’1•• pe? efton ta Pans, ball beea

– 284 –
acoUated. I tlhoqht there waa a tuece•Uoa of pen•i’t’e.ne•• ln the S.e:r.-
1&171 1 •od. when he told u ot ‘flaaon • • noid.na\t.ora. P•bat>• he wollll ‘alt.••
llktt to rttum \o tu Oovl, •• Old.et JuUae. terblpt M hoi,84 lblt Ill.th.I
oorii-i tJllau,:11 be aa14 •• “°”‘ lo \:bat etfeal.